The number of cases of lymphocytic hypophysitis is small, although the condition is not rare. For optimal therapy, the correct diagnosis from imaging, immunological studies, and pathological findings from a pituitary biopsy is important. Recently, anti-Rabphilin antibody has been proposed to be a biomarker for lymphocytic infundibulo-neurohypophysitis. Immunological disorders such as anti-Pit-1 antibody syndrome are similar to the pathogenesis of lymphocytic hypophysitis. Moreover, recent immune checkpoint blockade such ipilimumab has been shown to induce anti-CTLA-4-related hypophysitis. In the future, elucidating the immunological mechanism and establishing a suitable therapy will be necessary for accurate long-term prognosis.
Reflux esophagitis is characterized by excessive esophageal acid exposure. To treat reflux esophagitis, it is necessary to reduce excessive esophageal acid exposure to within the normal range. The first-line drug for the treatment of reflux esophagitis is a standard-dose proton-pump inhibitor (PPI), which is also recommended by the Evidence-based Clinical Practice Guidelines 2015 for gastroesophageal disease of the Japanese Society of Gastroenterology. It has been reported that the response to a standard dose of PPI in patients with mild reflux esophagitis is 90-100%, and that in patients with severe reflux esophagitis is 80-85%. However, PPI-resistant reflux esophagitis has been increasing. When the standard dose of PPI is not effective, modification of the lifestyle with PPI therapy, switching to another PPI, or a change in the administration method (before meals), as well as double-dose PPI (in divided doses), may be effective. In addition, vonoprazan (potassium-competitive acid blocker), which has rapid and potent acid-suppressive effects, became available in February 2015 in Japan. In the clinical trial data, vonoprazan is very effective for reflux esophagitis. However, clinical data on vonoprazan are still insufficient. The establishment of a new treatment for reflux esophagitis taking advantage of the rapid and potent acid-suppressive effects is awaited.
Objective: Combined therapy with bevacizumab and paclitaxel (BP regimen) as a first-line treatment has proven highly effective with good tolerance for patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC). The objective of this study was to examine the efficacy and safety of the BP regimen for Japanese patients with MBC in real-world clinical settings. Methods: From June 2012 through May 2014, we recruited 94 patients at 10 medical institutions. The primary endpoint was time to treatment failure (TTF), and the secondary endpoints were overall survival (OS) and safety. Objective response was assessed according to the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors. Adverse events (AEs) were graded according to the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0-Japan Clinical Oncology Group. Results: Nighty patients with MBC (mean 58 years, range: 34-80 years) were enrolled, and 60 (66.6%) and 52 (57.7%) had undergone prior chemotherapy as adjuvant treatment and treatment for MBC, respectively. Median TTF was 6.2 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.2-8.3 months), and median OS was 15.4 months (95% CI, 12.0-18.9 months). The overall response rate was 67.8% (95% CI: 57.1-77.2%). A total of 28 patients (31.1%) required a dose reduction of paclitaxel. Forty-five, 42, and 3 patients received the initial doses of 90, 80, and 60 mg/m2, respectively. Among patients who received the initial doses of 90 mg/m2, 13 patients (28.9%) unexpectedly required a dose reduction of ≥20 mg/m2. The BP regimen was discontinued for 66 (73.3%) of the 90 patients, 52 (57.7%) of whom experienced "disease progression." Grade 3/4 hematologic AEs developed in 51 patients (56.6%), with leukopenia and neutropenia in 16 patients (17.8%) and 21 patients (23.3%), respectively. Grade 3 nonhematologic AEs developed in 8 patients (8.9%), with the most common nonhematologic AE of peripheral neuropathy in 4 patients (4.4%). No Grade 4 nonhematologic AEs developed. Peripheral neuropathy [56 patients (62.2%) ], nail discoloration [53 patients (58.9%) ], and fatigue [51 patients (56.7%) ] were the most predominant AEs―the known AEs of paclitaxel. Conclusions: The BP regimen was active and well tolerated in the real-world clinical settings. As many as 28.9% of patients who received the initial dose of 90 mg/m2 required a dose reduction of paclitaxel by 20 mg/m2. Therefore, there is a need to find a therapeutic regimen that is less likely to result in dose reductions for patients with MBC who undergo a BP regimen using the initial paclitaxel dose of 90 mg/m2.
