In Sep. 6th, 2019 the 37 symposium of Japan Association for Urban Sociology at Toyo University was held. There were two reports in the symposium: (1) about long-term reconstruction process of the Great Hanhin-Awaji Earthquake happened in 1995, (2) about reconstruction/disaster prevention issues in urban disaster in the age of depopulation and aging. The aim of this paper is to explain about previous researches and theoretical concerns on these two reports. One of the key perspectives is considering urban disaster issues from the point of long-term reconstruction process. Another is considering today's reconstruction/disaster prevention issues in relation to macro-level social change. In result it emphasizes the importance of legacy of the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake studies and setting hypotheses of the macro models for future research about social process of urban disaster.
To begin with, in this paper, I raise an issue whether urban community based on ‘new civil society' has emerged in damaged area in the reconstruction phase after the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake. In this type of community, various organized actors, like neighborhood and voluntary associations, nonprofit organizations and others, tend to collaborate to solve common social problems. I researched and compared two cases of community reconstruction process in Kobe City. Main findings are as follows. Although different types of collaborative projects were attempted or carried out in reconstruction phase in two communities, both ended at about 10 years after Quake because of conflicting among actors. We may interpret it as a sort of conflict on the community orientation, between ‘local-cosmopolitanism' and ‘localcommunitarianism'. But we also point out that such collaborative projects have increased all over Japan after Quake. We find out, in this research of reconstruction process, some facilitating or interrupting conditions for emerging urban community based on ‘new civil society'.
The purpose of this paper is to present future challenges to Community Disaster Management Plan in Tokyo on the lessons about disaster management and reconstruction measures from the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and the 1995 Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake. I focus on 2 dilemma between hardware and software of disaster management measures, also between importance of mutual assistance and difficulty in securing activists in some changes of household attributes. It pointed out the unresolved issues in old wooden houses densely populated area in Tokyo, and it clarified future challenges to Community Disaster Management Plan in order to mitigate human and physical damages from next great earthquake in Tokyo.
Gentrification as an analytical tool to explain the transformation of inner-city zones in terms of class, consumption and the built environment has gone global. Behind the growing attention to the gentrification processes beyond the West is the series of urban renewal in global South cities that transforms the landscape full of informal housing and economic activities into modern one that is conducive to capital accumulation. What characterises the gentrification of global South cities is, thus, the simultaneous process of eviction and displacement of the poor that is legitimised by the postcolonial and neoliberal aspirations of urban development in the making. This renewed interpretation of gentrification theory rooted in the post-industrial West has given rise to debates on planetary gentrification imbued amply with the Indian experience. Drawing on preliminary fieldwork in Ahmedabad, one of India's growth poles, this article examines the politico-economic and aesthetic logic behind the city's top-down gentrification since the early 2000s as well as its social consequences upon the displaced. The findings are as follows: firstly, whilst displacing slums and street vendors en masse, the lakefront and riverfront development schemes kept tiny segments of the informal sector in their renovated sites as cultural memories so as to attract tourists' gaze. Secondly, these schemes not just evicted the slum dwellers in coercive manners but also deprived the evictees of livelihoods that are mostly available in their original settlements. Thirdly, the resettlement of the displaced from different slums with various cultural backgrounds into the same public housing complexes resulted in anomie. Where there was no social cohesion amongst the residents, violence by thugs became so rampant that little or no collective grievance for the lack of public service was made. These findings suggest that gentrification theory needs to focus on displacement and its impact on the rebuilding of local communities should it explore the urban processes that are at work in the global South.
This paper reviews the effect of urban development from the case study on street people in Manila, Philippines. Over recent years, economic globalization has given rise to capital investment in urban space throughout the world cities attended by restructuring of the street jobs. In previous studies, street vending is often studied within the framework of the informal sector. At the same time, the limitations of traditional informal/formal dichotomy had been discussed in several arena of urban studies. This paper will review the critical discussion of previous theory on informalities in order to study the context of stratification of vendors in Manila by citing Ananya Roy's urban informality theory. Roy critically stated that informality is produced by the state and pointed out the borderlessness of informality and formality. This paper shares Roy's idea of urban informality and examine the stratification of street vendors through labor analysis. It will explain the detailed restrictions of vending style and show how the selected vendors are becoming informal. As a result, it points out the importance of focusing labor analysis together with spatial analysis in urban studies. All data and information for this paper were gathered between September 2013 and September 2019.
