Japan Journal of Educational Technology
Online ISSN : 2189-6453
Print ISSN : 1349-8290
ISSN-L : 1349-8290
Current issue
Displaying 1-16 of 16 articles from this issue
Paper
  • Akari KOJIMA, Yu TAIZAN, Haruo KUROKAMI
    Article type: research-article
    2022 Volume 46 Issue 2 Pages 217-228
    Published: February 02, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: June 22, 2022
    Advance online publication: February 02, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    The first purpose of this study is to identify the thinking dispositions and teaching methods focused by teachers who develop thinking skills and to compare them with a list of critical thinking dispositions. The second is to identify the instructional items related to the culture of thinking. The results suggest that critical thinking dispositions are not directly applicable to the thinking dispositions that should be developed in Japanese schools. In addition, 27 instructional items related to the culture of thinking were identified. The relationship between the two results suggests that there are two types of instruction related to the culture of thinking: one is related to the development of specific thinking attitudes, and the other is not.

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  • Yoshiko TAKEDA, Yu MIZOGUCHI, Shinichi MIZOKAMI
    Article type: research-article
    2022 Volume 46 Issue 2 Pages 229-239
    Published: May 20, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: June 22, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    In this study, we focused on leadership self-efficacy and resilience, which are effective for leadership, and conducted longitudinal surveys in the fourth year of university and the first year of professional life . We employed a cross-lagged effect model using longitudinal data to examine the relationship between Leadership Self-Efficacy scale (LSE;“empathy,” “accomplishment,” “change,” and “encouragement”) and a Bidimensional Resilience Scale (BRS; the innate factor and acquired factor of resilience) during the transition from university to the professional life . The results showed that the scores of all four factors of the LSE and two factors of the BRS significantly decreased in the first year after university. In addition, fourth-year university students' innate factors of resilience had a significant positive effect on the accomplishment, change, and encouragement in the LSE. Further, fourth-year university students' acquired factors of resilience had a significant positive effect on their accomplishment in the LSE. For fourth-year university students, LSE had no effect on BRS in the first year of their professional life, suggesting that the acquired factors of resilience before entering university may impact leadership self-efficacy, in addition to empathy, in the first year of one’s professional life.

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  • Rieko INABA, Mieko TAKAHIRA, Mana TAGUCHI, Yasuhiko TSUJI
    Article type: research-article
    2022 Volume 46 Issue 2 Pages 241-253
    Published: May 20, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: June 22, 2022
    Advance online publication: January 12, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    To prevent the spread of COVID-19 in 2020, university faculty members were inevitably required to teach online classes. After many classes have returned to face-to-face learning, if faculty can gain the effectiveness of online classes, they may continue to use online lectures and use the information and communication technology (ICT) tools. Therefore, this study aimed to clarify the factors that enhance the effectiveness of online classes. Specifically, based on a questionnaire survey of university faculty conducted from July to August 2020, we found that the following three factors, “teaching strategies,” “understanding student statuses,” and “promoting student activities,” constitute the efficacy of online classes. Furthermore, to verify the effects of “social support from colleagues, acquaintances, and on-campus support organizations”; “engagement of students”; and “ICT usage in classes,” a hierarchy multi-target regression analysis was performed. Results indicate that the “attendance attitude of students” contributes to the improvement of the effectiveness of online classes, regardless of the class style.