Objective: The modified Glasgow Prognostic Score (mGPS) is an inflammation-based measure of malnutrition that reflects a state of cachexia in cancer patients. We evaluated mGPS as an index to predict surgical site infection (SSI) incidence in patients undergoing colorectal cancer surgery. Subjects and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 351 patients who underwent colon cancer resection. Factors correlated with the incidence of SSIs were identified by logistic analysis and stepwise selection. Results: SSIs were observed in 32 patients, with an incidence of 9.1%. Univariate logistic analysis revealed mGPS (Score 2), laparotomy, resection of other organs, colostomy, excessive blood loss (>423 mL), long duration of surgery (>279 minutes), pulmonary dysfunction, prognostic nutritional index (PNI) ≤40, neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR)(>4), and controlling nutritional status (CONUT) ≥2 to be associated with an increased incidence of SSIs. Multivariate analysis with variables selected by the stepwise procedure also revealed mGPS (Score 2) (Odds ratio (OR) =3.55, 95% Confidence interval (CI) 1.30-9.56; p=0.01), colostomy (OR=6.56, 95%CI 1.60-31.38; p=0.01), excessive blood loss (OR=3.20, 95%CI 1.23-8.42; p=0.02), and NLR (>4)(OR=3.24, 95%CI 1.31-8.17; p=0.01) to be independent risk factors. Conclusion: mGPS is an independent risk factor for SSIs. Our results suggest that cachexia before surgery in patients with colorectal cancer might predict the incidence of SSIs.
Cell-free and concentrated ascites reinfusion therapy (CART) is recognized as a useful treatment to improve the symptoms caused by refractory ascites. Recently, a few clinical studies have reported the effects of CART for malignant ascites, especially in gynecological and gastrointestinal cancers. We report the case of malignant ascites in a patient with malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) whose symptoms were relieved by CART. A 59-year-old Japanese male with MPM who had undergone pleural decortication had pleural and peritoneal recurrence. His general status deteriorated as he developed massive ascites due to peritoneal metastases. With the initiation of CART, he recovered well enough to receive cisplatin-based systemic chemotherapy. Repeated use of CART contributed to the maintenance of his good general condition and enabled him to undergo successive systemic chemotherapy, which might have lengthened his life. This is the first report that demonstrates the efficacy of CART for palliative care in a patient with MPM. Our experience indicates that CART should be considered as a treatment option to control refractory malignant ascites regardless of the type of cancer.
Congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis (CIPA) syndrome is a neuropathy characterized by insensitivity to pain, impaired thermoregulation, anhidrosis, and mental retardation. A 9-year old boy with CIPA syndrome, underwent 2 operations for a calcaneal ulcer. During the first operation standard monitorization was performed. In the second operation, Bispectral Index (BIS) monitoring was added and temperature was monitored with an esophageal probe. In the first operation, in which anesthesia induction was applied with ketamine and midazolam, extremity movements with surgical stimuli were seen. Despite pain insensitivity, as extremity movements were seen with surgical stimuli, propofol was administered in the second operation. Throughout the operation, the BIS values varied from 19-58 and body temperature was measured as 36.1°C-36.9°C. In conclusion, despite the absence of pain sensitivity in CIPA syndrome cases, there is an absolute need for the administration of anesthesia in surgical procedures because of tactile hyperesthesia.
Boerhaave syndrome, the spontaneous perforation of the esophagus, is an emergency, life-threatening condition. Current endoscopic treatment options include clipping and stenting, but the use of polyglycolic acid (PGA) sheets for treating the condition has not been reported. In recent years, PGA sheets have been used after endoscopic submucosal dissection to prevent perforations and stricture formation in patients treated for early-stage carcinoma. We report the cases of two patients with Boerhaave syndrome who were successfully treated using PGA sheets. The present clinical outcomes suggest that the use of PGA sheets is feasible and safe for treating patients with Boerhaave syndrome, and that they may be another treatment option.
Darier disease (DD) is a rare autosomal dominant skin disorder due to mutations in the ATP2A2 gene, which encodes sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase isoform 2 (SERCA2). The clinical manifestations of DD are characterized by warty papules and plaques in seborrheic areas, and association with neuropsychiatric abnormalities has also been reported in a few families with DD. We herein report a classic Japanese DD case with a previously described mutation (p.C560R) in ATP2A2. In Japan, 26 mutations in the ATP2A2 gene in 7 pedigrees and 19 sporadic cases with DD have been reported, among which one pedigree and one sporadic case were accompanied by neuropsychiatric symptoms. A review of the reports confirmed that most mutations were of the missense type and no consistent genotype-phenotype correlations were found.
Microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) is a primary systemic vasculitis that predominantly affects small and medium vessels. MPA is rarely complicated with central nervous system or cardiovascular disease. We report a very rare case of MPA complicated with cerebral infarction, cardiovascular disease, and fatal subarachnoid hemorrhage in a 54-year-old man. During the first six days of hospitalization the patient was diagnosed with rapid progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN), cerebral infarction, and unstable angina. According to patient's symptoms and laboratory findings, were consisted with a diagnosis of severe MPA. Steroid pulse therapy was immediately introduced. However, the patient developed massive subarachnoid hemorrhage on the 8th day of hospitalization. The condition progressively deteriorated, and the patient died on the 33rd hospital day.