The effect of microwave (MW) pre-treatment on the extraction of flaxseed oil was investigated by hot extraction (HE). Nine MW pre-treatments were established, combining three MW radiation intensities (12, 18 and 24 W/g) and three MW radiation times of pre-treatment (90, 150 and 210 s). Extraction yield increased significantly with MW pre-treatments of flaxseed, and a max oil extraction yield (78.11%) can be obtained using MW pre-treatment at 18 W/g for 210 s. Scanning electronic microscopy showed that the microstructure of treated samples (18 W/g and 210 s) was modified compared with that of untreated samples. The fatty acid compositions (palmitic acid 5.85±0.01%, stearic acid 3.00±0.01%, oleic acid 17.64±0.07%, linoleic acid 16.16±0.06%, and linolenic acid 57.37±1.32%) of the oils extracted by the MW pre-treatments HE were similar with that of the conventional HE method. Results showed that fatty acid compositions of flaxseed oil were not affected by MW pre-treatments.
In this study, strawberry and lemon flavored fish oil organogels (FOO) were prepared with beeswax as the organogelator. The physical, thermal and textural characteristics as well as the consumer preferences of the flavored organogels were determined in comparison with fish oil and FOO containing no flavor. Furthermore, the stability of the organogels was evaluated during 90 day storage at 4°C. The results revealed that, structurally stable fish oil organogels as spreadable products might be formed and that flavoring of the gels enhances consumer preference. Thus, flavoring of fish oil organogels could be a challenge in increasing the consumption of fish oil.
We developed a novel, indirect enzymatic method for the analysis of fatty acid esters of 3-monochloro-1,2-propanediol (3-MCPD), 2-monochloro-1,3-propanediol (2-MCPD), and glycidol (Gly) in edible oils and fats. Using this method, the ester analytes were rapidly cleavaged by Candida rugosa lipase at room temperature for 0.5 h. As a result of the simultaneous hydrolysis and bromination steps, 3-MCPD esters, 2-MCPD esters, and glycidyl esters were converted to free 3-MCPD, 2-MCPD, and 3-monobromo-1,2-propanediol (3-MBPD), respectively. After the addition of internal standards, the mixtures were washed with hexane, derivatized with phenylboronic acid, and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The analytical method was evaluated in preliminary and feasibility studies performed by 13 laboratories. The preliminary study from 4 laboratories showed the reproducibility (RSD R ) of < 10% and recoveries in the range of 102–111% for the spiked 3-MCPD and 2-MCPD in extra virgin olive (EVO) oil, semi-solid palm oil, and solid palm oil. However, the RSDR and recoveries of Gly in the palm oil samples were not satisfactory. The Gly content of refrigerated palm oil samples decreased whereas the samples at room temperature were stable for three months, and this may be due to the depletion of Gly during cold storage. The feasibility studies performed by all 13 laboratories were conducted based on modifications of the shaking conditions for ester cleavage, the conditions of Gly bromination, and the removal of gel formed by residual lipase. Satisfactory RSDR were obtained for EVO oil samples spiked with standard esters (4.4% for 3-MCPD, 11.2% for 2-MCPD, and 6.6% for Gly).
In Kazakhstan Pyrola rotundifolia L. is the plant-relict in the flora of insular pine forests of the region of low hillocks and declivities in Kazakhstan - a group of insular pine forests of Kokshetau, Bayanaul and Karkaralinsk. In this study, the essential oils from dried aerial parts of P. rotundifolia, collected in natural habitats of the State National Natural Park “Burabay” (Akmola oblast, Northern Kazakhstan), were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry. The yield of the essential oil amounted to 0.057 % in relation to the mass of the air-dry raw material. The major components in dried plant oil were 2,6-dimethyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (12.99-93.49%) and dibutyl phthalate (4.42-40.48%), depending on the growth conditions.
