Introduction: Left ventricular (LV) dyssynchrony is common in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and echocardiographic assessment has shown that it can be improved by a single session of hemodialysis (HD). The aim of this study was to assess the effects of chronic HD on LV dyssynchrony in patients ESRD by means of gated technetium-99m sestamibi myocardial perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (GSPECT) with phase analysis. Materials and Methods: Twelve patients with ESRD underwent GSPECT and echocardiography before the start of long-term HD (baseline) and 3 months later. In addition, 7 control subjects matched for age and sex underwent GSPECT and echocardiography within a 2-month period. To evaluate LV dyssynchrony, both histogram bandwidth (HBW) and phase standard deviation (PSD) were determined with phase analysis of GSPECT images. The end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), and ejection fraction were also measured with GSPECT, and the LV mass index (LVMI) was measured with echocardiography. The LV dyssynchrony, volume, function, and mass were compared among control subjects, patients with ESRD at baseline, and patients with ESRD after 3 months of chronic HD. Results: The LV dyssynchrony, volume, and mass at baseline were significantly greater in patients with ESRD than in control subjects (HBW, 65.5°±54.4° vs. 22.3°±7.5°, P<0.05; PSD, 21.0°±15.5° vs. 7.6°±5.5°, P<0.05; EDV, 105.7±29.2 vs. 72.3±13.9 mL, P<0.05; ESV, 44.3±22.1 vs. 20.9±10.3 mL, P<0.05; LVMI, 136.5±48.3 vs. 65.4±5.6 g/m2, P<0.01). From baseline to the third month of chronic HD, there were significant increases in EDV (78.6±25.4 vs. 105.7±29.2 mL, P<0.01) and ESV (27.6±16.2 vs. 44.3±22.1 mL, P<0.01) and significant decreases in HBW (65.5°±54.4° vs. 31.0°±15.7°, P<0.01) and PSD (21.0°±15.5° vs. 10.0°±8.2°, P<0.01). Conclusion: Chronic HD decreased LV dyssynchrony and volume in patients with ESRD. Serial phase analysis of GSPECT images is a useful method of assessing the effects of long-term HD on LV dyssynchrony and volume in patients with ESRD.
Background: Inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been used to treat diabetic nephropathy. However, RAS inhibition increases the risk of renal complications. In this study, we evaluated the effect of combining RAS inhibitor treatment with beraprost sodium (BPS), a prostaglandin I2 analog, in diabetic nephropathy with arteriosclerosis obliterans. Methods: This study was a prospective, randomized, open-label study. Twenty-six Japanese patients (age >30 years) with diabetic nephropathy and arteriosclerosis obliterans were randomly assigned to the BPS group (n=13), which received the combination of an RAS inhibitor and BPS (120 μg/day) therapy, or the control group (n=13), which received only an RAS inhibitor. Patients were followed up for 1 year. The primary endpoint was the effect of BPS on renal function. Results: In the control group, serum creatinine (1.64±0.87 to 2.34±1.53 mg/dL, p<0.001), 1/creatinine (0.82±0.47 to 0.65±0.47, p=0.003) cystatin C (1.77±0.61 to 2.18±0.86 mg/L, p<0.001), and the estimated glomerular filtration rate (43.9±26.1 to 34.0±24.6 mL/min/1.73 m2, p=0.004) were significantly worsened 48 weeks after the start of treatment. Conversely, in the BPS group, serum creatinine (1.71±0.75 to 1.66±0.81 mg/dL, p=0.850), 1/creatinine (0.66±0.19 to 0.71±0.25, p=0.577), cystatin C (1.79±0.55 to 1.80±0.57 mg/L, p=0.999), and the estimated glomerular filtration rate (35.8±10.8 to 38.7±14.4 mL/min/1.73 m2, p=0.613) were unchanged. Conclusions: Combination treatment with BPS and an RAS inhibitor prevented the progression of diabetic nephropathy. These observations should be confirmed in large-scale studies with long-term follow-up.
Background and Purpose: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with a strong genetic basis. Although anxiety is a common major psychiatric condition in ASD, the underlying mechanisms of the anxiety are poorly understood. In individuals with ASD, evidence indicates a structural abnormality in the amygdala, a key component involved in anxiety and social behavior. Microglia, which are central nervous system-resident immune cells implicated in neurodevelopmental processes, are also reportedly altered in ASD. In the present study, we examined the involvement of microglia in the anxiety-related behaviors of ASD model mouse. Methods: Mice that have a 6.3-Mb paternal duplication (patDp/+) corresponding to human chromosome 15q11-q13 were used as an ASD model. Iba1, a microglial activation marker, was examined in the amygdala using immunofluorescence. Effects of perinatal treatment with minocycline, a microglial modulator, on anxiety-related behaviors were examined in neonatal and adolescent patDp/+ mice. Results: In patDp/+ mice, Iba1 was decreased in the basolateral amygdala at postnatal day 7, but not at postnatal days 37-40. Perinatal treatment with minocycline restored the Iba1 expression and reduced anxiety-related behaviors in patDp/+ adolescent mice. Conclusions: Perinatal microglia in the basolateral amygdala may play a pathogenic role in the anxiety observed in a mouse model of ASD with duplication of human chromosome 15q11-q13.
