Recent surveys demonstrate that many patients with cancer use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies at some point after their diagnosis. Therefore, CAM has increasingly been the focus of international research. However, due to insufficient evidence and/or insufficient good quality evidence, this has mostly not translated to practice recommendations. In these circumstances, medical practitioners need to be aware of the importance of this issue and of the rationale used to promote CAM. A great need for public and professional education regarding this subject is evident.
Symptoms of dementia are divided into two major categories of core symptoms and secondary symptoms (BPSD). Core symptoms consist of cognitive function disorders such as memory impairment, orientation disorder, disturbance of execution function, poor comprehension and poor judgment, aphasia, apraxia and agnosia. These are inevitable symptoms brought about by organic changes in the brain. Taking meals is one of the important daily activities enjoyed by the elderlies. Some elderlies, however, refuse to eat when meals are taken to them and refuse to drink when a glass of water is offered to them. They even refuse to open their mouth when people talk to them and offer help. Or, they may just simply stop taking meals and refuse to use chopsticks. Some elderlies continue to pretend as if they are eating even when there is no food left. In such instances, urging the elderlies to stop their behavior or forcing them to behave in a certain way is not effective. Taking into account that such behavior is caused by core symptoms of the disease, it is necessary to explore ways to assist the elderlies taking meals by making maximum use of what is left of their ability, without leading them into confusion.
The role of home-visit nutritional support is to collect information about nutritional issue during nutrition screening or assessment and to manage the plan of nutritional care for each case with inter-professional collaboration in home-care settings.
Registered dietitians counsel patients and/or their family for appropriate methods of nutrient intakes. They analyze the cause of anorexia gathering detailed information about nutrition issue from interview and observation of mealtimes.
To provide appropriate nutritional management services, it is important for the dietitians to understand living environment including the burden of caregivers, economic, and social factors. In home-care settings, these are several nutritional problems, which include the economic conditions, difficulty purchasing food, no exists cooker and unfit taste food.
These problems may cause anorexia or malnutrition according to decrease food intake and induce decreased quality of life (QOL) and activities of daily living (ADL) of the elderly patients at home.
The main aim of intervention by registered dietitian is to improve malnutrition related dysphagia and lifestyle-related diseases. Registered dietitian advises caregiver about cooking in order to promote the application of nutritional support programs. However, most of caregivers are elderly spouse with physical and psychological health problems. Thus, it is important to suggest them some simple recipes and menus considering burden among caregivers.
Suitable home-visit nutritional support program can improve their nutritional situation, QOL, and ADL for elderly patients living at home.
Three kinds of baker’s yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), 1-2, 9-3 and 10-2 were isolated from fruits or humus to bake bread in high-sugar dough. Their fermentation test and sensory evaluation of beard baked in 30%-sucrose dough were examined. The results of the fermentation test with 20-40% glucose added to the medium showed that CO2 production by the wild yeast (10-2) isolated from apple leaves was highest among the three strains. The strain that showed the highest alcohol producing ability was 9-3, which was isolated from nectarine seeds.
Bread was made from 30%-sucrose dough for sweet rolls usually, and the sensory evaluation found that the aroma of bread made with the 10-2 strain was significantly preferred. The malic acid content in this bread was clearly the highest among the three strains. It is therefore concluded that the yeast isolated from apple leaves (10-2) is the most suitable for high-sugar dough.
We have isolated some yeast from fruits and flowers for baking good gluten-free rice flour bread. The LFWP30G strain has a high ability to produce CO2 in rice dough containing 3% sucrose. Both α-glucosidase and invertase which reputedly affect the dough fermentation have activities similar to that of commercial baker’s yeast. The great strain isolated from lemon was identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae by determining the base sequence of the D2 region of the 26S rRNA gene, and was utilized in baking rice flour bread, because of its good growth during shaking cultivation. The sensory evaluation between the bread of commercial baker’s yeast and the LFWP30G strain showed no significant differences, but the crumb of the rice flour bread has a lower hardness stress than the commercial bread, and the cohesiveness stress was the same as the commercial wheat flour bread. These results suggest that the isolate is very useful for baking rice flour bread.
This study shows the seafood preference of the children aged 3-6 in Japan. We have conducted questionnaire surveys across the country in 1996, 2001, 2006 and 2012 and total responded number was 6,550.
（1）About 70% of the children liked seafood in each survey. The ratio of children’s meat preference was higher than that of the seafood preference in 2006 and 2012 survey.
（2）As for the seafood preference ratio by region, children live in the urban area indicated higher ratio and contrary to that children live in inland area indicated lower ratio in 1996. In 2012, children live in the urban area indicated the same higher ratio of seafood as in 1996 while difference with inland area became smaller. In 1996 survey, seaside children showed lower ratio of meat preference compared to the other region, however in 2012 every region’s children preferred meat to seafood. Concerning this point, we assume that children like meat as well as seafood, and meat preference do not depend on their region but intake of meat have been increased generally.