The regulated physicochemical quality parameters (free acidity, peroxide value and UV absorption characteristics), sensory parameters (median of fruity, median of defect, panel classification, bitterness and pungency), stability parameters (total phenols and oxidative stability at 100°C) and chemical composition (fatty acids, sterols and triterpenic dialcohols) of virgin olive oils obtained from 12 olive varieties cultivated in 6 of the most representative zones of Castilla-La Mancha (La Alcarria, Campos de Calatrava, Campos de Hellín, Campos de Montiel, Montes de Toledo and Sierra de Alcaraz) were evaluated. The varieties Cornicabra and Picual showed remarkable total polyphenols content and high stability, in contrast with Arbequina. The other less common varieties were in-between these two groups. Cornicabra and Picual showed also high oleic and low linoleic acids content, while Arbequina showed low oleic, high linoleic high palmitic and high palimitoleic acid content. The varieties Benizal and Cornicabra showed very high campesterol content. Benizal stood out by its high stigmasterol, low apparent β-sitosterol and low total sterols content, and the latter was below the established limit for olive oil. Triterpenic dialcohol content was significantly lower for Arbequina than for Cornicabra.
Olive (Olea europaea L.) represents one of the most important and ancient crops in the Mediterranean countries, being widely known due to the optimal organoleptic characteristics of its oil, besides the important health benefits assigned to this product in the last few years. Since olive oil composition, respecting specific trace elements, has a direct impact on the quality and safety of this product, eleven monovarietal and twelve commercial olive oils were analysed spectrometrically concerning their metal composition. Regarding quality parameters, the monovarietal olive oils display larger quantities of Mg, Fe, Mn, while the commercial samples are characterized by greater amounts of Na, Ca, Cu and Zn. In which respects to safety parameters, the commercial samples present higher values for Al and Pb, and lower quantities of Cd, respecting the monovarietal ones. The assessment of the values observed for the trace elements, resorting to multivariate statistical methods, allowed to clearly distinguish the type of olive oil production–monovarietal or commercial blend. For this purpose, besides Cluster analysis, the data have been subjected to Principal Component Analysis–undertaken for either all the evaluated parameters simultaneously, or the quality/safety parameters separately, both data sets allowing the discrimination of the samples.
Fatty acids containing a C18 alkyl chain such as stearic acid (C18:0 fatty acid), oleic acid (C18:1 fatty acid) and linoleic acid (C18:2 fatty acid) are common emulsifiers in skin-care products and cosmetics and are also used in skin cleansers. In this study, we prepared calcium salts (Ca salts) of the above fatty acids to determine the effect of the degree of unsaturation of the alkyl chain. Scanning electron microscopy images and X-ray diffraction patterns show that C18:0 and C18:1 fatty acid Ca salts are plate-shaped, lamellar-crystalline powder, while C18:2 fatty acid Ca salt is amorphous powder. Therefore, C18:2 fatty acid Ca salt exhibits a lower lubrication ability than do C18:0 and C18:1 fatty acid Ca salts. In addition, the bactericidal ability against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Propionibacterium acnes improved with increasing degree of unsaturation. These findings suggest that Ca salts of unsaturated fatty acids have potential applications in cleansing and cosmetic products.
The toxic and repellent activities of the essential oil extracted from the leaves of Atalantia guillauminii Swingle were evaluated against three stored product insects, red flour beetles (Tribolium castaneum), cigarette beetles (Lasioderma serricorne) and booklice (Liposcelis bostrychophila). The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation was investigated by GC-MS. The main constituents of the essential oil were β-thujene (27.18%), elemicin (15.03%), eudesma-3, 7(11)-diene (9.64%), followed by (-)-4-terpeniol (6.70%) and spathulenol (5.25%). The crude oil showed remarkable contact toxicity against T. castaneum, L. serricorne adults and L. bostrychophila with LD50 values of 17.11, 24.07 µg/adult and 55.83 µg/cm2 respectively and it also displayed strong fumigant toxicity against T. castaneum, L. serricorne adults with LC50 values of 17.60 and 12.06 mg/L respectively, while weak fumigant toxicity against L. bostrychophila with a LC50 value of 16.75 mg/L. Moreover, the essential oil also exhibited the same level repellency against the three stored product insects, relative to the positive control, DEET. At the same concentrations, the essential oil was more repellent to T. castaneum than to L. serricorne. Thus, the essential oil of A. guillauminii may be potential to be developed as a new natural fumigant/repellent in the control of stored product insects.
