The purpose of the study was to examine the performed IADL level at hospital pre-admission and after discharge of 104 patients at recovery phase rehabilitation wards and compare it with their predicted level of IADL one month after discharge. The frequency of IADL was measured by FAI. Results showed that the frequencies of their IADL performance after discharge were significantly lower in comparison with their IADL before admission. Although the patients expected that the “House Chore IADL” would be the only activity they could perform well, that was not the case, nor could they perform any other IADL. It is imperative to habituate all aspects of the IADL at the recovery phase rehabilitation wards and provide continuous support to raise their IADL performance after discharge, even though the patients may seem be sufficiently independent in terms of ADL.
The present study aims to examine the impact of on-campus clinical clerkships (CCS) on occupational therapy students using a mixed methods reseach. Significant quantitative improvements were observed in the ability of students to “learn from clinical educators” after CCS. No significant differences were observed in the students’ feelings of anxiety and self-esteem between, before, and after the CCS. Qualitatively, CCS encouraged students to have a positive outlook on their clinical placement and futures as a result of the first experience of the triadic relationship with clients and clinical educators. On the other hand, students also experienced intensified anxiety as a result of multifaceted self-awareness. The results suggest the need to consider future involvement of clinical educators who have a strong influence on students, and to propose possible approaches to better prepare students for clinical placement with a focus on their resilience.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between subjective well-being (Satisfaction with Life Scale:SWLS), activity participation status (Self-completed Occupational Performance Index:SOPI), and basic attributes (age, sex, chronic illness, marital status, and living together) in 298 community-dwelling older adults. As a result, SOPI (β=0.415) and age (β=0.187) were related to SWLS (p<0.05). Furthermore, as a result of investigating the relationship between SWLS and SOPI by age group, connections were found (p<0.05) in the young-old group (R=0.477) and the old-old group (R=0.426), but not in the oldest-old group (p>0.05). These results suggest that activity participation status may contribute to subjective well-being, expanding the epidemiological evidence of occupational therapy. However, in the oldest-old group, the problem of investigating the activity participation status of contributing to subjective well-being became shown.
We conducted a survey to clarify the factors that long-term care-support specialists (i.e. care managers) and home-visit rehabilitation professionals (physical, occupational, and speech language-hearing therapists) consider important in reducing home-visit rehabilitation service. The exploratory factor analysis derived five factors:“Caring ability and interaction with others”, “Independence in ADL”, “Individual QOL”, “Independent mobility, maintaining and improving physical function”, and “Implementation of IADL”. Furthermore, comparison of the factors revealed that care managers tend to focus on the “Independence in ADL” factor and home-visit rehabilitation professionals tend to focus on the “Individual QOL” factor. As a result, care managers and home visit rehabilitation professionals may have different opinions when reducing the frequency of home-visit rehabilitation services.
The purpose of this study was to statistically examine the effects of occupational participation, environmental factors and amount of exercise on the health related quality of life (QOL) of community-dwelling elderly. A cross-sectional survey of 105 community-dwelling elderly individuals participating in community activities and others was carried out. Our data were analyzed using structural equation modeling to estimate hypothetical models in accordance with previous studies. As a result, the appropriateness of the final model met the criteria. The standardized coefficients were 0.574 for occupational participation from environmental factors, 0.574 for health related QOL from occupational participation, and 0.312 for health related QOL from amount of exercise, all of which were significant. Therefore, it is clear that the promotion of occupational participation, which is causally related to environmental factors, has a stronger effect on health related QOL of elderly people living in the community than the focus on amount of exercise alone.
The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between HRQOL and the challenges of daily living which recognized the older adults in a temporary housing after the disaster, and to clarify the characteristics of the challenges. We used Occupational Self Assessment, ver.2 to evaluate the challenges of daily living. As a result, there was a correlation between the challenges of daily living and HRQOL. And the challenges of daily living differed by gender, the challenges related to leisure were recognized in men, and the challenges related to the effective use of one’s abilities were recognized in women. The results of present study clearly showed that the challenges of daily living of elderly in a temporary housing should be supported from the viewpoint of occupational therapy.
Due to face-to-face occupational therapy intervention being interrupted resulting from COVID-19, we started the Cognitive Orientation to daily Occupational Performance (CO-OP) based on tele-occupational therapy for children with difficulty reading and handwriting. This intervention lead to positive reactions from children and parents. This clinical report supports occupational therapy interventions in non-face-to-face situations.