（3）Regard to seafood cooking methods, children liked baked, raw/sasimi and boiled. The ratio of raw/sasimi preference was decreased 5% in 2012 compared to 2006.
（4）Children preferred shrimp, tuna, salmon, short-necked clams and shirasu among 18 kinds of seafood which we have picked up in questionnaire, and the type of fish preference ratio was decreased in all kinds except tuna and salmon in 2012.
（5）Children’s seafood preference was influenced by their parents’ preference, however in 2012 those influence factors such as parent’s cooking ability of seafood and serving frequency at dinner were decreased and we assume, because of these, children’s seafood preference was decreased.
We studied whether differences in the quantities of phosphorus （P） and fat in a low-protein diet affect kidney calcification in rats. Four-wk-old, female Fischer rats were fed one of the following diets ad libitum for 40 days. The six experimental diets contained 10% protein, 0.28% P （equivalent to the level of P in the AIN-93G diet）, 0.52% calcium （Ca） and 5, 10 or 20% oil, or 10% protein, 0.4% P （equivalent to the level of P in the AIN-76 diet）, 0.52% Ca and 5, 10 or 20% oil. The standard diet group was fed a diet containing 0.40% P, 0.52% Ca and 5% oil with 20% protein. After feeding the rats the respective diet for 40 days, they were anesthetized with Nembutal. Among rats that were fed a low-protein （10% protein） diet, reducing the quantity of P in the low-protein diet from 0.40% to 0.28% reduced kidney calcification. In addition, increasing the intake of fat aggravated kidney calcification. Thus, it was revealed that calcification of kidneys that occurred in rats fed the AIN-76 purified diet （AIN-76） was affected by the quantities of P and fat in the feed.
Numerous epidemiological surveys have shown that consuming coffee can prevent cancer development. Caffeine and chlorogenic acid are the most well known constituents which are included in coffee and prove to have an positive effect to prevent cancer. Although these constituents are known to directly act on anti cancer machineries, such as anti-oxidant effect. There are also studies showing that benefit of functional food is exhibited by metabolic changes. Therefore, we may anticipate that changing metabolic pathways may occur during coffee intake and further expect lowering the cancer risk.
Thus, in this study, we analyzed the effect of administration of coffee to Eker rat which are a renal cancer and a metabolic syndrome model rat. By giving 1% coffee for 100 days, we found that renal cancer development was suppressed. We further analyzed the metabolic change by metabolomic analysis in liver and observed that the abnormal carbohydrate and ketone body production in Eker rats were restored by coffee consumption.
We also confirmed that these effects were not due to the recovery of tumor suppression gene TSC2 expression. Thus, coffee may have a anti-cancer effect by changing the metabolic pathway and lower the risk factors which may lead to cancer development.
This study aimed to develop an easy-to-chew nursing food (soft squid) by adding Chinese yam to Japanese flying squid caught in Aomori. Further, we prepared several local Aomori dishes that suit the palate of elderly people with this soft squid as an ingredient and verified their use.
In the study, first, flying squid was converted to paste, which was then combined with yam prepared in three different ways (steamed and squashed, grated, and hydrated dry powder). These samples were subsequently subjected to texture measurement and sensory analysis to compare them with additive-free flying squid. Using these ingredients, different cooking techniques (marinating, simmering, and deep-frying) were used to prepare three types of dishes for evaluation.
Therefore, it was observed that the addition of yam to flying squid could be an effective method to tenderize, resulting in squid that was easier to chew, although this method is often avoided because of its heat-induced hardening. To prepare an easy-to-chew nursing food, the addition of “grated” yam was confirmed to be most effective. Furthermore, “grated” yam may be substituted with the “hydrated dry powder” because they are comparable in terms of physical and organoleptic properties. Such a substitution would expedite and facilitate the cooking process. This soft squid may be applied to a wide variety of menus. However, the dietary habits and preference of each consumer must be considered with regard to flavor and appearance.
In recent years, many people have been carrying water-bottles and drink beverages from these bottles at any time. We investigated the microorganisms of both the bottle’s mouth and the bottle’s beverages to understand the sanitary condition. Standard plate counts of 103-105 cfu/cm2 and 104-107 cfu/mL were detected on the mouth of the water-bottle and in the beverages, respectively. Coliform bacteria also were detected, the counts of which were less than the standard plate counts. The causes of the microbial condition were insufficient washing of the water-bottle and mixing of oral bacteria. It is necessary to keep the bottle at a low temperature and consume the beverage as soon as possible.