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  • Kayo TAKAMI, Shigeto OZAWA
    Article type: research-article
    2022 Volume 46 Issue 2 Pages 255-273
    Published: May 20, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: June 22, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    Only a few female university students pursue the sciences. Additionally, there is a stereotype learned from teachers, cram school lecturers, parents, and friends that perpetuates the notion that the sciences are not usually for females. This study aimed to clarify the extent to which this stereotype is at work and what kind of external factors exist when a female student makes a choice between a humanities and science major. The results of conducting semi-structured interviews with female students indicated that stereotypical speech and conduct of school teachers and cram school lecturers occurring when the participants were choosing between a humanities and science major had a reciprocal effect with internal factors such as the values and beliefs held by the participants at that time. However, in a situation where there was a trusting relationship between a teacher and the participant or where the participant was close to a female who was good in math and science courses, the participant would less likely be influenced by this stereotype. It was also clear that when a female student had difficulty in math or science courses, the presence or absence of support from teachers and cram school lecturers affected her. The findings showed that when a female student's will to succeed in math and science courses has fallen and support is lacking, an external factor which plays a major role in the female student choosing humanities is the stereotype that this is a field for females.

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  • Taichi YASUNAGA, Kenta MITSUSHITA, Daisuke UEDA, Shingo SHIOTA
    Article type: research-article
    2022 Volume 46 Issue 2 Pages 275-288
    Published: May 20, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: June 22, 2022
    Advance online publication: April 09, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    In recent years, several predicaments have affected the sporting world, which has focused its attention on enhancing and preserving sport integrity. Although educational approaches are considered important, the reality of attitudes toward sport integrity remains unclear because of the lack of survey on problematic situations related to sport integrity. The purpose of this study is to clarify the actual situation and factors of sport integrity attitudes of athletes and coaches by using the scenario assumption method for 10 problems related to sport integrity. The results of the cross-tabulation showed that the sport integrity attitude of "sexual harassment," "violence," and "discrimination/prejudice" was low relative to the 10 troubles. The results of factor analysis suggested that the factor structure of attitudes toward sport integrity was divided according to the clarity of judgment criteria, and that there were two types of situations: situations with clear judgment criteria and situations with unclear judgment criteria. In addition, both players and instructors tended to be more sympathetic to problematic behaviors in scenes with unclear judgment criteria than in scenes with clear judgment criteria.

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  • Shin UEOKA
    Article type: research-article
    2022 Volume 46 Issue 2 Pages 289-302
    Published: May 20, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: June 22, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    This study revised Hiramatsu’s (2001) key word method which is a method of measuring KIRKPATRICK model’s Level 2 (learning) in order to improve the efficiency of measurement and to clarify the evaluation criteria. The revision was made based on the findings of GOLLWITZER (1999), and the content validity was confirmed by supervisors of Education Center, a professional organization for teacher training. In order to examine the criterion-related validity, a survey was conducted at two time points on the participants in training for newly hired teachers, and valid responses were obtained from 175 participants. As a result of analysis using structural equation modeling, no significant trend in the correlation between Level 1 (reaction) and Level 2 was confirmed, but the effect size was consistent with previous studies. In addition, Level 2 was shown to have an indirect effect on changes in behavioral intention, mediated by the changes of attitude toward the behavior, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control, providing evidence in support of the criterion-related validity. Furthermore, the adoption of web forms has improved the operability.

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  • Through Secondary Analysis of PISA 2015 Data
    Daiki NAKAMURA, Koki HORITA, Mai NISHIUCHI, Hiroshi UNZAI
    Article type: research-article
    2022 Volume 46 Issue 2 Pages 303-312
    Published: May 20, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: June 22, 2022
    Advance online publication: January 21, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    This study aimed to identify the factors influencing Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) career choice in Japan based on the Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT). We used Japanese data from the Program for International Student Assessment 2015 survey to test the SCCT career choice model. The result of the structural equation modeling showed that the SCCT career choice model is well fitted to the Japanese data. The results of the multi-population analysis revealed that self-efficacy, outcome expectations, interest, and socio-economic backgrounds have a significant impact on STEM career aspirations. Among these factors, there were significant gender differences in the effects of outcome expectations, interest, and socioeconomic backgrounds. However, no gender differences were observed in the effects of self-efficacy. Based on the findings of this study, different interventions for different genders may be effective in increasing the number of students who choose STEM careers.

