Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
Online ISSN : 1347-8648
Print ISSN : 1347-8613
ISSN-L : 1347-8613
Volume 93 , Issue 1
Showing 1-19 articles out of 19 articles from the selected issue
Critical Review
  • Akinori Ueno, Sachiko Oh-ishi
    Subject area: Infomation Science
    2003 Volume 93 Issue 1 Pages 1-20
    Published: 2003
    Released: September 22, 2003
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Roles for the kallikrein-kinin system in inflammation have been investigated extensively, and many reviews on this topic have been published during the 50 years since the discovery of bradykinin in 1949. Recent progress in the field has been remarkable with the help of experiments using gene-targetted transgenic or knockout mice, which have added further valuable information in addition to previous results obtained from pharmacological and biochemical studies using purified and isolated components of the system. Furthermore, much knowledge has been accumulated as a result of the development of various bradykinin agonists and antagonists. In this review, we focused on the data obtained from the kininogen-deficient rat, which is a natural mutant, and discuss the results in comparison with those from bradykinin receptor knockout mice. These data have clarified that endogenous bradykinin exerts a most important role in inflammatory exudation along with prostanoids, preferentially to histamine, serotonin, or neuropeptides. In inflammatory pain perception also, bradykinin produced in the local perivascular spaces stimulates polymodal pain receptors in conjunction with co-helpers such as prostanoids, vanilloids, and neuropeptides. These important roles are concluded based on consistent results obtained from experiments using several antagonists of bradykinin, kininogen-deficient rats, and bradykinin receptor knockout mice.
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Forum Minireview
  • Yasuharu Sasaki, Hideyuki Yamamoto
    Subject area: Infomation Science
    2003 Volume 93 Issue 1 Pages 21
    Published: 2003
    Released: September 22, 2003
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Yoko Yamagata
    Subject area: Infomation Science
    2003 Volume 93 Issue 1 Pages 22-29
    Published: 2003
    Released: September 22, 2003
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Synapsin I is a synaptic vesicle-associated protein that is phosphorylated at multiple sites by various protein kinases. It has been proposed to play an important role in the regulation of neurotransmitter release and the organization of cytoskeletal architecture in the presynaptic terminal. In the present minireview, I describe the dynamic changes in synapsin I phosphorylation induced by acute neuronal excitation in vivo, and discuss its regulation by protein kinases and phosphatases and its functional significance in vivo. When acute neuronal excitation was induced by electroconvulsive treatment (ECT) in rats, phosphorylation of synapsin I at multiple sites was decreased during brief seizure activity in hippocampal and parieto-cortical homogenates. After termination of the seizure activity, phosphorylation at mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent sites was increased dramatically. Phosphorylation at a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II-dependent site was also increased moderately afterwards. The dynamic and differential changes in synapsin I phosphorylation induced by acute neuronal excitation may be involved in plastic changes induced by ECT and may have some role in its effectiveness for the treatment of psychiatric diseases in humans.
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  • Hideyuki Yamamoto, Kazuya Matsumoto, Eiichi Araki, Eishichi Miyamoto
    Subject area: Infomation Science
    2003 Volume 93 Issue 1 Pages 30-34
    Published: 2003
    Released: September 22, 2003
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The exocytosis of insulin from pancreatic β-cells is closely related to intracellular elevation of Ca2+. The effects of Ca2+ may be mediated by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). Four subunits of CaMKII, termed α, β, γ, and δ, are encoded by distinct genes, and various isoforms of these subunits exist as different splicing variants. In the brain, phosphorylation of synapsin I by the α isoform induces neurotransmitter release. In order to clarify whether phosphorylation of synapsin I by CaMKII was involved in insulin exocytosis, we cloned the isoforms of CaMKII and synapsin I from mouse insulinoma MIN6 cells. We found that β'e and δ2 are the major isoforms of CaMKII and that synapsin Ib is a major isoform of synapsin I in MIN6 cells. It was interesting that δ2 and synapsin Ib were co-localized with insulin secretory granules in the cells. Treatment of MIN6 cells with glucose and tolbutamide rapidly activated CaMKII. Immunoblot analysis with two antibodies against synapsin I phosphorylated by CaMKII demonstrated the increase in phosphorylation of synapsin I by the secretagogues. Furthermore, the secretagogue-induced phosphorylation of synapsin I and insulin secretion were potentiated by transient overexpression of the β'e or δ2 isoform. These results suggest that activation of CaMKII and the concomitant phosphorylation of synapsin I induce insulin exocytosis from pancreatic β-cells.
