The Journal of Poultry Science
Online ISSN : 1349-0486
Print ISSN : 1346-7395
ISSN-L : 1346-7395
Advance online publication
Showing 1-33 articles out of 33 articles from Advance online publication
  • Byeonghyeon Kim, Han Tae Bang, Jin Young Jeong, Minji Kim, Ki Hyun Kim ...
    Article ID: 0200070
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: December 25, 2020
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    Insects are a potential source of proteins and fats which can be incorporated into diets of broiler chickens. Accordingly, black soldier fly larvae oil (BSFLO) needs to be tested as an appropriate fat source to produce healthy chickens for consumers. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the replacement of soybean oil (SBO) with BSFLO in broiler diets on intestinal health and blood profiles. A total of 210 one-day-old male broilers were randomly allocated to three dietary treatments (10 replicates of seven birds per group): a control diet and two experimental diets in which SBO was replaced with 50% (50 BSFLO) or 100% (100 BSFLO) BSFLO. At the end of the study (35 days), 18 birds (six broilers per treatment) were slaughtered to determine the intestinal morphology, digestibility, and volatile fatty acid (VFA) profile. Blood samples were collected from 24 randomly selected birds (eight broilers per treatment) to determine the blood profiles. BSFLO supplementation positively affected villus height but did not affect digestibility. BSFLO showed no adverse effects on the VFA and blood profiles. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that SBO can be replaced by BSFLO without any adverse effects on broiler health.

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  • Toki Nishiyama, Koichi Nakagawa, Tomokazu Imabayashi, Shun Iwatani, Na ...
    Article ID: 0200081
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: December 25, 2020
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    This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of probiotic Bacillus subtilis C-3102 feed additive on quality characteristics including strength, thickness, and weight of eggshells of Boris Brown laying hens. The control group (n = 64) was fed a basal diet comprised of maize and feed rice, whereas the experimental group (n = 64) was fed a basal diet supplemented with B. subtilis C-3102 (3 × 105 CFU/g) starting at 49 weeks of age. From 67 to 69 weeks, all hens were induced to molt using an anorexic program; then, the birds in both groups returned to their respective diets (from 69 to 82 weeks). Eggshell strength, measured six times with 60 eggs selected before the molting treatment, was significantly greater in the C-3102 group than in the control group at 51, 59, 63, and 66 weeks (3.45, 3.44, 3.28, and 3.13 kg/cm2; P < 0.05, 0.05, 0.01, and 0.01, respectively). Moreover, eggshell strength—measured three times after the molting treatment—was significantly greater in the C-3102 group than in the control group at 73 and 77 weeks (3.79 and 3.65 kg/cm2; P < 0.01 and 0.01, respectively). Eggshell thickness was also significantly greater in the C-3102 group than in the control group at 73 and 77 weeks (0.400 and 0.390 mm; P < 0.01 and 0.01, respectively). Fecal samples collected from eight hens of each group at 70 weeks of age after forced molting, showed a significantly higher proportion of Lactobacillus spp. in the C-3102 group (8.94 log CFU/g) (P < 0.05) than in the control group (8.63 log CFU/g). Clostridium spp. abundance was significantly lower in the C-3102 group (2.92 log CFU/g) than in the control group (4.3 log CFU/g). These results suggest that C-3102 supplementation improves eggshell quality in aged laying hens, particularly after forced molting.

