NovoTwistTM (Novo Nordisk A/S: NTw), which has already been released overseas, is an injection needle that can attach to or remove from an injection needle attaching screw of a pen-type injector by pushing in a vertical direction and rotating slightly. Even if it is easy-to-attach/remove NTw, however, it is needed to establish a means to confirm its secure attachment and release and to explain it at the time of manipulation instruction. Therefore, we measured the rotary torque and sound signals generated at the time of attaching NTw to and removing it from a pen-type injector to examine the utility of the torque and sound as a signal enabling to confirm its “secure attachment and release” even by aged patients or patients with impaired hands and fingers or vision in this study. The rotary torque and sound signals were generated by attaching NTw to and by removing it from a FlexPen (Novo Nordisk Pharma). As the results, the rotary torque at the time of attaching and removing was 4.20±0.03N (mean±SD) and 3.33±0.06N, respectively. For the sound signals at the time of attaching, it was shown that there were two frequency components strongly distributing around 5–9kHz and around 12–17kHz. For the sound signals at the time of removing, it was also shown that there were two frequency components strongly distributing around 4–11kHz and around 18–23kHz. In conclusion, the rotary torque at the time of attaching NTw to a pen-type injector was slightly strong, and the sound signals were very sharp sound. This was a signal that can be felt that the needle properly fit. On the other hand, the rotary torque and sound signals at the time of removing was less strong and sharp than those at the time of attaching; however, it was an easy-to-recognize signal to know the needle was released. Therefore, we considered that it is effective for safe use to add an instruction, “to be aware of click feeling of fingers and a sound” for patients who use NTw at the time of explanation of “how to properly attach and release it”.
Recently, we reported the antidiabetic activity of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), such as α-linolenic acid (αLA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), by using mouse colon segments. In that study, however, it was difficult to further enhance the therapeutic potential of n-3 PUFAs because of their poor solubility in aqueous media. The present study, therefore, was designed to establish a method to increase the dose of n-3 PUFA, particularly αLA; the lipidic drug delivery carrier, liposome was used. The prepared liposomes contained high content of αLA and were characterized as uniformly sized particles (approximately 100nm) with relative stability for more than 11 weeks. An animal study showed that intracolonic administration of αLA-loaded liposome reduced the blood glucose levels of mice with hyperglycemia. In addition, quantitative analysis of the plasma concentrations of insulin and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) suggested enhanced secretion of insulin and GLP-1 via stimulation of colonic fatty acid receptor by αLA-loaded liposome-mediated hypoglycemic action. Thus, we found that liposomes can be a feasible carrier for increasing the dose of n-3 PUFA, and n-3 PUFA-loaded liposomes may become a new class of effective antidiabetic candidates without hypoglycemic risks.