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  • Takaaki ITO
    Article type: research-article
    2022 Volume 46 Issue 2 Pages 313-324
    Published: May 20, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: June 22, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    In this study, we focused on explanatory activities to confirm one's own understanding and examined their effects on the explainer and the listener. Thirty-two university students were asked to read a passage about chi-square tests and then to explain what they understood to the listener. After studying a passage, students were divided into pairs, one as the explainer (16 students) and the other as the listener (16 students). The explainer was asked to generate an online explanation to confirm understanding, and the listener was asked to watch a video recording of the explanation. When the comprehension tests were compared, no significant differences were detected between the two groups. As a result of category analysis of the utterances, only the utterance about "maki/ng sense of data" showed a correlation with the comprehension test. Self-evaluations before and after the explanation indicated that there was a difference in the change in self-evaluation score between the explainer and the listener. The results of this study show the key points in implementing explanations to confirm understanding.

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Paper on Educational Practice Research
  • A Case Study in the field of History of Junior High School Social Studies
    Masahiro SATO, Norihisa SAKAKIBARA
    Article type: research-article
    2022 Volume 46 Issue 2 Pages 325-337
    Published: May 20, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: June 22, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    With the advancement of information technology, students are using the Internet to gather information on a daily basis, both inside and outside of school. Accordingly, it is necessary to reexamine the media literacy that is required in today's society and to foster it in school education. In this study, we developed a Web information evaluation sheet as a learning material to cultivate media literacy through activities in which learners read and evaluate Web information critically and analytically in junior high school social studies history classes. As a result of the verification, it was suggested that the learners did not believe the information as it was on the Web, but began to use critical thinking to judge the credibility of the information. The results also suggested that the learners were able to analyze Web information from multiple perspectives by searching for the purpose and position of the information sender, the date of information update and judge the credibility of the information. These results indicated that the students were able to improve their ability to accept the media, but there are still some issues to be solved to improve their ability to express themselves through the media.

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  • Chen LIANG, Ethan WONG
    Article type: research-article
    2022 Volume 46 Issue 2 Pages 339-349
    Published: May 20, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: June 22, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    In this study, in order to improve the tone perception ability for the beginners of Chinese learners, we developed a learning tool specialized in tone perception training. Based on the recall method, we devised a learning method that perceives the tone of each individual sound from continuous voice, and incorporated it into the learning tool. We expected that this will improve the ability to perceive tones through the training based on measures to avoid confusion of tones according to the learning situation of each learner. A study was conducted in a classroom subject to university students taking an introduction to Chinese class to validate the effect of the system of the learning tool we developed. As a result, after comparing the tone perception tests of 24 Japanese university students using the learning tool, the growth rate of the learning tool users was higher than that of the non-learning tool users. Although the growth rate of those who used the learning tool was higher, there was no significant difference between the two groups. On the other hand, although it cannot be said that this learning tool has a direct effect on the improvement of the tone perception ability, it is suggested that the learning motivation for tone learning is improved.

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  • Analysis from the Engagement and Learning Strategies
    Kazuo NAKANISHI, Kei KANO
    Article type: research-article
    2022 Volume 46 Issue 2 Pages 351-362
    Published: May 20, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: June 22, 2022
    Advance online publication: February 02, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of reflection in science learning through visualization and bird's-eye view of learning records by One-to-One device, Focusing on the transformation of engagement and the use of learning strategies. the effects were examined through a two-group comparison. Junior high school students were divided into an experimental group and a control group, and their effects were examined through comparison. In the unit of "light, sound, and power" in the field of physics in the first grade of junior high school science, , we practiced reflection using a tablet-type information terminal and analyzed the changes in student engagement and learning strategies before and after. As a result, increased use of behavioral engagement and metacognitive, cognitive, and collaborative strategies was observed in the reflected group. Through research, It was suggested that by visualize and bird's-eye view of learning records by One-to-One device, and working on reflection using them, it may be possible to promote the use of learning strategies that lead to improvement of learning motivation in the unit of "light, sound, and power".