The alcoholic extracts from three submerged perennial plants Potamogeton crispus L., P. pusillus L. and P. pectinatus L. were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry coupled with solid phase microextraction (SPME-GC/MS) and by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and their volatile fingerprint and polyphenols composition was mutually compared. Twenty-nine chemical compounds were detected and identified in ethanolic and methanolic extracts; the highest abundance (over 5%) in descending order, was detected for 9,9-dimethyl-8,10- dioxapentacyclo (5,3,0(2,5) 0(3,5,)0 (3,6) decane (21.65%), phenol 2,6 bis (1,1 dimethyletyl) 4-1-methylpropil (20.8%), pentadecanoic acid (14.3%), 2-(5-chloro-2-Methoxyphenyl) pyrrole (8.66%), propanedioic (malonic) acid 2-(4-methylphenyl) sulfonyl ethylidene (5.77%), 2 hydroxy-3 tert butyl-5-isopropyl-6 methyl phenyl ketone (5.76%). The highest total polyphenols and flavonoids content was found in the methanolic extract of P. crispus (112.5±0.5 mg tannic acid/g dry extract; 64.2±1.2 mg quercitin/g dry extract). Antioxidant activities (2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazil, hydrogen peroxide and reducing power assays) of obtained extracts are comparable with the standard compounds, butylated hydroxytoluene, rutin and ascorbic acid. Antibacterial efficiency of methanolic extracts was notably demonstrated against Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Enterobacter hormaechei) and Gram positive bacteria (Enterococcus casseliflavus). The data reported for the first time for Romanian Potamogeton species, provides extensive support for the chemical investigations of these plants of the aquatic anthropogene ecosystems in order to obtain valuable bioadditives for animal feed and/or pharmaceutical/food industry.
Enterococcus faecalis is one of the major lactic acid bacterium (LAB) species colonizing the intestines of animals and humans. The characteristic odor of the volatile oils obtained from both the liquid medium after incubation (MAI) and liquid medium before incubation (MBI) in the cultivation process of E. faecalis was investigated to determine the utility of the liquid medium. In total, fifty-six and thirty-two compounds were detected in the volatile oils from the MAI (MAI oil) and MBI (MBI oil), respectively. The principle components of MAI oil were 2,5-dimethylpyrazine (19.3%), phenylacetaldehyde (19.3%), and phenylethyl alcohol (9.3%). The aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) method was performed using gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O). The total number of aroma-active compounds identified in the volatile oil from MBI and MAI was thirteen compounds; in particular, 5-methyl-2-furanmethanol, phenylacetaldehyde, and phenylethyl alcohol were the most primary aroma-active compounds in MAI oil. These results imply that the industrial cultivation medium after incubation of E. faecalis may be utilized as a source of volatile oils.
The accumulation (incorporation) of paprika carotenoid in human plasma and erythrocytes was investigated. A paprika carotenoid supplement (14 mg/day) was ingested for 4 weeks by 5 young healthy volunteers (3 men and 2 women). After 2 weeks of carotenoid ingestion, the carotenoid levels in plasma and erythrocytes increased by 1.2-fold and 2.2-fold, respectively. Characteristic carotenoids found in paprika (capsanthin, cucurbitaxanthin A, and cryptocapsin) were detected in both plasma and erythrocytes. An oxidative metabolite of capsanthin (capsanthone) was also found in both plasma and erythrocytes.