This is a study focused on nursing teams in a ward, where it is considered to be a learning environment for newly graduated nurses to develop clinical competence. Here we investigated how nursing teamwork influenced the clinical competence of newly graduated nurses. The study was carried out by an initial administration of several questionnaires to 314 newly graduated nurses and 314 practical supporters employed at five hospitals. The results of the questionnaire was then supplemented by data collected through semi-structured interviews with six mid-career nurses and four preceptors of the newly graduated nurse. From the results of our quantitative survey, four factors of teamwork: 1) member’s behavior monitoring and coordinating workload within the team, 2) exhibition of leadership to maintain and increase interpersonal relationship, 3) exhibition of leadership to accurately instruct and guide team members, and 4) interpersonal chemistry in the team, had a positive effect on the clinical competence of newly graduated nurses. Furthermore, our study data indicated the importance of team leadership as a foundation to create a conducive team environment to improve the clinical practice of newly graduated nurses. These results were complemented with data acquired from a qualitative survey.
In this study, we explore teachers’ cognition in teaching that affects reflection-in-action. By use of a photographic slides method developed by Carter et al.(1988), we asked 31 elementary school teachers to view a sequence of slides about one social studies lesson and report what slide they saw as a important or problematic situation and its reason. The main findings are as follows: as teachers get more experienced, they tend to attend to more reliable information from classroom events in terms of students’ emotional state, interpret a situation in relation to previous events, and make sense of a situation based on expectation about student response, referring to a lesson plan. However, this study also suggests that there are individual differences in meaning making of a situation that are unaffected by teaching experience. Finally we offer recommendations about future researches on teachers’ reflection-in-action based on their cognition.
This study developed Tangible AR learning equipment to solve problems in astronomy education. This learning equipment allows students to learn the phases of the moon by operating an earth model and a moon model on a table. Further, the learner can observe virtual objects synchronized in a real environment. The learning equipment was evaluated for usefulness, and, as an example of practical utilization, it was evaluated from a collaborative learning point of view. Further, the usefulness and possible problems with the learning equipment were examined using protocol analysis for collaborative learning. The results showed that the learning equipment had the possibility of increasing interest in and understanding of the phases of the moon, which indicated that this equipment could increase learner motivation. In addition, it was found that the learning equipment was a useful tool for collaborative learning for those learners who do not like such learning. The results of the protocol analysis found that the synchronized overhead perspective of the earth through the monitor display could promote thinking, and it was useful for learner knowledge sharing as students could associate the objects in the real environment to those in the virtual environment using the TUI and AR. However, it was found that it was important to be careful not to generate a conceptual error from the angle of view of the wireless camera attached to the earth model. It was also found that there was a need for an instructional design that took advantage of the learning equipment features, and further research is needed to ensure that the instructional design can effectively promote the educational use of this learning equipment. Finally, it was concluded that to clarify the usefulness of the learning equipment, it should be used in a practice assessment by a group with the target learner characteristics.
The purpose of this study is to establish an effective learning model for improving such teaching skills using ICT. The use of information and communications technology (ICT) to apply digitization techniques to advancing education and improving teachers’ teaching skills using ICT is in demand. Therefore, we established learning model involving problem solving learning through a “Spot the different videos” method to acquire the skills. And, we held a practice session and evaluation for students in teacher training course and incumbent teachers to clarify the effective learning model. Evaluation results show that we showed that using the model results in learners significantly increasing the number of nodes of mindmaps and the answers to questionnaire items about teachers’ ICT use to accelerate teaching effects using the check-list defined by MEXT the learners provided before and after the model. In addition, the result in freely describing, this learning model made the learners acquire the ability to using ICT to not only students in teacher training courses but also incumbent teachers.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the behavioral processes of mid-level positioned teachers who intend to take action for school improvement through solving various issues. This study was conducted through semi-structured interviews with 15 mid-level positioned teachers who work at elementary and middle schools, which were then analyzed with the Modified Grounded Theory Approach (KINOSHITA 2003). The results of the analysis produced 17 concepts and 6 category groups, and the relationships among these category groups and concepts were then summarized by the figure. Results indicated that among their behaviors, “relationship development” with teachers and “practice-vision connection” with the school principal is important. The results are further expected to reflect on the contents and methods of mid-level positioned teachers’ training.
The effectiveness of the high speeded visual contents for online education was examined in this paper. Three types of visual contents, which have the same content but different speed rates; 1.0x, 1.5x, and 2.0x, were showed to 75 subjects in the empiric test. The content covered declarative knowledge about information science in Japanese high school. Our main finding is that visual contents-speed rate doesn’t influence the post-video test results. Meanwhile, questionnaire survey shows that more subjects didn’t give a positive assessment about the visual contents played at 2.0x speed. Consequently, the possibility that 2.0x speed visuals can allow learners to study twice in a certain period of time is discussed.
