The aim of this research was to clarify the area of expertise of OT by examining their consultations with teachers in special needs education schools. Whole school research data using ICF-CY revealed a response rate of 59.0%. Physical therapists had many consultations related to bodily function and structure, mainly in relation to basic actions such as walking. Speech-language-hearing therapists often consulted on activities and participation areas, and their main consultations were related to communication and feeding-eating. The main consultations of psychotherapists were social relationships, thinking and intellectual functions. While occupational therapists had the most number of consultations on activities and participation areas, they also consulted in other areas, namely functional mobility, bodily functions, and activities related to sensory perception, adaptation to assistive devices, and manipulation of objects on a desk.
We examined changes in how to identify disabilities by families of patients with higher brain dysfunction and investigated ways of supporting family members. A modified grounded-theory approach after unstructured interviews with 15 family members was used. As a result, seven categories and 18 concepts were extracted. Families begin to face their own emotions and thoughts while showing “anxiety resulting from comparison with pre-illness” and “puzzled responses to higher brain dysfunction”. “Family insight and awareness of the subject's higher brain dysfunction” advanced leading to a feeling and action on the prospects for life after discharge, so the families themselves can create strategies to live after discharge.
This study aimed to show the advantages of the Life History Chart (LC) for the staff and patients at Sanatorium Ward Hospital and Geriatric Health Services Facility. The staff were administered a questionnaire to determine the degree to which they understood geriatric patients and the advantages of the LC. Free description responses for each question were grouped into subcategories. The results showed no significant change in the degree in which they understood geriatric patients compared with before introduction to the LC. However, analysis of free description text found subcategories such as “change of awareness in the caregiver” and “simple and easy grasping of life history” to be important to the caregiver. Subcategories such as “utilization in practical care” were found to be important for patients. As the study indicated merits of the LC, it is necessary to instruct the staff how to implement LC.
This article examined how knowledge of the Model of Human Occupation (MOHO) has been cited in the Japanese articles on occupational therapy. Investigation of 143 original articles in the first and second editions of MOHO found that information about ‘MOHO concepts' and ‘systems concepts' were quoted more frequently. In the MOHO second edition, the information about ‘assessment methods' and ‘reasoning process' was quoted in the articles. In the MOHO third edition, it was also found that information on ‘MOHO concepts' and ‘assessment methods' was quoted more frequently, while information on ‘development of occupational behavior', ‘process of occupational participation', ‘occupational narrative', and ‘intervention process' were quoted in the articles. However, in the MOHO fourth edition, it was found that information on ‘MOHO concepts' was quoted the most frequently in the articles, while a variety of information (i.e., ‘MOHO-based program development') was quoted generally and widely. These results indicate that MOHO knowledge was used widely by occupational therapists for completing assessments, reasoning, providing occupational therapy intervention, and MOHO-based program development. It was also found that the use of MOHO in occupational therapy had been established in Japan for a quarter century.
This research aimed to predict whether or not stroke survivors discharged from a recovery rehabilitation ward resume domestic chores. Using the Self-Rating Frenchay Activities Index, we investigated whether or not stroke survivors after being discharged resumed the following six chores:Preparing meals, washing up, washing clothes, light housework, heavy housework, and local shopping. After that, we examined the relationship between the subjects' abilities to resume domestic chores at discharge and their social environment. 128 stroke survivors participated in the study. As a result of logistic regression analysis, several predictive factors such as sex, household composition, and maximum walking speed for 10 m were selected. We suggest it is important to focus on these factors when supporting stroke survivors in recovery rehabilitation wards to help them resume domestic chores after discharge.
Purpose:To determine skill improvement in after-school childcare workers following occupational therapist (OT) consultation. Method:Semi-structured interviews were carried out for six participants (3 males, 3 females;mean age 37.8 ± 9.9) before and after OT consultation. These interviews were analyzed using a modified grounded theory approach. Results:Before OT consultation, interview data reflected the extent of childcare approach of study participants. After OT consultation, interview data determined new concepts and categories provided to childcare workers by the consulting OT. The OT consultation provided new skills and utilization of general knowledge. Additionally, childcare workers improved collaboration among themselves and support for all children. Conclusion:This study showed that OT consultation of childcare workers leads to skill improvement through an interaction of the effect on each participant and the club as a whole.
