At the islands area without bridges, vessels are the only means to transport people and goods. It is necessary to prepare a measures using the vessels for a wide-scale disaster such as Nankai Trough Earthquake. In order to make a best possible use of transportation performance of the vessels in a disaster, “A matching system between vessels and port facilities using mobile phones” is developed. A pilot program to review whether the system is practical and the findings are reported in this paper.
The 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami at 14:46 JST on March 11, 2011 affected large areas of the eastern and northern part of Japan, and many sea disasters against vessels moored along terminal inside harbor occurred. We conducted surveys upon the sea disasters of several large vessels such as crude oil carriers and coal carrier. There was also a severe disaster of two large coal carriers at S-Port, which were moored at neighboring berths and encountered a tsunami wave height beyond 9 meters. The bathymetry around the berths was considerably variable particularly. In this paper, we have conducted a survey upon the ships' behavior in time series by hearings and comparisons with the tsunami simulation results, and investigated calculation method of tsunami wave forces.
In 2014, at the southwest of Korea the ferry “Sewol” was sank and more than 300 people died. We had many vessel accidents and many people died. In this report, we investigated evacuation in case of overturning accident on passenger vessels under sailing. We compared “Incident” with “Accident”. In this report we defined “Incident” stop expanding damage and “Accident” fail to evacuate and have large number of deaths. As a result, in “Incident” crews decided how to escape and conduct depending on the circumstances but, in “Accident” crews were confused and not able to lead passengers. “Accidents” were investigated in past studies and considered to prevention of recurrence. But, we pointed it is useful to use “Incident” when educating and training.
The purpose of this study is to analyze the causes of dispute concerning oil exploitation on the continental shelves. Since the sovereign rights to exploit natural resources on the continental shelves belong to coastal states, delineation of continental shelves is a critical problem for them. Previous research has been limited to specialized areas, such as geology, geopolitics, or nationalization of natural resources, etc. This study aims to augment the extant literature by considering oil concession agreements, international treaties, and maritime transportation systems. In conclusion, disputes are caused by unestablished criteria for delineation and resource distribution. The effective methods to prevent these disputes are the moratorium on exploration, unitization of transboundary deposits, and dispute settlement clauses.
This study examines the reliability and validity of M. Urakami’s self-efficacy scale of career decisions for university and college students on fisheries high school students. The study used a sample of 1,310 fisheries high school students, and the test questionnaire form used in this study was a 30-item scale. The results of the examination on factor structure, reliability, validity, and basic statistics of each item suggest that the scale can also be used for fisheries high school students.
Wave disasters caused by large swells have occurred on the coast of Toyama Wan, and these swells have been studied by many researchers. As a result of the studies, it is known that water level fluctuations with periods of several minutes occur off the coast of the Toyama Wan, when large swells invade the Toyama Wan. But generation mechanism of the water level fluctuations does not become clear. And so, the generation mechanism was investigated by wave observations off the coast of Toyama Wan and wave generating experiments using water tank. As the results, they became clear that the water level fluctuations with periods of several minutes are proper oscillations in horizontal shallow water off coast, and mean water level in a horizontal shallow water jutting out from a coast rises several meters due to swells invading the horizontal shallow water.
The Japanese boat “Wasen” uses “Ro-Scull” as a human-powered propulsion system. These traditional boats and propulsion system are almost vanished in Japan due to decrease in material Wood, and boat-builder’s aging. “Ro-Scull” is thought to be effective propulsive method compared to other human-powered boat such as canoe and cutter boat. In this study, we evaluate propulsive efficiency of “Ro-Scull” based on active metabolic rate (MR). We measured MR and metabolic equivalents (Mets) during “Ro-Scull”, Walking, and jogging exercise by using indirect calorimeter. MR and Mets during “Ro-Scull” exercise were nearly equal to walking ones. Energy conversion efficiency of “Ro-scull” was 12.3%. These suggest that propulsion efficiency of “Ro-Scull” is efficient, and its exercise can be done for a prolonged time as well as Walking. “Ro-Scull” exercise seems to be useful way to become familiar with maritime activities and seamanship.
There are many ships open to the public during port festivals. The training ship “Toba Maru” (gross tonnage 244t, length 40m) has been open to the public every year for port festivals since 1997. However, guidance announcements have never been put into effect on the ship. The authors researched the guidance announcements on public transportation and verified the announcement system which is easy to use on ships. The announcements on public transportation are made by automatic broadcasting equipment, or are manually broadcast by the crew. The announcements of the automatic method are spoken slower than those of the manual. The authors proposed that the announcement system consists of a public address system and an audio playback device. A CD player is easiest to use for mariners. It is presumed necessary to announce slowly, and that technical words in the announcement script be simple for the onboard environment such as strong winds and loud noises. The onboard crew are able to use these methods. However, officers still have problems communicating accurate information in their announcements. Effective, good announcements are expected to improve communication within a ship.