This paper aims to clarify how the students participate to informal learning activity at the learning commons. We interviewed to 13 college students who joined informal learning activity which called project at a case university. As a result, the authors arrived at three conclusions: 1) participating the project linking with the learning environment in the learning commons, 2) encouraging participation with deep commitment through the activity, and 3) perceiving anxieties through the activity. We cannot generalize these conclusions to learning commons, because they were arrived from alternative case. However they will be an important knowledge in order to construct learning environment to push students’ active learning activities at learning commons in the future.
In the study reported in this paper, we conducted panel surveys using a self-regulated learning strategies scale among adult students taking basic education correspondence courses through e-learning. The results revealed five self-regulated learning strategies, namely (1) reflecting on learning methods, (2) devising learning methods, (3) asking peers, (4) developing learning plans, and (5) rewarding oneself. Learning strategy usage was largely unaltered after six months. In terms of causal relationships between learning strategies, covariance structure analysis revealed that (1) reflecting on learning methods influenced (3) asking peers and (4) developing learning plans; and that (4) developing learning plans influenced (2) devising learning methods and (5) rewarding oneself. The findings suggest that a cycle of self-regulated learning can be induced among adult students in a university correspondence course by encouraging them to reflect on learning methods.
This case study between Elementary School K in Japan and an NGO School N in India is to identify how the teacher in India adjusted to conflicts, encountered when working with collaborators, who were conducting an international, collaborative learning activity outside of the school. The author analyzed the data based on Cross-contextual Learning Theory to describe the discord between the teacher and the collaborators. The research utilized teachers' meetings, e-mail records, memos and interviews minutes for data collection. Based on analysis of the results, the author identified conditions that a teacher recognized as two conflicts, which were "conflict in the difference in the experience with university students" and "conflict with the differences when participating with outside collaborators." These conflicts were resolved when the teacher created an environment of "latent-crossing," so that the collaborators could access Elementary School K's activities. In addition, the roles of the collaborators were redefined to resolve the first conflict. Moreover, the teacher applied "transitions-between-situations" to better understand and resolve the second conflict, the activity participation outside of the school with the collaborators.
In this study, we developed teaching material to improve the competence of the preceptor in providing support for a novice nurse. We also developed a training course that combined video, reflection, lecture, and role-playing. To do these we considered the results of an investigation into the qualities required for preceptors to support a novice nurse; these comprised 25 items listed under four factors, namely “total support,” “leadership,” “lending support in performing duties,” and having a good “attitude toward the novice nurse.” Furthermore, we found that a novice nurse requires support in three areas, namely “behavior,” “feelings,” and “attitude” of the preceptor. After undergoing the training course, we noticed a change in the confidence levels of the preceptor. The group that had low self-confidence before the training significantly gained in confidence. Through the training course that combined reflection, video, and role-playing, it was possible to conceptualize the preceptor’s role.
There are few lectures and programs on systematic learning of assessment in Japan. In case study of “Basics IV for elementary schools” at the Faculty of Education at X University, the author examined how this lecture fostered preservice teachers’ assessment competence. In 13 items of assessment competence, the results showed that all of them increased after the lecture. In addition, as the author analyzed participants’ images of assessment by their metaphor, their images were significantly changed from “fixed” to “variable” However, the items about “understanding and practice of assessment needed in the future” (e.g. 21st century skills) were lower than the other items, and participants had difficulty of writing unit plans based on these perspectives, so that we might examine further how to design tasks and elaborate materials.
This paper determined how to evaluate handout for training handout preparation. Student’s handouts were surveyed at a class of university bachelor level. These handout manuscripts were evaluated using several scales for assessment including a degree of usefulness. An exploratory factor analysis was applied to the evaluations, and four factors were extracted. The relationships between factors of handout evaluation and scores of usefulness were examined using a causal analysis. Also relationships between usefulness and qualitative data which were reviewer’s comments and applied annotation strategies were illustrated using a corresponding analysis. As the results of analyses, a training methodology for making better handout was proposed regarding these evaluation perspectives.
The purpose of this study is to examine how users set privacy settings when using social media and what factors are related to this. The participants were 308 college students. They were surveyed about “LINE,” that is located in a form of social media and is used actively by young people in Japan. The results are as follows: Since people using LINE are less concerned about the diffusion of the user’s personal information, privacy settings for linking to well-known persons (e.g. friends, family, etc.) are less strict; however, privacy settings and usage behaviors for linking to strangers on the Internet were not frequently utilized. Additionally, privacy settings and usage behavior of LINE were related to the perceived norm and perceived functional usefulness, but they were not related to Internet privacy concerns. During discussion, it was pointed out that evidence concerning privacy on social media should be collected in consideration of the distinct features of each form of social media.
This study aimed to examine the feasibility of active learning scale by Item Response Theory (IRT). The participants were 735 university students (51.4% were female). Firstly, factor analysis revealed the active learning scale had a single-factor structure. Secondary, discrimination parameter, threshold parameters, item response curve, and item information curve were calculated by IRT. Thirdly, item group were extracted from the item response curve, and test information based on item groups were calculated. Lastly, we discuss about meaning and task of active learning scale.