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  • Yasuharu Sasaki
    Subject area: Infomation Science
    2003 Volume 93 Issue 1 Pages 35-40
    Published: 2003
    Released: September 22, 2003
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Myristoylated alanine-rich C-kinase substrate (MARCKS) is an actin-binding protein whose function may be regulated by the phosphorylation of multiple sites, in which the phosphorylation site domain (PSD) is recognized to have three or four PKC-dependent sites. Recently, it is considered that MARCKS is implicated in some neuronal functions, such as synaptic vesicle trafficking and neurotransmitter release, through regulation of the actin-containing cytoskeletal structure; this is based on the experimental results with short-term or prolonged pretreatment with phorbol esters and treatment by protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor. However, the precise molecular mechanism is yet obscure. Recently, we have demonstrated that MARCKS is phosphorylated at Ser159 in PSD by Rho-kinase in vitro and that the phosphorylation occurred in neuronal cells upon stimulation with lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), and its phosphorylation was inhibited by a novel and specific Rho-kinase inhibitor, H-1152. Our results allow us to speculate that a preinflammatory substance, such as LPA, interleukin 1-β, and bradykinin, augments MARCKS phosphorylation in a novel signal transduction pathway besides the PKC-involved one, and thereby induces the release of a neurotransmitter through a reorganization of actin-containing microfilaments at the cell periphery, the so-called “active zone”. In this section, I address a novel mechanism for MARCKS phosphorylation and its related cellular function.
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  • Masami Takahashi, Makoto Itakura, Masakazu Kataoka
    Subject area: Infomation Science
    2003 Volume 93 Issue 1 Pages 41-45
    Published: 2003
    Released: September 22, 2003
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Synaptic transmission is conducted by neurotransmitters released from nerve terminals. Neurotransmitter release is regulated both positively and negatively by multiple mechanisms, and its regulation is believed to be one of the important mechanisms of synaptic plasticity underlying learning and memory. Various protein kinases play important roles in the regulation, and candidates for protein substrates essential for the regulation have been identified.
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Full Papers
  • Kazuhiro Fuchibe, Takeshi Nabe, Masanori Fujii, Nobuaki Mizutani, Kiic ...
    Subject area: Infomation Science
    2003 Volume 93 Issue 1 Pages 47-54
    Published: 2003
    Released: September 22, 2003
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    To develop an allergic dermatitis model showing persistent scratching in mice, toluene-2,4-diisocyanate (TDI) was repeatedly painted onto the skin of hairless HR-1 mice, and induction of itch-associated scratching behavior was observed. When HR-1 mice were epicutaneously sensitized with 1% TDI and then challenged by repeated painting the cervicodorsal skin with 0.1% TDI once every 10 days until the 10th challenge, delayed type scratching responses peaked at 1 – 2 days after challenge. TDI at 0.1% hardly induced scratching in non-sensitized HR-1 mice. The delayed scratching response was influenced by neither an H1 nor 5-HT1/2 receptor antagonist. On the other hand, intradermal injection of histamine and serotonin induced frequent scratching in HR-1 mice. In conclusion, repeated application of TDI can induce delayed type allergic scratching. Although HR-1 mice are high responders to both histamine and serotonin, induction of the delayed response depends on neither of these chemical mediators. This delayed response may be useful in analyzing the mechanisms of allergic pruritis.
