In recent arguments about fisheries management, the community-based approach has attracted more attention. The aim of this paper is to investigate the content and meanings of the fisheries management carried out by a coastal community with various fisheries, and moreover to examine the dynamic aspects of the management, considering changes in the environment and changes in its use. The study area is Himeshima, Oita Prefecture, an island whose economy has been highly dependent on small-scale coastal fisheries. The fishermen there have constituted the 'Gyogyo-kisetsu', a written code of fishing activities, under a fisheries cooperative association. The case studied in this paper is the fishing ground regulations, that is to say, the spatial restrictions of fishing ground use on the offshore fixed gill net fishery in the Gyogyo-kisetsu. The fishery became popular in the late 1960s and detailed fishing ground regulations have been applied to it as the fixed nets occupy the sea widely. Examination of the contents of these regulations reveals that they have been constituted and carried out mainly for adjustment between the gill net fishery and other fisheries. The operations of 'weaker' fisheries or conventional fisheries, such as the angling fishery, the longline fishery and the surrounding seine fishery, on important fishing grounds, have been protected by the adjustment. In introducing the modern gill net fishery, it was crucial for the community to develop regulations too enable the coexistence of old and new fisheries and to avoid conflicts. In addition, such adjustment has been sometimes related to the conservation of fishery resources and important fishing grounds. On the other hand, the environment and the use of the fishing grounds where the gill net fishery is regulated have not remained static but have sometimes undergone big changes up to the present day. Distinct examples are the sharp decrease in sand lance and the decline of some conventional fisheries, influencing the state of fishing ground use. Despite these changes, each fishing ground regulation on the gill net fishery has been kept in the Gyogyo-kisetsu up to the present day since it was established, even though its actual function or meanings can be somewhat flexible and variable. These facts show that the regulations have been maintained and carried out in an imbalanced relationship with the fishing ground environment or the fishing ground use affected by fluctuations. Examination of such dynamic aspects of the regulations indicates some vagueness or ambiguity inherent in the management carried out in the relationship with an uncertain environment.
As a result of the aging population in Japanese mountain villages, elderly persons have been forced to take on the burden of production activities. In the Gohoku Region of Kochi Prefecture, which is the target of this study, there are many communities comprised mainly of elderly persons who bear the burden of production activities. The purpose of this study is to clarify the characteristics of production activities undertaken by elderly women in mountain villages where the aging population is increasing, and the conditions under which these women undertake production activities. In our analysis, we focus specifically on "agri-processing" by elderly women. Following is a summary of the results of this study. In mountain villages where elderly men are in a position of superiority, elderly women undertake many activities related to agri-processing. In order to avoid friction with the regional community, women have formed agri-processing groups under the umbrella of existing settlement organizations, and have shown the elderly men that they have the support of public institutions in higher positions of authority than those settlement organizations. As the elderly women continued to demonstrate positive economic results, the elderly men-often the spouses of the women involved-have come to understand these contributions, and now provide assistance in the women's activities. The agri-processing workplaces, in addition to promoting stronger social ties among the elderly women, have become a new venue for settlement activities in which the elderly men have also become involved. It became clear through this study that the women participate in agri-processing while effectively coordinating the use of space and time in the context of their own lifestyle activities. Among the elderly women participating in agri-processing, women with family members living in the same household participate in agri-processing while coordinating the use of space and time in their own lifestyle activities because they must overcome the limitations placed upon them by their household activities. Elderly women living alone, on the other hand, can allocate time and space to accommodate the group's activities. In this way, the elderly women of mountain villages have created a unique venue for production activities, and it would appear that in many cases, these women must at the same time overcome the limitations placed upon them by their households and the regional community in order to maintain these activities. Elderly women maintain the agri-production workplace by creating cooperative relationships with the elderly men who are the heads of the households and the regional community.