Background: Keloids are characterized by the formation of excessive scar tissue that extends beyond the area of the initial wound. Keloid redness is due to angiogenesis and chronic inflammation and is an important indicator of the severity of the lesion and the effectiveness of treatment. Methods: The color of 33 untreated keloids from 30 patients was measured with a narrow-band reflectance colorimeter. The erythema and melanin levels in the keloids (Ek and Mk, respectively) were recorded with control data obtained from the flexor aspect of the forearm (Ec and Mc, respectively). The keloid color was also evaluated subjectively. Results: The Ek or Mk values did not vary significantly according to symptom intensity, scar region, patient age, and patient sex. Younger patients (<40 years) and female patients had significantly higher Ek/Ec ratios than did older patients and male patients, respectively. Subjective keloid redness evaluations distinguished keloids with high Ek/Ec ratios from keloids with low Ek/Ec ratios (P<0.0001) but could not distinguish keloids with high Ek from keloids with low Ek. Conclusions: Subjective evaluations of keloids in Japanese subjects reflected Ek/Ec ratios, which were strongly affected by variation in background skin color. The subjective assessment of the color of keloids or other skin disorders should be performed with caution in Asian populations.
Recently, serum lactate level rather than systolic blood pressure (sBP) has been widely used to diagnose peripheral circulatory insufficiency, which often leads to coagulopathy with systemic inflammation. However, most of the reported disorders were examined by plasma samples. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of serum lactate for detecting coagulopathy with circulatory failure by using thromboelastometry as well as standard coagulation test. 192 adult patients transported to our hospital between January 2013 and September 2014 were enrolled in this retrospective study. The sBP, serum lactate and thromboelastometry (ROTEM®) were measured in these patients in the emergency department. All patients were divided into three groups based on serum lactate levels: (1) the severe group (≥4 mmol/L, n=41); (2) the mild group (<4 mmol/L and ≥2 mmol/L, n=59); and (3) the normal group (<2 mmol/L, n=92). Patients in the severe group were of a significantly younger age but had lower pH and poor outcome. SBP was significantly lower and heart rates were higher in the severe group than in the other groups. Prolonged PT-INR and APTT were statistically confirmed in the severe group. ROTEM findings in the severe group revealed significantly lower alpha angle, shortened Lysis Onset Time and significantly more cases exhibited hyperfibrinolysis. The same analysis with the cut-off level of sBP at 90 mmHg showed no significant difference in ROTEM findings between the two groups. Abnormal serum lactate levels (≥4.0 mmol/L) properly reflected peripheral circulatory insufficiency and were more closely associated with coagulopathy such as hyperfibrinolysis and hypocoagulability than sBP.
Aim: Opioids are increasingly used to control postoperative pain via intravenous patient-controlled analgesia, with several advantages. The present study evaluated the effects of intravenous patient-controlled analgesia with different doses of fentanyl on postoperative pain and on the quality of physical/emotional recovery from surgery and anesthesia. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed data from 288 patients, and evaluated whether intravenous patient-controlled analgesia with fentanyl correlated with the degree of postoperative pain. We then prospectively studied 47 patients who underwent elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The patients were randomized into 2 groups (15 or 30 μg/mL of fentanyl), and postoperative pain control was compared using a visual analog scale score. Furthermore, the Japanese 40-item quality of recovery (QoR-40J) score (global and dimensional) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were used to assess the quality of recovery from surgery and anesthesia. Results: Of 288 patients, 20% complained of intolerable pain and 18% experienced postoperative nausea and vomiting. In the prospective study, the visual analog scale pain score was lower in the Fentanyl 30 group than in the Fentanyl 15 group (p<0.05) on postoperative day 1. Dimensional QoR-40J pain subscales correlated with both the emotional state subscales (postoperative day 1, p<0.05; day 2, p<0.05) and global QoR-40 scores on both postoperative days (day 1, p<0.05; day 2, p<0.05). Conclusion: The postoperative pain as well as the physical and emotional quality of recovery in the patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy could be alleviated by sufficient doses of opioids.
In a patient with cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome complicated by intractable infantile spasms (West syndrome), cardiac hypertrophy developed during adrenocorticotropic hormone treatment. Various types of antiepileptic drugs, intravenous immunoglobulin, thyrotropin releasing hormone, and a ketogenic diet were ineffective in this case. However, vigabatrin both decreased clinical seizures and improved electroencephalogram findings. Although vigabatrin has not been approved for use in Japan, the results in the present case suggest that this drug should be considered as an alternative therapy for cases of infantile spasms associated with syndromes involving cardiomyopathy or its potential risk factors, such as cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome.
Cecal volvulus is characterized by torsion of the cecum around its own mesentery. However, cecal volvulus rarely develops soon after elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We report on a case of cecal volvulus that developed in a 54-year-old women 1 day after elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy and was successfully treated via colonoscopic decompression. The symptoms gradually improved in conjunction with recovery from postoperative ileus. Whether the incidence of volvulus has increased with the use of laparoscopic procedures, including laparoscopic cholecystectomy, has yet to be determined. Considering the current trend toward minimally invasive surgery, cecal volvulus should be considered in patients who have postoperative abdominal pain and distention.
Extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (ENK/TCL) is most often in the nose or the nasopharynx but can present elsewhere. We report a rare case of ENK/TCL that presented as swelling of an upper eyelid without ocular involvement. A 76-year-old man visited our hospital with a swollen lesion of the left upper eyelid which had appeared 2 months earlier. A biopsy of the upper eyelid revealed slight perivascular and periadnexal infiltration of mononuclear cells with dermal edema. Treatment with oral prednisolone at a dosage of 20 mg/day decreased the eyelid swelling. However, 5 months later, exacerbation of the swelling and nasal congestion were observed. A second biopsy of the upper eyelid revealed a diffuse dermal infiltrate composed of mononuclear cells with an angiocentic growth pattern. Immunohistochemical studies and in situ hybridization showed natural killer-lineage antigens (CD56, granzyme B, and T-cell intracellular antigen 1) with expression of Epstein-Barr virus. These findings lead to the diagnosis of ENK/TCL. We treated the patient with radiation therapy (50 Gy) and 3 courses of a regimen including dexamethasone, carboplatin, etoposide, and ifosphamide. This case suggests that ENK/TCL can present with swelling of an upper eyelid as the primary sign of the skin lesion. Swelling of an upper eyelid should be considered in the differential diagnosis of ENK/TCL.