Background: Nausea and vomiting are the most frequent side effects of opioids and may cause the opioids to be discontinued. New methods for preventing opioid-induced nausea can improve cancer pain management. Oxycodone is one of the most frequently used opioid used in Japan because patients receiving oxycodone report less nausea and vomiting than do patients receiving morphine. The reported incidence of oxycodone-induced nausea varies widely, although the true incidence remains unclear. As a first step toward preventing oxycodone-induced nausea, we aimed to determine the incidence of and risk factors for oxycodone-induced nausea and vomiting. Methods: In this observational study, we analyzed a series of consecutive inpatients with cancer who received oxycodone with prochlorperazine as a preventive antiemetic agent. Oxycodone (5 mg) was administered either at 08:00 and 20:00 or at 09:00 and 21:00, and prochlorperazine (5 mg) was also given at the same times for 5 days. Results: Of the 145 enrolled patients, 138 were suitable for analysis. The incidence of nausea was 18.1%, and that of vomiting was 5.8%. The incidence of nausea was higher, but not to a significant degree, in women than in men (P=0.07). Furthermore, the incidence of vomiting in women was equal to that in men (P=0.28), whereas the incidences of both nausea (P=0.99) and vomiting (P=0.89) in elderly patients were equal to those in younger patients. In addition, the incidence of nausea (P=0.52) and vomiting (P=0.91) in patients with digestive system cancer was equal to that of patients with non-digestive system cancer. Conclusions: The incidence of nausea induced by oxycodone with prochlorperazine was 18.1% in opioid-naïve Japanese inpatients. Female sex may be a risk factor for oxycodone-induced nausea. These results suggest that a clinical study would require 314 participants (157 in each group) to decrease the incidence from 18% to 8% (10% decrease) with a new preventive treatment (alpha error=0.05, beta error=0.2).
Femoral fractures due to birth trauma are an extremely rare but important birth injury. While vaginal breech delivery, although rare, can cause femur fracture, abdominal breech delivery is not expected to cause fracture. Here we report on a low birth weight infant who was delivered by cesarean section for breech presentation at 30 1/7 weeks of gestation and sustained a unilateral fracture of the femoral shaft.
Stress fractures of the upper limbs are uncommon, and are most often reported as individual cases or small series. In particularly, stress fractures around the wrist are even less common. A stress fracture of the radial styloid process in a judo player was surgically treated, and a favorable treatment outcome was obtained. A 16-year-old adolescent boy experienced pain in the right wrist, with no apparent trigger, while playing judo. Stress fracture of the radial styloid process was diagnosed with plain radiographs and was treated conservatively with cast immobilization. Although bone union was achieved, the fracture recurred after he resumed paying judo. Thus, surgical treatment was performed. The procedure was resection of the distal bone fragment. He resumed practicing 2 months postoperatively and returned to judo matches after 1 more month. As of 1 year after distal bone fragment resection, he was able to participate in judo without pain, limited range of motion, or instability of the wrist.
We describe the spontaneous rupture of a simple hepatic cyst. A 62-year-old woman was admitted for right upper quadrant pain of sudden onset. The patient denied a history of abdominal trauma. Computed tomography of the abdomen showed a 13-cm-diameter solitary hepatic cyst in the right lobe. Part of the cyst surface was irregular, and the internal echo was heterogeneous. Retained fluid was detected under the liver capsule. Ten days after admission, computed tomography revealed that the volume of fluid retained under the liver capsule had decreased but that the hepatic cyst had enlarged again. The patient was referred to our hospital for further evaluation and treatment. Physical examination revealed mild right upper quadrant pain, but no signs or symptoms of peritonitis or abnormalities of the chest or heart. Percutaneous puncture was performed with a needle and an 8-French pigtail catheter under ultrasonographic guidance. Brown serous fluid was aspirated. After the removal of approximately 1,000 mL of fluid, contrast medium was injected to check for communications between the cyst and the biliary tree and to document the absence of leakage into the peritoneal cavity. After complete aspiration of the cyst fluid, 200 mg of minocycline hydrochloride dissolved in 10 mL of saline was injected into the cyst, and the catheter was flushed with 10 mL of saline (total volume of saline, 20 mL). The catheter was then clamped for 30 minutes. After percutaneous aspiration, the patient's symptoms resolved. Minocycline hydrochloride was injected daily for 7 days, and the catheter was removed. There has been no evidence of recurrence after 2 years.
Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disease caused by antiphospholipid antibodies. At our institution, APS is diagnosed on the basis of the Sapporo criteria, which consist of thrombosis and recurrent pregnancy-related complications and the following laboratory findings: the presence of lupus anticoagulant, anticardiolipin antibody, or anti-β2 glycoprotein 1 antibody. However, we sometimes treat patients we strongly suspect of having APS but who do not satisfy the laboratory criteria. To accommodate such suspected cases, a subtype of APS termed seronegative APS has been proposed. Here, we report on a man with chronic thromobocytopenic purpura since the age of 3 years and multiple cerebral infarctions since the age of 14 years who finally received a diagnosis of seronegative APS with positive antiphosphatidylethanolamine antibodies.