The present study aimed to develop a questionnaire to measure acceptance, a behavioral process that is emphasized in the third-wave cognitive and behavioral therapies, and to confirm its reliability and validity. Undergraduate and graduate students completed questionnaires. The results of a factor analysis indicated that the new 13-item questionnaire, the Acceptance Process Questionnaire (APQ), had a 4-factor pattern. The middle- or long-term results factors were “expanding behavioral repertoire” and “being receptive to the real world”. The behavioral content factors were “making a choice not to avoid private events” and “stopping reactions”. The questionnaire had adequate structural validity and internal consistency. Additionally, it is assumed that the Acceptance Process Questionnaire measures acceptance on the entire scale. However, more refinement is needed concerning convergent validity and test-retest reliability. Future research should aim to increase the workability of the questionnaire by confirming its test-retest reliability with a larger sample and by indicating the relation between questionnaire scores and behavioral tendencies in real-life.
The purposes of the present study were to develop a questionnaire to measure the Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) core behavior processes of “Values” and “Committed Action” and to confirm the questionnaire’s reliability and validity. In Study 1, exploratory factor analysis indicated that the new questionnaire had a 3-factor pattern: “Increased Motivation,” “Continuing Behavior,” and “Awareness of Reinforcement.” Furthermore, Study 1 indicated that the questionnaire had adequate internal consistency and convergent and discriminant validity. Study 2 examined the questionnaire’s construct validity, using structural equation modeling (SEM). The results revealed that as “Awareness of Reinforcement” and “Increased Motivation” increase, “Continuing Behavior” ensues; subjective well-being was enhanced and resulted in a decrease in experiential avoidance. In the future, the questionnaire’s efficiency should be confirmed by conducting surveys with different participants, for instance, clinical patients, and a broader range of age groups and, subsequently, demonstrating its reliability and validity.
Staff training based on applied behavioral analysis is generally recommended highly as an intervention for people with behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). However, such training is often difficult in elderly care settings in Japan, because staff members are busy with routine care and have complicated work shifts. As an alternate method, the present preliminary study examined effects of consultation based on applied behavioral analysis, that is, behavioral consultation. The participants were 3 people with behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia who were living in a residential home and staff members at that home. A multiple baseline design across participants was used for the staff members, and an ABA design for the clients. In all cases, all target behaviors improved after staff members followed individual intervention plans. This suggests that behavioral consultation may be effective for improving the behavioral and psychological symptoms of people in elderly care settings who have been diagnosed with dementia.
The present case study examined a functional assessment intervention based on the interactions between a female therapist and a male outpatient. The client reported experiencing depression and anxiety about being evaluated negatively by others. The client’s behavior that was intended to decrease his evaluation apprehension, such as lengthy and stressful activities and making himself agreeable to others, occurred both at work and in therapy. The therapist did not present aversive stimuli to the client, but rather focused on increasing activities that would be intrinsic reinforcers for him. The client began to perform assigned activities appropriately, and his spontaneous activities diversified. Later, the therapist presented the client with stimuli that might increase his evaluation apprehension, and then prompted him to be more assertive. The therapist listened to him while showing interest in his assertive behavior. The client’s assertive behavior increased in therapy; the increase generalized to his workplace. The results suggest that it may be important to assess the client–therapist relationship based on a functional assessment from the beginning of therapy for treating an outpatient with depression and high evaluation apprehension.
A woman in her 30’s had severe psychosocial problems following a traumatic brain injury. The results of a neuropsychological assessment suggested the possibility of neuro-fatigue underlying her mood disturbances and aggressive behavior. Moreover, the case formulation suggested that her dysfunctional thoughts might have induced her depression and lowered her self-esteem. Based on these hypotheses, cognitive behavioral techniques, including relaxation, meditation, self-monitoring, thought stopping, and cognitive reconstruction, were implemented for the client in an individual therapy program of cognitive rehabilitation. Also, psycho-education was conducted with the client’s mother. The results after fifteen months of therapy indicated that the client’s depression and anxiety decreased, and her self-esteem and executive function improved, This suggests that decreasing the impact of organic factors, and suppressing secondary responses such as depression and lowered self-esteem by using cognitive behavioral techniques, may have had a positive effect on the rehabilitation of this client who had mood disturbances following a traumatic brain injury.
The present study is a systematic review of the effectiveness of acceptance and mindfulness based interventions for enhancing athletes’ performance. Studies were initially identified by literature searches in multiple international and domestic databases. Search terms used included “acceptance-based”, “acceptance and commitment therapy”, “mindfulness”, “sport”, “athlete”, and “performance”. Studies were then assessed for inclusion by examination of their title, abstract, and full text. On this basis, 11 studies were selected for inclusion in the present review. No studies conducted in Japan met the criteria. The studies reviewed encompassed the Mindfulness-Acceptance-Commitment approach (n＝5), Mindful Sport Performance Enhancement (n＝2), and alternative interventions (n＝4). Most of the studies (n＝8) found positive effects on sport performance. In 2 other studies, enhancement of sport performance was observed during a follow-up period. These findings suggest that acceptance and mindfulness based interventions appear to be effective for enhancing sport performance. Because none of the studies reviewed was conducted in Japan, research is needed on the effects of acceptance and mindfulness based interventions on the performance of Japanese athletes.
Nursery school supervising teachers (N＝17) participated in an applied behavior analysis workshop including Antecedent-Behavior-Consequence (ABC) observations. Direct effects of the workshop on the supervising teachers and pervasive effects on their supervisee teachers and the nursery school children were examined. Questionnaires were used to evaluate effects on the supervising teachers. Questionnaires for the supervisee teachers and target behavior observations of the children by the supervisee teachers were used to evaluate the pervasive effects on the supervisee teachers and the children. The results indicated increases in the supervising teachers’ advice about praise for positive behavior. A majority of the supervisee teachers conducted the ABC or target behavior observations and rated those observations highly. The children’s positive target behavior demonstrated greater improvement than their negative target behavior.
The purposes of the present study were to develop a Japanese version of the Valuing Questionnaire (VQ) that measures valued action in the context of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and to examine its reliability and validity. The participants were Japanese college students. Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted, and construct validity and internal consistency were calculated (N＝262). The instrument’s test-retest reliability and standard error of measurement (N＝65) were also examined. The results showed that the Japanese version of the VQ had 2 factors (10 items), and showed good validity and reliability. The VQ is utilized to measure effects in research and clinical practice because it is easier to use for assessing valued action than previous instruments. Future research should examine the 2-factor model of the VQ on a clinical sample.