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  • Kenji Nagahama, Masanori Yamato, Shinichi Kato, Koji Takeuchi
    Subject area: Infomation Science
    2003 Volume 93 Issue 1 Pages 55-61
    Published: 2003
    Released: September 22, 2003
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    We examined the effect of lafutidine, a novel histamine H2-receptor antagonist, on acid reflux esophagitis in rats in relation to capsaicin-sensitive afferent neurons. The esophagitis was induced in rats by ligating both the pylorus and forestomach for 4 h. Lafutidine (1 – 30 mg/kg) and cimetidine (100 mg/kg) were administered either intragastrically or intraduodenally, while capsaicin (1 – 30 mg/kg) was administered intragastrically after the dual ligation. Intragastrical administered lafutidine at >3 mg/kg significantly prevented the hemorrhagic esophageal damage induced by the dual ligation, and this effect was mimicked by neither capsaicin nor cimetidine given intragastrically, but totally abolished by sensory deafferentation. In contrast, lafutidine and cimetidine given intraduodenally were both protective against the esophageal damage in a sensory deafferentation-resistant manner. The acid secretion in pylorus-ligated stomachs was significantly inhibited by these agents given intraduodenally, but not intragastrically. Vanilloid receptor subtype 1 (VR1) was expressed abundantly in the stomach, but very weakly expressed in the esophagus as assessed by Western blotting. These results suggest that lafutidine is effective against the esophageal lesions induced by acid reflux through inhibition of acid secretion and capsaicin-sensitive afferent neurons. The latter mechanism, not shared by cimetidine, may be due to the interaction of lafutidine with unidentified sites on sensory neurons other than VR1.
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  • Yoshiki Saegusa, Atsushi Sugiyama, Akira Takahara, Yoshinobu Nagasawa, ...
    Subject area: Infomation Science
    2003 Volume 93 Issue 1 Pages 62-68
    Published: 2003
    Released: September 22, 2003
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Given a lack of information, we assessed the effects of Kampo medicines: Dai-saiko-to, Tsu-do-san, San’o-shashin-to, and Sairei-to, which have been used for various gastrointestinal diseases, on the phosphodiesterase activity and smooth muscle tone of the gastrointestinal tract. Clinically relevant concentrations of each Kampo extract (0.1 – 1 mg/ml) decreased the phosphodiesterase activity as well as smooth muscle tone. The extent of phosphodiesterase inhibition as well as smooth muscle relaxation by these Kampo extracts was prominent for the lower gastrointestinal tract. Also, there was a good correlation between the extents of drug-induced phosphodiesterase inhibition and smooth muscle relaxation, indicating the presence of their causal link. These results may partially provide the basis for understanding the mechanism of the clinical utility of Kampo extracts in gastrointestinal tract diseases.
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  • Katsuji Hattori, Naoe Sukenobu, Tomo Sasaki, Shunsuke Takasuga, Takeo ...
    Subject area: Infomation Science
    2003 Volume 93 Issue 1 Pages 69-73
    Published: 2003
    Released: September 22, 2003
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Lagerstroemin, an ellagitannin isolated from the leaves of Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.) Pers. (Lythraceae), was examined for its biological activities. In rat adipocytes, the compound increased the rate of glucose uptake and decreased the isoproterenol-induced glycerol release. In Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing human insulin receptors, it increased the Erk activity. These insulin-like actions were accompanied by the increased tyrosine-phosphorylation of the β-subunit of the insulin receptors. Tryptic digestion of the extracellular sites of the insulin receptors markedly increased the effective concentrations of insulin without changing those of lagerstroemin. Thus lagerstroemin was considered to cause its insulin-like actions by a mechanism different from that employed by insulin.
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  • Yumi Sugimoto, Kiyo Inoue, Jun Yamada
    Subject area: Infomation Science
    2003 Volume 93 Issue 1 Pages 74-79
    Published: 2003
    Released: September 22, 2003
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Effects of the tricyclic antidepressant clomipramine on plasma glucose levels in mice were studied. Clomipramine at doses ranging 5 – 20 mg/kg elicited significant hyperglycemia in mice. Hyperglycemia elicited by clomipramine was not reduced by pretreatment with the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) depleter p-chlorophenylalanine. The 5-HT1/2/5/7-receptor antagonist methysergide and the 5-HT2A/2B/2C-receptor antagonist LY 53857 enhanced clomipramine-induced hyperglycemia, while the 5-HT1A/1B-receptor antagonist (−)-propranolol and the 5-HT3/4-receptor antagonist tropisetron did not affect it. The 5-HT2B/2C-receptor antagonist SB 206553 facilitated hyperglycemia induced by clomipramine, although the 5-HT2A-receptor antagonist ketanserin was without effect. Clomipramine-induced hyperglycemia was reduced by prior adrenalectomy. These results suggest that clomipramine induces hyperglycemia in mice by blocking the 5-HT2B and/or 5-HT2C receptors, which results in facilitation of adrenaline release.
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  • Masamichi Noguchi, Yasushi Ikarashi, Mitsutoshi Yuzurihara, Yoshio Kas ...