This paper analyzes the current state of expansion of metropolitan areas in Southeast Asia, focusing on the movement of factory workers in the suburbs of Jakarta, Indonesia. The theory that has been driving the understanding of urbanization in developing countries since each country's independence after World War II is overurbanization. In addition, the “informal sector” of developing cities, which comprises a variety of miscellaneous urban businesses that are not reflected in official statistics, was the main target of our previous survey. However, in this paper, we focus on factory workers in suburban industrial estates to describe the current expansion of the metropolitan area. We administered a questionnaire survey to 636 resident inhabitants in A village, Bekasi, West Java. Results show that 88.8％ of the participants were newcomers. More than 80% of the participants came from Java, although the source of movement was not limited to the neighboring areas but spread throughout Java. An increase of contract employees since 2005 can be seen. A certain educational background is required for contract employment, not just permanent employment. Before being hired by an industrial estate, one must have knowledge and skills obtained at the high school level or above. Neighboring areas alone cannot provide enough of this type of labor. The conventional theory of excessive urbanization has focused on a surplus labor force that cannot be employed in the city. However, in the current Indonesian metropolitan area, many industrial estates have been created to meet foreign and domestic demand, and employment opportunities are continuously being created. Such a large number of contract employment positions also contributes to the movement of workers. The result of this study, using a quantitative case study, point out the necessity of focusing
This paper is designed to empirically investigate interchange between elderly women and their separated adult children. To gather empirical evidence, a sample survey of elderly women was conducted in a local government area of Melbourne in 2005-06. The analysis revealed the following three points; ①The closer to his or her mother a child lived, the more frequently the mother could obtain instrumental and emotional support from her child and socialised with her child. ②Elderly woman used their sons or daughters differently for gaining social support and association, depending on the characteristics of social support and association. ③Whether elderly women come from Australia or not, the years of elderly womenʼs residence at the present address, the presence or absence of elderly womenʼs husband and children living together, elderly womenʼs divorce or separation, the number of elderly womenʼs children and whether elderly women drive a car or not affected the availability of social support from their children and association between elderly women and their children as well.
In this study, “linear developmentalism” refers to the political-economic system and ideology aimed at economic growth, triggered by the linear shinkansen. Governmental market intervention in linear developmentalism differs from that of Keynesian developmentalism. Neoliberal state interventions assume that a “strong state” deregulates and liberalizes markets and privatizes public space in order to create an effective market economy. The current study aimed to explore the ways in which the community in the western area of Nagoya Station both resist and accept linear development. Renovation businesses in the area's shopping street are conceptualized as “entrepreneurial movements” that counters linear development by using neoliberal national interventions of deregulation, liberalization and privatization. This movement is positioned as “grassroots neoliberalism”.
This paper focuses upon the research of Siu, who conducted a survey of the Chinese community in the United States. By this research he was able to construct the sociological concept “sojourner”. Although this was in the 1950s, if we are to consider the contemporary significance of this concept, we shall have to “revisit” Siu's extensive fieldwork on the life of hand-operated laundry amongst Chinese living overseas. In this way we will also see the relevance to discussion of immigration patterns, ethnic business developments, and more broadly to wider ethnic community. The Chinese laundry business began in the 19th century, and the study on these industries did not make a major contribution to the historical studies of Chinatown nor other investigations of Chinese economic activities in the United States. However, the significance of such a connection was eventually unearthed by New York Chinatown History Project and Siu's dissertation was published in 1987, though he started the research in the 1930s. This research was an extensive study that inherited the tradition of the Chicago School of fieldwork, but has never been taken up as a Chicago School monograph. Perhaps the perception of sojourners who have no intention of permanent residence has not been the main focus of assimilation and integration theories to the host society. The characteristics of the sojourner that Siu emphasized was the persistent bond with the country of origin, an uncertainty about permanent residence, and no intention to assimilate to the host society. Contemporary research concerned with the impact of transnational migration in modern metropolises has begun to reckon with the kind of urban ethnicity that has characterized “sojourners”. And, in some ways, the concept itself is now more relevant and influential in this globalized era, than it was when Siu published his findings.