The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between fantasy proneness, flow experience, locus of control, and well-being, especially focusing on the positive effect of fantasy proneness on well-being through questionnaire surveys taken by college students. In Study 1, we examined how fantasy proneness and locus of control affect flow experience. The results showed that a person with a higher fantasy proneness or an internal locus of control has more flow experience, while one with a higher fantasy proneness and an external locus of control has less flow experience, and the locus of control does not affect the flow experience for someone with low fantasy proneness. In Study 2, we attempted to develop a causal model by using the covariance structure analysis in which fantasy proneness and internal locus of control were supposed to enhance well-being through the effect of flow experience. The causal models for two different types of well-being were scrutinized and compared: emotional（pleasure-oriented） well-being and cognitive（semantic orientation） well-being. As a result, these different causal models suggested the following: the emotional well-being is enhanced by the internal control and the frequency of flow experiences while the cognitive well-being is promoted by the flow personality trait rather than the frequency of flow experience.
This paper points out that there have been many studies using subjective imagery tests and many findings concerning imagery tests, but there have only been a few inquiries into the mechanisms of imagery ability among imagery researchers, and attempts, on the basis of Hatakeyama’s（2018b） review article, which surveyed predictive effects of imagery tests in cognitive tasks or events, to identify the mechanisms of each dimension of imagery ability, that is, vividness, controllability, preference（imagery type）, and absorption, and to present core characteristics of those dimensions. The identified mechanisms are as follows（asterisk means the mechanism on which the dimension is thought to be based and no mark means the mechanism that is brought as an effect by the dimension）. Vividness: neuropsychological bases*, rich perceptual input*, rich perceptual information of long term memory*, large capacity of visual working memory*, attention to the details of a stimulus*, rich information within the image*, rapid image generation*, functional equivalence to perception, spontaneous use of imagery strategy, memorization using imagery encoding, and control of physiological response. Controllability: cognitive/adaptive flexibility*, flexible image generation*, efficient allocation and change of attention*, wide-ranging use of perceptual information within long-term memory*, rich information within the image, spontaneous use of imagery strategy, faithful execution of imagery instruction, encoding of scene/story development, and memorization using imagery encoding. Preference: neuropsychological bases*, encoding that corresponds to imagery type*, rich perceptual input*, rich perceptual information of long-term memory*, wide-ranging use of perceptual information within long-term memory*, large capacity of visual working memory*, functional equivalence to perception, spontaneous use of imagery strategy, memorization using imagery encoding, and control of physiological response. Absorption: strong imaginative involvement*, induction of relaxation*, and control of physiological response. The core characteristics of each dimension are as follows. Vividness: rich information within the image and easy maintenance and robustness of the image; controllability: cognitive/adaptive flexibility; preference: characteristic that directs encoding at the time of stimulus input and subsequent processing; absorption: strong imaginative involvement and easy induction of relaxation. Some overlaps of mechanisms among the dimensions are discussed. Efficient use of the core characteristics and mechanisms that the present paper has shown must make it possible for researchers to interpret or expect the relationships between cognitive tasks or events and imagery tests.
The mere exposure effect is a phenomenon in which repeatedly presented stimulus are evaluated positively than unrepeated stimuli. The purpose of this article is to discuss the importance of internal representation in the mere exposure effect. At first, I briefly reviewed previous studies of the mere exposure effect in the viewpoint of a perceptual fluency model. Then, I introduced the classical and recent studies showing the importance of internal representation in the mere exposure effect. Finally the importance of internal representations were discussed based on our recent study indicating the mere exposure effect for visual image.
The present study investigated whether a mentally created visual image is retained in a visuospatial sketchpad or an episodic buffer in a multi-component model of working memory（Baddeley, 1986）. Functions of the episodic buffer require cognitive resources of the central executive. Four experiments were introduced here. Results in these experiments showed that a mentally created visual image was retained in the episodic buffer, not in the visuospatial sketchpad. On the other hand, perceptually encoded visual information was retained in the visuospatial sketchpad. Interestingly, even though both the created image and the perceptual information are to be retained in the form of visual representation, each type of visual representation involves different component. It could be argued that retaining a mentally created visual image continually requires mental manipulations（e.g., adjusting the size to fit in a mental space）. However, mental manipulation during the retention of perceptually encoded visual information would not be required if the information is recalled just as it is. This may be the reason why the created image is retained in the episodic buffer.
Dohsa-method-based mindfulness is a state of harmonious mind-body connection achieved throughcomfortable mind-body experience and awareness of the mind-body as oneness. Previous studies have indicated the positive effects of mindfulness on executive function, such as attention control, inhibition control, attention shift, and working memory and so on. However, none of the studies have demonstrated the mind-body experience in performing the executive function task. In this study, the author made an attempt to analyze narrative data during performing the executive function tasks such as “mirror drawing task”（ Konno and Yoshikwa, 2015）, “Stroop test”（ Konno, 2015a） and “playing the stringed instrument”（ Konno, 2015b）. Results of the narrative data analysis revealed that the Tokeai-Dohsa-method enhanced the experience of harmonious connection between mind and body and mindfulness attitudes during performing the executive function tasks. These results indicate the drastic changes in mode of performance in the executing the tasks may happen, that is from the “mind biased mode” to the “mind-body oneness mode.”