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  • Ryosuke Makino, Kayoko Abe, Kazumi Kita
    Article ID: 0200076
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: November 25, 2020
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    Glycation is a non-enzymatic reaction, and amino acids are glycated by glucose in vivo. Tryptophan is glycated with glucose to form two types of glycated compounds, tryptophan-Amadori product and (1R, 3S)-1-(D-gluco-1, 2, 3, 4, 5-pentahydroxypentyl)-1, 2, 3, 4-tetrahydro-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid (PHP-THβC). Although PHP-THβC can be incorporated into various chicken embryonic cells, the mechanism of its incorporation into intracellular fluids has not been clarified. In this study, we examined whether PHP-THβC once incorporated into various chicken embryonic cells can combine with proteins. Embryonic cells from the breast muscle, liver, spleen, kidney, proventriculus, gizzard, and skin were prepared and 3H-PHP-THβC was added to the culture medium at final concentrations of 0, 200, 400, 600, and 800 μM to examine the incorporation of PHP-THβC. After 18 h of incubation, radioactivity was measured in the whole-cell and protein fractions of the chicken embryonic cells. As PHP-THβC concentration increased from 0 to 600 μM, its accumulation in the whole-cell fractions of all types of chicken embryonic cells linearly increased and reached the maximum level. The saturated PHP-THβC accumulation in the whole-cell fractions suggests that PHP-THβC could be incorporated into intracellular fluids across cellular membranes by some transporter proteins. As PHP-THβC concentration increased from 0 to 800 μM, its accumulation in the protein fractions of all types of chicken embryonic cells increased in a linear manner and reached a maximum level in the 800-μM PHP-THβC treatment group. This is the first study to indicate that a part of PHP-THβC incorporated into the whole-cell fraction was detected in the protein fraction of various chicken embryonic cells.

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  • Guofeng Han, Yu Ren, Dan Shen, Shangmin Li, Vishwajit S Chowdhury, Yan ...
    Article ID: 0200086
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: November 25, 2020
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    L-Leucine (L-Leu) in ovo administration was demonstrated to afford thermotolerance and a modified amino acids metabolism in post-hatched broiler chicks under heat stress. This study aimed to investigate the changes in embryonic growth and amino acid metabolism after in ovo injection of L-Leu. Fertilized broiler eggs were subjected to in ovo injection of sterile water or L-Leu on embryonic day (ED) 7. The weight of embryos and yolk sacs were measured on ED 12, 14, 16, and 18. Plasma and livers were collected on ED 14 and 18 for free amino acid analysis. The weight and relative weight of embryos were significantly lowered by in ovo administration of L-Leu, but those of yolk sacs were not altered. Moreover, L-Leu in ovo injection significantly reduced the plasma proline concentration during embryogenesis and increased the plasma concentrations of tyrosine (Tyr) and lysine (Lys) in ED 18. Hepatic Lys concentration was also significantly increased by L-Leu in ovo injection. Interestingly, Leu concentrations in the plasma and liver were not affected by L-Leu administration. These results indicated that in ovo administered L-Leu was metabolized before ED 14 and affected embryonic growth and amino acid metabolism during embryogenesis.

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  • Agus Bahar Rachman, Takashi Akazawa, Masahiro Ogawa
    Article ID: 0200032
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: October 25, 2020
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    This study aimed to determine the effect of olive leaf water extract (OEx) on the physical properties of chicken breast sausage (CBS) and the preventive effect of OEx against lipid oxidation in CBS during frozen storage. CBSs, to which 0.1 and 0.5% (w/w) OEx were added to minced meat, were stored frozen at -20°C for 60 days. The thawing weight loss of control CBS without OEx increased with the frozen storage period, while OEx-CBSs did not change, from 15 to 60 days in storage. The water-holding capacity, breaking strength, elasticity, and viscosity of control CBS decreased upon frozen storage, while those of OEx-CBSs did not change. The observation of CBSs using scanning electron microscopy showed that OEx-CBSs that were stored frozen, unlike control CBS, maintained a structure similar to their unfrozen counterparts. These results indicate that OEx confers resistance to CBS upon freezing. Furthermore, the application of OEx to CBS suppressed lipid oxidation, decrease in pH and discoloration induced by frozen storage. Thus, this natural OEx is useful in improving the physical and chemical qualities of frozen processed poultry foods.

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  • Minyu Zhou, Yuheng Tao, Chenhuan Lai, Caoxing Huang, Qiang Yong
    Article ID: 0200054
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: October 25, 2020
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    Herein, we assessed the impact of dietary addition of konjac mannanoligosaccharide (MOS) on the growth, intestinal morphology, serum immune status, and oxidative status in Partridge Shank chickens. For the experiment, one-day-old chicks (n=192) were randomized into six replicates (n=8/replicate) and fed four different diets: a basal diet containing 0 (Control group), 0.5, 1, or 1.5 g MOS per kg of diet (g/kg) for 50 d. Relative to the control, the group fed 0.5 g/kg MOS decreased feed consumption from 22nd to 50th d and 1st to 50th d (P< 0.05). By adding MOS, the height of the intestinal villus and the villus height to crypt depth ratio were increased (P< 0.05); 1.5 g/kg MOS was the best dosage for these parameters. Jejunal and ileal goblet cell density increased following MOS supplementation at 21 d (P< 0.01) and 50 d in the jejunum (P< 0.05), respectively. Moreover, adding MOS to the diet increased the contents of IgA and IgM at 21 d (P< 0.05) and total antioxidant capacity (P< 0.05) at 50 d in the serum but decreased malondialdehyde content (P< 0.01) at 21 d in the group fed 0.5 and 1.5 g/kg MOS. The findings suggested that MOS supplementation could affect feed consumption, intestinal health, serous immunity, and antioxidant capacity of Partridge Shank chickens.