This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of occupational therapy for mutism and social withdrawal. A woman with untreated selective mutism, who was socially withdrawn for about 20 years, was treated with occupational therapy for ten months mainly at her home. The Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale Japanese version (LSAS-J) was conducted during the intervention period. Results showed signs of social anxiety. First, the occupational therapist interacted with her non-verbally while creating handicrafts together without forcing her to speak, and then asked graded questions (i.e.;non-verbal communication, close- and open-ended questions) to promote communication. Additionally, the occupational therapist took her shopping to purchase materials for her craftwork, which she sold at bazaars which created opportunities for social interaction. Consequently, she could spontaneously speak and go out. Occupational therapy using activity as a treatment as well as gradual exposure to speaking were useful for reducing anxiety. In addition, communication through client’s craftwork contributed to increase contact with society without direct contact with others. This suggests occupational therapy was useful for alleviating mutism and social withdrawal.
Registered Occupational Therapists (OTR) specializing in terminal cancer patients are not confident in their interventions because of their unclear role. The purpose of this study was to clarify the role of OTR and to examine the content validity of a Self Rating scale of occupational therapy for terminal cancer patients. We extracted items from literature searches and expert meetings and conducted a survey. The questionnaire examined the ceiling and floor effects, mode, frequency distribution, non-applicable number, and the opinions of the subjects. As a result, the floor effect was recognized in the grief care item. Items related to reinstatement and sexuality were not applicable. There were indications that OTR would not discuss death with patients who were unaware of their prognosis. Although 77 items were adopted and the content validity of this scale was secured, it is necessary to further examine the content validity of the item correlation coefficient and Cronbach’s α coefficient.
Our group attended to an elderly patient with dementia who had difficulty getting out of bed due to heart failure related fatigue. We assessed meaningful occupations of the client through APCD (the Assessment by the Picture Cards for the Elderly with Dementia), and subsequent meaningful occupation-based short-term interventions resulted in the client being able to get out of bed. Furthermore, the bedtime was shorted, and the client was discharged. During cardiac rehabilitation for the elderly with dementia in the acute phase, meaningful occupation-based intervention under adequate risk management may be an effective treatment to promote early ambulation, prevent deconditioning, elevate cognitive function, and improve the ability to perform activities of daily life in the short term.
There are no guidelines for rehabilitation of pediatric stroke patients because due to the rarity of the disease. Constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) is known to promote improvement of affected upper extremity motor function in pediatric stroke patients. In our intervention, CIMT was modified to be child-friendly. This case report describes the two courses of modified CIMT for a pediatric stroke patient. After the first CIMT, the patient exhibited improvement in scores on several upper extremity function tests. However, the improvement was of limited practical use in real-world settings. Therefore, a second CIMT was provided, resulting in improved upper extremity function and practice until the 1-year mark after the second CIMT.
Purpose:In Constraint-induced movement therapy (CI therapy), we modified the methodology of transfer package to be able to increase the real-world use of the affected arm by collaboration between therapists and nurses in a hospital ward. Method:We modified the transfer package as follows:1) The therapist photographed the exercises of the target activity of transfer package;2) The therapist conveyed the precise exercise context to the nurses using the photographs;and 3) In real activities of daily living, nurses instructed the precise movements of the target activity of transfer package to the patients, referring to the photographs taken during exercise time. The participants in this study were 4 patients in a convalescent rehabilitation ward. Results:Four patients exhibited an improvement of Quality of Movement scores (QOM) in Motor Activity Log (MAL). Conclusion:The QOM scores in MAL of 2 patients in participants improved more than minimal clinically important difference defined by previous studies. Therefore, these results indicate that modified transfer package might influence the behavior of the affected arm in the real world for subacute stroke patients.
This study attempted to verify how using the tilted desk influenced the elapse of time and accuracy in depiction tasks requiring eye-hand coordination in a child with a hypo tonus developmental disorder. The evaluation score of eye-hand coordination in the Frostig visual development test using the tilted desk was improved in the developmental disorder group. In the group without inclination, there was no difference in depiction time between the two groups. Accuracy was significantly lower in the developmental disorder group. When using the tilted desk at a 20-degree angle, no significant difference was found in the depiction time, and there was an improvement in accuracy in both groups. As a result, the difficulty in the accuracy of the description may be reduced by the use of the tilted desk in children with hypo tonus developmental disorders.
The purpose of this report is to introduce the “CBR project” which is a multi-professional coordination/regional problem solving class and to examine the change of students who participated in a preliminary class. We compared the task values, occupational identities, self-efficacy, and team processes of 22 occupational therapy and physiotherapy students who participated in the CBR project before and after the project. The results showed significant differences in the total task value and sub-factors, such as the acquired interest and private acquired values, the occupational identity sub-factor’s pride in being needed, the total team process scale score, and the sub-factors’ analysis of mutual assistance, mutual coordination, and activity. The study suggests the effectiveness of off-campus training incorporating the CBR concept in occupational therapy education.