Previous studies have demonstrated that when faced with stimuli in the form of internal or external
threats, people with social anxiety exhibit attentional bias as a result of their metacognitive strategies. This study
developed the Metacognition of Focused Attention in Subjects with High Social Anxiety Questionnaire (MFAQ ) and
investigated its reliability and validity. The MFAQ consists of positive and negative metacognitive beliefs regarding selffocused
attention and attention bias. A total of 253 undergraduates completed the MFAQ and several questionnaires
measuring social anxiety, internal and external attention bias, and metacognitive beliefs. Exploratory and confirmatory
factor analyses were performed to identify factors and determine structural validity, and Cronbach’s alpha was calculated
to examine internal consistency. Correlation analyses were performed to indicate criterion-related validity and construct
validity. Reliability was verified using the test-retest method within a 2-week intervening period. Consequently, factor
analyses identified four factors. The alpha scores for each factor indicated good internal consistency. The MFAQ
demonstrated good test-retest reliability. Criterion-related validity and construct validity were indicated except for
“positive metacognition of self-focused attention.” The MFAQ may prove useful in assessing the relationship between selffocused
attention and attention bias in social anxiety.
The current study examined the relationships among mindfulness, attention control, mind wandering, and
emotion. In Study 1, 149 undergraduate and graduate students were surveyed. Results suggested that attention control
reduced negative emotions through a decrease in mind wandering and that acceptance of mindfulness directly reduced
negative emotions. Previous studies have indicated that mindfulness training (MT) and the attention training technique
(ATT) enhance attention control. Study 2 compared MT and the ATT to examine their effects on mind wandering and
negative emotions. The participants were 37 undergraduate and graduate students who were randomly assigned to an MT
group (n=13), an ATT group (n=13), and a control group (n=11). The experiment included a pre-test and post-test over a
period of two weeks, and mind wandering was measured using the Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART). The MT
and ATT groups were asked to undergo daily training for two weeks, and the control group was asked to engage in routine
activities. Results indicated that the MT and ATT groups were able to control mind wandering and that attention control
and the acceptance of mindfulness were effective in decreasing mind wandering.
The purpose of the current study was to develop a method of measuring self-compassionate behaviors
(SCBs) in daily life based on the framework of functional analysis in clinical behavior analysis. The current study used the
Ecological Momentary Assessment, which is a method of recording events and behaviors in daily life. Multi-level simple
regression analysis revealed that most of the items classified as SCBs significantly predicted an increase in state selfcompassion
60 minutes after SCBs. In addition, most of the items classified as SCBs significantly predicted an increase in
acceptance. However, most of the items classified as SCBs did not predict an increase in well-being. The method of
measuring SCBs in daily life developed in this study may present a new paradigm for the study of self-compassion.
Moreover, this method should be a clinically useful method of measuring SCBs as it enables the assessment of changes in
SCBs in daily life following an intervention. Further research is needed to examine the relationship between SCBs and
well-being in detail.
This study investigated the relationships among rearing experiences, emotional dysfunction, and chronic
pain in university students (N=435) shortly after rearing. The presence of chronic pain and areas affected by it were
assessed. In addition, emotional distress was measured using the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 (TAS-20), and a Parental
Bonding Instrument (PBI) was used to examine parenting attitudes. Overall, 125 participants (28.7%) complained of
chronic pain persisting for at least six months. A t-test indicated that participants with chronic pain had significantly
higher TAS-20 scores compared to those with no chronic pain. The PBI scores on the care scale or the overprotection scale
as a result of parenting by the mother or father did not differ significantly between participants with chronic pain and
those without chronic pain. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed with the presence of chronic pain as the
dependent variable and nine independent variables that included age, sex, TAS-20 subscale scores (difficulty identifying
emotions, difficulty describing emotions, and externally-oriented thinking), and PBI scale scores (care by father,
overprotection by father, care by mother, and overprotection by mother). Results revealed a significant association
between chronic pain and a TAS-20 subscale score (difficulty identifying emotions).
Background: The aim of the current study was to analyze the structure and to survey the state of Japanese
health literacy scales. Methods: Databases, such as CiNii, Medical Online, google scholar, and the National Diet Library,
were searched using the keywords "health literacy" and "scale" separately or in combination. Based on the definition of
health literacy from the World Health Organization, all of the items on those health literacy scales were categorized into
the three following components: "motivation," "knowledge," and "ability." Results: The search revealed 12 health literacy
scales. Items on those scales were classified into three components: 21 items (15.8%) related to "motivation," 57 (42.9%)
related to "knowledge," and 54 (40.6%) related to "ability." The three components were further broken down into subcomponents.
Two less prevalent aspects of "motivation" were <interest> (4 items, in 19.0% of scales) and <communication>
(1 item, 4.8%). Two less prevalent aspects of "knowledge" were <searching> (4 items, 7.0%) and <utilization of
information> (1 item, 1.8%). Two less prevalent aspects of "ability" were <communication skills> (7 items, 13.0%) and
<decision-making> (5 items, 9.3%). Discussion: Hopefully, new health literacy scales that balance the three components
identified here will be developed depending on the purpose of use and target population.