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  • Nanase Kubo, Mari Nishii, Mayuko Osada-Oka, Hajime Hatta
    Article ID: 0200062
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: October 25, 2020
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    Objectives: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is one of the most common skin disorders in infants and children and is often aggravated by increased Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) colonization. An inhibitory effect of a specific egg yolk antibody (IgY) on S. aureus growth was demonstrated in this study. Furthermore, the effects of water- or oil-based adjuvants on the preparation of anti-S. aureus IgY and hen immunization were compared.

    Methods: Hens were immunized intramuscularly with formalin-killed S. aureus mixed with either a water-soluble polysaccharide λ-carrageenan, oil-based Freund’s complete adjuvant (FCA), or Freund’s incomplete adjuvant (FIA). Anti-S. aureus IgYs (FIA-IgY, FCA/FIA-IgY, and λCarra-IgY) were purified from the egg yolk of immunized hen eggs, and the activity of the IgY against S. aureus antigen was measured by ELISA. The proportion of each IgY that was absorbed by S. aureus was also determined. Then, the effect of purified anti-S. aureus IgY on S. aureus growth inhibition was investigated in vitro.

    Results: The yolk of eggs and purified FIA-IgY from the FIA group showed the highest antibody activity, followed by FCA/FIA-IgY and λCarra-IgY. The proportion of each IgY that was absorbed by S. aureus antigen was as follows: FIA-IgY (18.1%), FCA/FIA-IgY (12.9%), and λCarra-IgY (7.0%). Only FIA-IgY significantly inhibited S. aureus growth in liquid medium.

    Conclusion: A specific IgY that was produced using the FIA adjutant inhibited S. aureus growth. Although water-soluble λ-carrageenan showed an adjuvant effect on anti-S. aureus IgY induction in egg yolk, but did not inhibit S. aureus growth. The use of the oil adjuvant FIA was necessary in the preparation of anti-S. aureus IgY as a treatment for AD symptoms.

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  • Prodip Kumar Sarkar, Ai Egusa, Mei Matsuzaki, Tomohiro Sasanami
    Article ID: 0200071
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: October 25, 2020
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    Sperm motility is considered as one of the most important traits for successful fertilization, but the motility of an ejaculated sperm decreases with time when stored as liquid. It is reported that seminal plasma serves as a nutrient rich medium for sperm and plays an important role in sperm motility and its fertilization ability. Several studies have reported that imidazole dipeptides such as anserine and carnosine affect sperm motility and its fertilization ability in mammals. In this study, we report the presence of anserine and carnosine in the male reproductive tract of the Japanese quail. Abundant levels of anserine (44.46 μM) and carnosine (41.75 μM) were detected in the testicular fluid and seminal plasma respectively using the amino acid analyzer; however, seminal plasma solely contained carnosine. When the ejaculates were incubated with anserine or carnosine, we found that both the dipeptides improve sperm motility parameters such as straight line velocity, curvilinear velocity, average path velocity and amplitude of lateral head displacement after in vitro sperm storage at 15°C. These results indicate that imidazole dipeptides are present in the male reproductive tract and may improve sperm quality during in vitro sperm storage in the liquid states.

