Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is a severe adverse drug reaction associated with the separation of skin and mucous membranes at the dermal-epidermal junction. Although it is rare, many treatments have been trialed because of its high mortality rate. Active interventions performed to date include the use of systemic corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIg), cyclosporine, plasmapheresis, anti-tumor necrosis factor drugs and N-acetylcysteine, but none has been established as the most effective therapy. IVIg and short-term high-dose corticosteroids were regarded as the most promising treatments for TEN in a comprehensive review of all reported TEN cases from 1975-2003. When used with an appropriate dose and timing, the beneficial effects of IVIg can be maximized. Although no randomized controlled trials have been conducted, cyclosporine and plasmapheresis are considered to be beneficial. As no gold standard for active intervention for TEN has been established, the choice of treatment relies partly on the available guidelines and the experience of the dermatologist. There is still much to be investigated regarding the pathogenesis of TEN, and new findings may contribute to the identification of an effective active intervention strategy.
Objective: The aim of this study was to test the predictive value of a Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (TI-RADS) for malignant thyroid nodules. Methods: Ultrasonographic data was examined for 910 thyroid nodules with histopathologically confirmed diagnoses. Nodules were placed into incomplete (category 0) or complete final categories (1, 2, 3a, 3b, 3c, 4, or 5) based on the presence and number of ultrasonographic features of malignancy, and the predictive value for the malignancy of nodules in categories 2-4 was assessed. Results: The overall rate of malignancy among thyroid nodules included in the study was 59.34%. The rate of malignancy gradually increased according to TI-RADS categories as follows: category 2, 5.4%; category 3 (a-c), 36% to 92%; and category 4, 99.0%. When nodules of category 2 were counted as benign, the reliability of the TI-RADS classification for determining the risk of malignancy was as follows; sensitivity, 98.15%; specificity, 47.84%; positive predictive value, 73.31%; negative predictive value, 94.65%; and odds ratio, 48.61. Conclusions: The TI-RADS classification used in this study is relatively simple and provides a reliable measure of the risk of malignancy of thyroid nodules.
Introduction: Obesity is associated with numerous health problems, particularly metabolic and cardiovascular complications. This study aimed to assess the effects that, nine months of pharmacological intervention with orlistat or sibutramine, on obese Malaysians' body weight and compositions, metabolic profiles and inflammatory marker. Methods: Seventy-six obese subjects were randomly placed into two groups. The first group received three daily 120 mg dosages of orlistat for nine months (n=39), and the second group received a once daily 10 or 15 mg dosage of sibutramine for nine months (n=37). Baseline measurements for weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), body fat percentage (BF), visceral fat (VF), adiponectin, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting insulin, pancreatic B cell secretory capacity (HOMA%B), insulin sensitivity (HOMA%S), insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were performed and repeated during the sixth and ninth months of treatment. Results: Twenty-four subjects completed the trial in both groups. For both groups, weight, BMI, WC, BF, VF, HOMA-IR and hs-CRP were significantly lower at the end of the nine month intervention. However, there were no significant differences between the two groups for these parameters with nine months treatment. There was a significant decrease in FPG in orlistat group; while fasting insulin and HOMA%B reduced in sibutramine group. For both groups, there were also significant increases in adiponectin levels and HOMA%S at the end of the nine month intervention. Conclusion: Nine months of treatment with orlistat and sibutramine not only reduced weight but also significantly improved BMI, WC, BF, VF, FPG, adiponectin, fasting insulin, HOMA%B, HOMA%S, HOMA-IR and hs-CRP. These improvements could prove useful in the reduction of metabolic and cardiovascular risks in obese subjects.
Cardiac tamponade is an important and potentially lethal complication of acute pericarditis. However, recurrence of cardiac tamponade is rare when it is treated appropriately. We present a 49-year-old man with bacterial pericarditis and recurrent cardiac tamponade, which was caused by the rupture of an upper part of the left atrium (LA). According to the autopsy findings, bacteremia from Staphylococcus aureus developed on a substrate of poorly controlled diabetes mellitus and spread to the pericardium via the blood. Subsequently, tissue necrosis developed from the pulmonary trunk and aorta to the LA, leading to recurrence of cardiac rupture and cardiac tamponade.
Adenomatoid tumors (ATs) are rare, benign neoplasms occurring mainly in reproductive organs such as the uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubes, and testes. Uterine adenomatoid tumors (UATs) are generally incidentally diagnosed during histopathological examination of excisional biopsies performed for other indications, most commonly uterine leiomyomas. We herein present a 38-year-old woman who underwent laparoscopic excision of a uterine leiomyoma and a right ovarian teratoma. Microscopic examination of the excisional biopsy revealed that the enucleated uterine tumor was composed of proliferating glandular tissue covered with single-layered cells that were surrounded by proliferating smooth muscle cells, corresponding exactly to the features of UATs. The excised ovarian cyst was confirmed to be a typical mature cystic teratoma. According to these histopathological findings, the patient was finally diagnosed with a UAT and coexisting teratoma. No recurrence was detected up to 6 months after excision. To the best of our knowledge, this is the eighth case report on laparoscopically enucleated UATs. Although recurrence risk may be low in UATs, further case reports are necessary to elucidate the safety and validity of laparoscopic excision for UATs.
Forefoot fractures are frequently accompanied by severe soft tissue damage. Therefore, treatment should focus not only on fractures but also on soft tissue damage, for which external fixation can be used as a surgical option. A 63-year-old woman presented to the emergency clinic of our hospital with forefoot pain after a motorcycle accident. Comminuted fracture of the proximal part of the metatarsal was diagnosed. Because of the swollen foot and fracture comminution, an operation using the Ilizarov mini external fixator was performed to prevent further damage to the soft tissue. Weight-bearing was permitted seven weeks after the operation, and the extraction of the apparatus was performed nine weeks postoperatively. One year later, the patient had no pain and had returned to ballroom dancing, a hobby which she performed five days a week, with no difficulties. Our results suggest that the Ilizarov mini external fixator should be considered not only for temporary treatment, but also for the entire duration of treatment of first metatarsal fractures associated with severe soft tissue damage.
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