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  • A Longitudinal Study for Participants in a PFF Program Designed to Support the Introduction of Active Learning
    Yoshimi KOZAI, Mana TAGUCHI
    Article type: research-article
    2022 Volume 46 Issue 2 Pages 363-376
    Published: May 20, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: June 22, 2022
    Advance online publication: May 09, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    This study aims to clarify the influence relationship between changes in classroom practice and beliefs about teaching among novice faculty through their Preparing Future Faculty (PFF) Program experience. For this purpose, a longitudinal study was conducted on 6 participants in a PFF program designed to introducte of active learning. As a result, it was confirmed that there were cases in which both teaching practice and beliefs changed, neither changed, and teaching practice changed but beliefs did not change. It was found that there were two types of change in classroom practice: “autonomous change”, in which teachers change their classroom practice by their own choice as a result of changes in beliefs and knowledge, and “heteronomous change”, in which teachers change their classroom practice without changing their beliefs due to influences from external domains such as training and school culture. In addition, it was suggested that even in the case of “heteronomous change”, when the educational effects are sufficiently recognized through the support of experts, it may lead to a change in beliefs about teaching, which in turn may lead to “autonomous change”.

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Paper on Educational System Development
  • Shintaro UCHIYAMA, Mitsuo YOSHIDA, Kyoji UMEMURA
    Article type: research-article
    2022 Volume 46 Issue 2 Pages 377-392
    Published: May 20, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: June 22, 2022
    Advance online publication: February 01, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    We have developed an annotation feature, Steering Mark, that enables a teacher to put annotations on videos for the students, on top of the preparation video watching system for flipped learning. Steering Mark provides a way to change videos’ presentation for the purpose of instruction and support tailored to the learner, inspired by the viewpoint of teachers’ elaboration. As the result of impression evaluation experiments, Steering Mark is found to be acceptable feature for students. Furthermore, the concept of Steering Mark which presenting different sort of marks by students’ knowledge rather than contents’ meta information is found to be acceptable for students. Moreover, the usability is comfirmed by users’ watching behavior log analysis that Steering Mark helped students to watch video segments which the student did not understand well.

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Technical Information
  • Hideaki YOSHIDA
    Article type: research-article
    2022 Volume 46 Issue 2 Pages 393-403
    Published: May 20, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: June 22, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    This paper focuses on Preparation for Future Learning (PFL) research using ICT and examines the realization of Individually Optimized Learning. In this study, we focused on the papers published in peer-reviewed academic journals between 1999 and 2020 that were related to PFL with ICT and reviewed their research contents. The results suggest that PFL using ICT is effective in individualizing instruction by allowing students to monitor pre-existing knowledge and achievement, and in individualizing learning by self or co-regulation learning. The findings of PFL with ICT study will provide suggestions for the consideration of individualized optimal learning. Finally, we discussed issues that need to be addressed in future research.

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  • Engagement in Student Teaching as a Mediator
    Yuno SHIMIZU, Ko YAMAMOTO
    Article type: research-article
    2022 Volume 46 Issue 2 Pages 405-418
    Published: May 20, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: June 22, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the involvement of mentor and pre-aspiration for the teaching profession on post-aspiration for the teaching profession mediated by engagement in student teaching and the moderation effect of student teaching's demands on the influence process to be examined. A web-based survey was conducted on 240 students in a teacher training course. The results showed that: (1) the provision of knowledge about school education and student teaching life by the mentor was positively related to self-efficacy and desire to become a teacher through engagement in student teaching; (2) the effect of engagement in student teaching was greater for classroom management efficacy and student understanding efficacy, but smaller for instruction efficacy; (3) there was no moderation effect of the student teaching's demand on the influence process examined. These results suggest that providing knowledge about school education and student teaching life from the mentor may effectively increase teacher efficacy and desire to become a teacher, especially a classroom management efficacy and student understanding efficacy.

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