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  • Hao Yang Sun, In Ho Kim
    Article ID: 0200001
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: September 25, 2020
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    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of microbial phytase on egg production and egg quality in older hens. A total of 216, 63-week-old Hy-line brown laying hens were distributed in a randomized complete design 10-week feeding trial of 3 dietary treatments with 12 replications per treatment and 6 hens per replication. The 3 dietary treatments were corn-soybean meal-based diets supplemented with 0% (CON), 0.06% (TRT1), and 0.12% (TRT2) microbial phytase. Significantly higher hen-day egg production was observed in the TRT1 treatment compared to CON (P < 0.05), except during the first two weeks of the experiment. During weeks 3, 4, and 9, TRT2 had a greater hen-day egg production percentage than CON (P < 0.05). The damaged egg ratio was not affected. The egg quality parameters (e.g., eggshell color, eggshell strength, albumen height, egg weight, and the Haugh unit) were affected by microbial phytase supplementation (P < 0.05). However, there were no significant effects on the eggshell thickness and yolk color. In conclusion, microbial phytase supplementation to the diets of older hens could improve production performance, extend the peak laying period, and alter the egg quality parameters.

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  • Tomohito Iwasaki, Takafumi Watanabe, Yasuhiro Hasegawa, Marina Hosotan ...
    Article ID: 0200034
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: September 25, 2020
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    This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between early nutrition and the incidence of wooden breasts (WB) in broilers. Sixteen male and twenty female neonatal ROSS 308 broiler chicks were divided equally into four flocks. From 0–12 days of age, starter diet H, composed of 22.4% crude protein (CP), 6.6% crude fat (CF), 1.25% lysine, 0.48% methionine, and ≥3,070 kcal/kg metabolizable energy (ME), was fed to two flocks, and starter diet L, composed of 19.9% CP, 2.5% CF, 1.04% lysine, 0.38% methionine, and ≥2,930 kcal/kg ME, was fed to the remaining two flocks. All the flocks were fed the same commercial finisher diet, composed of 20.3% CP, 7.5% CF, 1.18% lysine, 0.44% methionine, and ≥3,300 kcal/kg ME, from 12–47 days of age. The birds were weighed every 2–5 days, subjected to a wing-lift test, and histology was conducted on the pectoralis major muscle tissue samples from all the birds necropsied at 47 days of age. Significant differences in the mean body weight between groups H and L were observed during 6–16 days and 24–26 days of age in males and during 6–26 days of age in females. Regarding the score evaluation of the individual lesions reflecting wooden breast, the birds in which back-to-back wing contact was not possible had higher lesion scores than those in which back-to-back wing contact was possible. The absence of back-to-back wing contact appeared more frequently in flocks fed the starter diet L, particularly in males. These results indicate that inappropriate nutrition levels in the starter diet increase the incidence of WB. Therefore, avoiding early nutrition deficits is a cost-effective feeding strategy.

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  • Fumika Nanto-HARA, Haruhiko Ohtsu, Makoto Yamazaki, Tatsuya Hirakawa, ...
    Article ID: 0200063
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: September 25, 2020
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    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary brown rice on the growth performance, systemic oxidative status, and splenic inflammatory responses of broiler chickens under both thermo-neutral and chronic heat stress conditions. Forty 12-day-old male broiler chickens (ROSS 308) were randomly assigned to two groups and fed either a control diet (corn-based) or a brown rice-based diet. After seven days (19 days old), both groups were randomly divided into two sub-groups (n = 10), one of which was exposed to heat stress (33°C for 14 days), while the other was maintained at 24°C. Heat exposure reduced the body weight gain and feed intake (p < 0.01) of both groups. In terms of oxidative plasma states, heat exposure reduced the glutathione peroxidase activity and increased the ceruloplasmin content, while the 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substance and reduced glutathione levels were not affected adversely. Heat exposure activated the immune responses, as evidenced by increased plasma immunoglobin levels, and altered splenic immune-related gene expressions including heat shock proteins, toll-like receptor 4, and interleukin-12. Under both thermo-neutral and heat stress conditions, dietary brown rice improved the growth performance, decreased the immunoglobulin levels, and down-regulated the expression of splenic immune-related genes of broilers, although their systemic oxidative status was not affected. Dietary brown rice should be considered as a valuable component of broiler chicken feeds subjected to both thermo-neutral and heat stress conditions. The positive effects of brown rice on bird performance may be associated with the modulation of the immune responses, as reflected by the decreased production of immunoglobulins and altered splenic immune-related gene expression.