    Subject area: Infomation Science
    2003 Volume 93 Issue 1 Pages 80-86
    Published: 2003
    Released: September 22, 2003
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study is to clarify the effects of 17β-estradiol and the Japanese herbal medicine Keishi-bukuryo-gan on the release and synthesis of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. The effect of ovariectomy on the release or synthesis was evaluated by measuring CGRP concentration in plasma after capsaicin (1.0 mg/kg, i.p.) injection or by measuring CGRP concentration and its mRNA expression in dorsal root ganglia in OVX rats. Ovariectomy attenuated the capsaicin-evoked increase in plasma concentration of CGRP, which was restored by treatment with 17β-estradiol (0.010 mg/kg, s.c.) or Keishi-bukuryo-gan (1,000 mg/kg, p.o.) for 7 days after ovariectomy. However, no significant differences were observed in the CGRP concentration and the mRNA expression of dorsal root ganglia by treating the rats with ovariectomy, 17 β-estradiol, and Keishi-bukuryo-gan. These results suggest not only that estrogen deficiency attenuates CGRP release but also that 17β-estradiol or Keishi-bukuryo-gan normalizes the attenuated release process.
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  • Jianguang Chen, Yoshinobu Nagasawa, Bing-Mei Zhu, Masami Ohmori, Ken-i ...
    Subject area: Infomation Science
    2003 Volume 93 Issue 1 Pages 87-94
    Published: 2003
    Released: September 22, 2003
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) have been shown to decrease cardiovascular mortality. Since ventricular tachyarrhythmias are closely related to cardiovascular mortality, we tested effects of the hydrophilic statin pravastatin and the lipophilic statin fluvastatin in a rat arrhythmia model of ischemia/reperfusion and simultaneously measured serum total cholesterol level. Anesthetized rats were subjected to 5-min ischemia and 10-min reperfusion after chronic administration of oral pravastatin (0.02, 0.2, or 2 mg/kg), fluvastatin (0.2, 2, or 4 mg/kg), or vehicle for 22 days, once daily. The acute effect of pravastatin (0.2 or 2 mg/kg, once orally) was also observed. Chronically administrated pravastatin significantly reduced the incidence of ischemia-induced ventricular tachycardia (VT) from 70% (control) to 9% at 2 mg/kg, and it reduced the incidence of reperfusion-induced lethal ventricular fibrillation (VF) from 90% (control) to 20% at 0.2 mg/kg. Acute pravastatin and chronically administrated fluvastatin had no significant effect on these arrhythmias. There were no significant changes in blood pressure, heart rate, QT interval, and serum cholesterol among pravastatin-, fluvastatin-, and vehicle-treated groups. Hydrophilic pravastatin prevented reperfusion-induced lethal VF in anesthetized rats by chronic administration independent of its cholesterol lowering effect. This may be a new beneficial role of pravastatin in decreasing cardiovascular mortality.
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  • Yasuyuki Abe, Atsushi Aoyagi, Takao Hara, Kazumi Abe, Reina Yamazaki, ...
    Subject area: Infomation Science
    2003 Volume 93 Issue 1 Pages 95-105
    Published: 2003
    Released: September 22, 2003
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A dual inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and serotonin transporter (SERT), RS-1259 (4-[1S)-methylamino-3-(4-nitrophenoxy)]propylphenyl N,N-dimethylcarbamate (fumaric acid)1/2salt), was newly synthesized. RS-1259 simultaneously inhibited AChE and SERT in the brain following an oral administration in mice and rats. Actual simultaneous elevation of extracellular levels of 5-HT and ACh in the rat hippocampus was confirmed by microdialysis. The compound was as effective as SERT inhibitors such as fluoxetine and fluvoxamine in a 5-hydroxytryptophan-enhancing test in mice. Spatial memory deficits in the two-platform task of a water maze in aged rats were ameliorated by RS-1259 as well as donepezil. Both RS-1259 and donepezil increased the awake episodes in the daytime electroencephalogram of rats. Although RS-1259 was weaker than donepezil in enhancing central cholinergic transmission, as observed by ACh elevation in the hippocampus and memory enhancement in aged rats, the efficacy of RS-1259 on the consciousness level, which reflects the whole activity in the brain, was almost the same as that of donepezil. These results suggest that both cholinergic and serotonergic systems are involved in maintaining brain arousal and that a dual inhibitor of AChE and SERT may be useful for the treatment of cognitive disorders associated with reduced brain activity such as in Alzheimer’s disease.
