Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging social risk with a rapid increase in cases of 5,200,000 and deaths of 330,000 (23/May/2020) since its first identification in Wuhan China, in December 2019. The COVID-19 is spreading all over the world as an emerging pandemic, and global society need fundamental risk management concepts against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Human-to-human transmissions have been facilitating via droplets and contaminated surfaces to hands. Therefore, we developed the systematic review comprehensively using available information about coronaviruses on environmental surfaces and inactivation mechanisms of antiviral chemicals possible to apply as chemical disinfectants. The analysis of literatures revealed that SARS-CoV-2 can persist on environmental surfaces like plastics and glasses for up to 7 days, but might be efficiently inactivated with 45–81% ethanol, 50–80% 2-propanol, 0.05–0.3% benzalkonium chloride, various detergents, >0.5% hydrogen peroxide or >0.045% sodium hypochlorite within 30 sec–10 min or 30 min. As no specific therapies are available for SARS-CoV-2, we propose the risk mitigation on the contact infection route by anti-virus household products is promising for prevention of further spread via hands to mouth, nose, and eyes. and to control this novel social problem.
In the field of fear of crime, literature has yet to confirm a causal relationship between people’s estimated damage of crime and fear of crime. This study examines this potential relationship by providing participants with information about the severity of crime victims’ injuries. Survey data were collected from 336 participants. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: in the first condition, information about the severity of crime victims’ injuries was presented, and in the control condition, information unrelated to crime was presented. The results revealed that the participants who perceived a decrease in the amount of estimated damage had a diminished fear of crime. However, the experimental operation did not significantly affect the estimated damage.
The TCC (trust, confidence, and cooperation) model explains that civic cooperation intention for risk management agencies is defined by trust and confidence. Although the validity of this model has been verified by previous studies, further research is needed due to inadequate empirical data on existing institutions with high social needs. The purpose of this study is to examine the applicability of the TCC model for firefighting agencies, which have high social needs and in which the importance of citizens’ cooperation has increased. The following results were obtained from a nationwide web survey: trust has a strong positive effect on cooperation intention, in line with the TCC model. However, contrary to the TCC model, confidence was shown to have a negative effect on cooperation intention. These results were discussed from two perspectives: the definition of confidence and the potential for transforming the TCC model in institutions of high social needs.
We aimed to examine the housing status transitions of the people who faced damages caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake affect the self-evaluation of life by victims such as “life satisfaction, life prospects, and social capital”. The survey data were obtained from a questionnaire survey targeting the household of temporary housing, recovery housing, reconstruction housing, and housing living before the earthquake in Kamaishi city, Iwate prefecture in the seventh year after the earthquake. As a result of the analysis, it was confirmed that not only the housing status transitions also the future housing perspective had an impact on the self-evaluation of life. However, the effect was different depending on household annual income.
Seventy students in a cooking art college joined registered questionnaires to answer “(rather) yes” or “(rather) no” for questions about several food hazards and to write the reasons. This was conducted before and after the lectures on food safety to assess the alteration of risk perception. In all 6 questions, the number of answers with biased perception decreased significantly. ‘Genetically modified organisms’ achieved the largest decrease of biased answers (36→5), followed by ‘food additives’ (46→16) and ‘agricultural chemicals’ (61→31). ‘Radioactive pollutants’ showed a smaller decrease of biased perception (33→20). The lectures on risk analysis, quantitative risk assessment, and risk-benefit analysis have been certainly effective for changing risk perception. Some students mentioned a vague anxiety and made instinctual decisions despite scientific understanding. This suggested the importance of addressing the emotional dimension. The results would help improving food risk communication.