The observations using Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) onboard the National Institute of Technology, Toyama College training ship “Wakashio-maru” have been done from 2004. In this study, the ocean current at the area, Toyama Bay to Sado channel, had been measured and analyzed for the characteristics. We also compared these ADCP observations with a numerical simulation results and satellite remote sensing data for chlorophyll-a concentration. ADCP data is only around ship's track. So, with comparing these data, it would be able to know the situation of wide area. By the observations at summer seasons of 2014 and 2015, we have observed the main path of “Tsushima Warm Current” are flowing into Sado Channel, which the direction from North to NE and the speed about 0.6～0.8ms-1. And, between Noto peninsula and Sado island, an eddy or U shape curve current was observed.
In this study, we identified the position of a methane plum in the Joetsu Basin by analyzing echo sounder images and GPS data. First, we observed the methane plume echo imagery, obtained using a quantitative echo sounder during a research cruise aboard JAMSTEC research vessel “Natsushima” in August 2013. Then we conducted two research cruises aboard the Nagasaki University training ship “Nagasaki-maru” during May 2014 and May 2015. During the 2014 cruise, we observed methane plume echo images at the position identified from the 2013 cruise data. During the 2015 cruise, we performed sea bottom core sampling at the same position using the methane plume echo imagery, and successfully obtained a methane hydrate core sample from the seafloor at a depth of approximately 560 m.
VTS centers are established adjacent to high-density marine traffic areas around the world, and operators carry out the safety management of marine traffic. The authors of this paper analyzed and compared the content of VHF radio communication from marine communication monitoring systems from VTS centers in Ise Bay and Istanbul. In this paper, the movements of real communicative situations can be shown by the characteristics of sea areas, and the operation systems, which are managed by VTS centers. As a result, communicative contents, which depend on the sea area's properties, and frequencies of communications, which were in proportion to the number of navigational vessels, are proved by this study. Judging from the merits and demerits of operation systems, sector systems, which have been used at the Istanbul VTS center, can offer information smoothly, while the responsibilities and the load of VTS operators must have increased. On the other hand, the system used by Ise Bay VTS center can avoid dangerous situations in advance, while communication problems between operators are difficult to solve.
Sea buoys served an effective tool within tsunami warning systems in the Great East Japan Earthquake. Currently, merchant ships and sea buoys must be equipped with GPS systems. If ships in the anchorage are allowed to function as sea buoys, it will be possible to increase observation points. Furthermore, more extensive and accurate analysis of sea state can be expected. However, ships cannot always obtain signals from reference stations because these navigation areas are quite different. In this paper, we focused on Precise Point Positioning (PPP) on ships. Efforts toward using ships as alternatives to sea buoys do not exist in previous researches. Our purpose is to verify the performance when the ship is anchoring and consider new utilization of PPP. We compared the performance of PPP from both the fixed point of land and the ship in the anchorage. Experimental results showed that it was possible to determine positioning with accuracy at approximately 2cm (standard deviation) in horizontal direction and at approximately 5cm (standard deviation) in vertical direction when the ship was anchoring. However, RMS error was observed approximately 20cm at maximum between PPP and RTK fixed solutions. Moreover, we proposed disaster preventing systems using ships in the anchorage instead of sea buoys and applying PPP.
The purpose of this study was to develop method of evaluating a motion system using motion on standing posture and exercise load. In this paper, we report participants' motion on standing posture, participants' exercise load during standing on the motion system and compared with those on a marine craft. The measurement system consisted of three orientation sensors and a calorimeter. Orientation sensors capable of measuring linear and angular accelerations were placed on the head and waist of each participant, and on the floor of a small marine craft. Energy expenditure was measured using the calorimeter. In the small marine craft, participants were either sitting or standing. In the laboratory, participants were sitting, or standing on the motion system. Motion on standing posture was analyzed by calculating the root mean square (RMS). Exercise load was calculated by dividing the mean energy expenditure in each condition by that in the sitting condition. Passengers' motion on standing posture on the craft was mainly rotational motion. The exercise load during performing motion system was similar to that during standing on the craft. We thus suggested that motion on standing posture and exercise load are proved effective in evaluating a motion system.
The Kyoto Protocol came into effect in 2005, and actions for prevention of global warming are strongly desired in container terminals. Although energy saving will be significant impact on reduction in CO2 emissions, electric power consumption by stored reefer container seems to make up about 50% of total power consumption in a container terminal. To reduce heat penetration on walls of reefer container by a load of strong solar insolation in summer will enable an improvement of energy consumption of reefer container. In this paper, we clarify the effect of reducing energy consumption of reefer container due to installing of roof shade that covers the reefer container storage yard to protect from solar insolation.