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  • Bing-Mei Zhu, Shigeki Miyamoto, Yoshinobu Nagasawa, Teruaki Wajima, Ke ...
    Subject area: Infomation Science
    2003 Volume 93 Issue 1 Pages 106-113
    Published: 2003
    Released: September 22, 2003
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The blockade of myocardial KATP channels may be antiarrhythmic for ischemic arrhythmias. A new sulfonylthiourea, HMR1098 (1-{5-[2-(5-chloro-o-anisamido)ethyl]-2-methoxyphenylsulfonyl}-3-methylthiourea, sodium salt), was demonstrated to be a cardioselective KATP-channel antagonist and to suppress arrhythmias during acute ischemia. We investigated effects of HMR1098 on the arrhythmias induced by programmed electrical stimulation (PES) in a canine old myocardial infarction model. HMR1098 (3 mg/kg, i.v.) significantly improved the scores of PES-induced ventricular arrhythmias, without changing the blood glucose concentrations. A classical sulfonylurea, glibenclamide (1 mg/kg, i.v.), had no significant effects on these arrhythmias, but reduced the blood glucose and increased the plasma insulin concentrations.
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  • Tsuguka Shiwa, Taku Amano, Hiroaki Matsubayashi, Takahiro Seki, Masash ...
    Subject area: Infomation Science
    2003 Volume 93 Issue 1 Pages 114-117
    Published: 2003
    Released: September 22, 2003
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    To investigate the effect of cis-N-[4-[4-(1,2-benz-isozole-3-yl)-1-piperazinyl]butyl] cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboximide hydrochloride (perospirone), a novel antipsychotic agent with high affinities for D2/5-HT2 receptors, on the rat dorsal raphe (DR) neurons, an electrophysiological study was performed using the tight-seal whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Applications of perospirone at the concentration between 109 and 105 M hyperpolarized the membrane potential and inhibited spontaneous action potentials of the DR neurons in a concentration-dependent manner. This effect of perospirone on DR neurons is similar to that of typical 5HT1A-receptor agonists, including 8-OH-DPAT or tandospirone. In addition, WAY100635, a 5-HT1A-receptor antagonist, inhibited this perospirone-induced hyperpolarization of DR neurons, suggesting that perospirone physiologically acts on DR neurons as a 5HT1A-receptor agonist. These results provide new profiles of perospirone as an antipsychotic drug.
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Short Communications
  • Ken Nakazawa, Yasuo Ohno
    Subject area: Infomation Science
    2003 Volume 93 Issue 1 Pages 118-121
    Published: 2003
    Released: September 22, 2003
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The effects of phytoestrogens on neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor/channels were examined by expressing recombinant channels in Xenopus oocytes. When functional channels were expressed with human α4 and β2 subuints, daidzein (10 and 100 μM) partially inhibited the ionic current activated by acetylcholine. The current inhibition was also observed when functional channels were expressed with human α3 and β4 subunits or rat homologues. Genistin (100 μM) also inhibited the acetylcholine-activated current. Tamoxifen (100 μM), an antiestrogen did not antagonize the inhibition by daidzein. The results suggest that phytoestrogens, like estrogens and xenoestrogens, block human neuronal acetylcholine receptors through non-genomic mechanisms.
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  • Ping Li, Tohru Yamakuni, Kimihiro Matsunaga, Shunzo Kondo, Yasushi Ohi ...
    Subject area: Infomation Science
    2003 Volume 93 Issue 1 Pages 122-125
    Published: 2003
    Released: September 22, 2003
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The mechanism to enhance nerve growth factor (NGF, 2 ng/ml)-induced neurite outgrowth from PC12D cells by nardosinone isolated from Nardostachys chinensis was examined. It was shown that the potentiation of the NGF-induced neurite outgrowth by nardosinone was mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase-dependent, but was not accompanied by stimulation of NGF-induced increase in MAP kinase phosphorylation. Furthermore, this augmentation of NGF-induced neurite outgrowth was abolished by GF109203X, a protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor. These results suggest that the enhancement of NGF-induced neurite outgrowth from PC12D cells by nardosinone involves activation of a down-stream step of the MAP kinase-dependent cascade of NGF coupled with PKC.
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