This study aimed to conduct item analysis based on item response theory as well as to examine the structural validity of the Occupational Therapist's Professional Identity Measure for Self-Assessment (PI measure). Participants were Registered Occupational Therapists in their first to third year of employment and who worked with the elderly and individuals with physical disabilities. The PI measure was revised by Nakamoto et al., with additions and corrections by the authors. Results revealed that the PI measure had a high measurement accuracy for respondents with average professional identities. The PI measure conformed to the higher-structure model. It fit with the second-order factor model of 29 items that were categorized into four factors;it is possible to use the PI measure for Registered Occupational Therapists who work with people with physical disabilities and the elderly.
The purpose of this study was to verify the effect of tailor-made occupational therapy intervention by Management Tool for Daily Life Performance (MTDLP) for persons with schizophrenia. The authors used the design of a non-randomized controlled trial, and performed an individual program using MTDLP for the Intervention Group, in addition to the conventional collective program. The collective program was performed for the Control Group. In the before and after study, the results of the Intervention Group were significantly improved in the degree of performance and satisfaction of occupational performance as shown in the scores of the composite score and “Productivity” of SOPI, RAS, “Work” and “Self-recognition” of LASMI. The results of the Control Group were significantly improved in the score of “Productivity” of SOPI. In the intergroup comparison study, the score of the Intervention Group was significantly higher in the scores of “Daily living”, “Work”, and “Self-recognition” of LASMI. This study has revealed that MTDLP is useful for the intervention in psychiatric occupational therapy.
Purpose:This study aims to clarify working awareness of people with work experience. Methods:A semi-structured interview was conducted on 12 people with schizophrenia with memory and experience working, followed by a qualitative descriptive analysis. Results and Conclusions:Participants experienced various anxieties about their employment and required some assistance. In addition, the following categories of were obtained from those with working experience:[Positive emotions due to work experience], [Negative emotions due to work experience], and [Awareness from work experience]. Work experience may have the following positive effects on working:the improvement of self-efficacy and working abilities, empowerment in problem-solving, and prevention of mismatches by an appropriate objective evaluation of the workers' strengths.
Intensive intervention based on Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) was performed in a 2-year and 4-month-old child with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). An occupational therapist (OT) was in charge of the consultations and cooperated not only with the mothers, but also with the speech therapist and OT working in welfare institutions for disabled persons. Intervention using discrete trial teaching and pivotal response treatment was performed over >30 min/day for <10 hours/week. After two months, the subject acquired several dozen communication skills. Our report suggests that intensive ABA interventions are effective in children with ASD. Additionally, behavioral consultation facilitates cooperation not only within families, but also with local institutions involved with the rehabilitation of disabled children and may contribute to effective intensive ABA interventions.
This report describes occupational therapy for adult case of Asperger syndrome who was admitted to the Medical Treatment and Supervision Act ward due to a malicious act of arson. Occupational therapy included suggesting a substitute for malicious acts, clarifying the introduction of the token economy system, and introducing coping behaviors that should be adopted in instances of an increase in the impulse to commit malicious acts. As a result, it was possible to reduce malicious acts, which lead to a provisional regional transition. This intervention suggests the usefulness of occupational therapy in deterring problematic behavior for adult cases of Asperger syndrome suffering from repeated problematic behavior.
OT outpatient treatment for arm dysfunction caused by learned non-use of the affected arm of a stroke patient included the transfer package as one of the main concepts of Constraint-induced movement therapy (CI therapy). Through low frequency intervention over a short time (20 minutes per week), the upper-extremity function of the patient improved more than the minimal clinically important difference 4 months after onset of intervention. Additionally, the patient was able to achieve many pre-intervention goals. Several researchers have indicated that CI therapy has problems related to manpower and insurance costs. However, this case study showed that patients in good condition might improve their affected arm function and use in the real world in a short time through low frequency intervention.
Focal dystonia in musicians is a sometimes career-ending involuntary movement that appears during performance. Previous studies on the pathophysiology of focal dystonia has showed that focal dystonic symptoms are mainly caused by abnormal sensory input due to abnormal muscle tension and a shortening of soft tissues, caused by decreased activity of the cerebral cortex suppressive system. In this report, we regularly interviewed one focal dystonia patient during outpatient treatment intervention for abnormal soft tissues and self-maintenance practice for 6 months. The intervention resulted in an improvement of focal distressed symptoms, a reduction in abnormal muscle tone, and an improvement in the subject’s musical performance.