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  • Tatjana Pirman, Vida Rezar, Milka Vrecl, Janez Salobir, Alenka Levart
    Article ID: 0200026
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: August 25, 2020
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    An experiment in broilers was conducted to investigate the effect of olive (Olea europea) leaves and marigold (Calendula officinalis) petal extract supplementation on oxidative stress, characteristics of intestinal contents, and on the morphology of the small intestine. Oxidative stress was induced by a n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids rich diet. 1-day-old male broiler chickens, Ross 308, were housed in a deep litter system. After the first 21 days, animals were randomly divided into three groups of 16 animals in two replicates and fed, until slaughter on day 39, a diet that contained 7% linseed oil. Control diet (Cont) remained unsupplemented, while both experimental diets were supplemented with olive leaves (OliveEx) or marigold petal (MarigEx) extracts. Oxidative stress was evaluated in blood and liver by measuring markers of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde (MDA), isoprostanes), rate of DNA damage in lymphocytes and in blood (comet assay, 8-hydroxy-2’deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG)), and activity of antioxidant and liver enzymes in blood. In different parts of the intestine, levels of short chain fatty acids (SCFA), and viscosity of intestinal contents were measured, and the health of the gastrointestinal tract was assessed using histological measurements. OliveEx significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the MDA and 8-OHdG concentration in plasma, and the level of ethanoic acid in small intestinal contents and total SCFA in caecum, indicating improved oxidative status and increased microbial activity in the intestine. MarigEx significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the rate of lymphocyte DNA damage and the crypt depth in duodenum, indicating potentially beneficial effects on the immune system and the health of the small intestine. In conclusion, dietary OliveEx and MarigEx supplementation improved some markers of oxidative stress and intestinal health. However, positive effects could be more pronounced in more unfavorable environmental conditions or in cases of diseases, but further studies are needed.

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  • Min Zhang, Dan Zheng, Zhimei Peng, Yuting Zhu, Rongrong Li, Qiong Wu, ...
    Article ID: 0200040
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: August 25, 2020
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    In this study, signaling pathways and key differentially expressed genes (DEGs) involved in lipid metabolism in muscle and fat tissues were investigated. Muscle and abdominal fat tissues were obtained from 35-day-old female broilers for RNA sequencing. DEGs between muscle and fat tissues were identified. Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analyses of DEGs were performed. A total of 6130 DEGs were identified to be significantly enriched in 365 GO terms, most of which were involved in biological processes, cellular components, and molecular functions in muscle and fat tissues. Three important lipid signaling pathways (pyruvate metabolism, the insulin signaling pathway, and the adipocytokine signaling pathway) were identified among the fat and muscle tissues of broilers. The key common DEGs in these pathways included phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 2 (PCK2), acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 alpha and beta (ACACA and ACACB), and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (AMPK) gene family. Hence, our findings revealed the pathways and key genes and gene families involved in the regulation of fat deposition in the muscle and fat tissues of broilers.

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  • Chao Wen, Yue Su, Zhengguo Tao, Zongjia Cheng, Di Zhou, Tian Wang, Yan ...
    Article ID: 0190139
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: July 25, 2020
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    This study was conducted to compare the efficacy of diet supplemented with non-microencapsulated lutein (NL) and microencapsulated lutein (ML) in laying hens. A total of 270 Hy-line Brown laying hens (54 weeks old) were allocated to three groups with six replicates of 15 hens and were adapted to a wheat-soybean meal basal diet for two weeks. Next, the control birds were fed the basal diet, and the test birds were fed the basal diet supplemented with 600mg/kg NL (12mg/kg available lutein) or 90.1mg/kg ML (10mg/kg available lutein) for 35 days. Supplementation of lutein did not affect the productive performance of laying hens, but improved (P < 0.05) the yolk color and red/green value (a*), with eggs from the ML group displaying improved color and a* values from the 15th day of the experimental period. The blue/yellow value (b*) for the yolk showed an increase (P < 0.05) through both NL and ML supplements. The yolk color of fried and boiled eggs and a* value of the yolk in fried eggs were improved (P < 0.05) only through ML supplemented diet. Both NL and ML supplements resulted in lower (P < 0.05) lightness and higher (P < 0.05) a* values of yolk in boiled eggs, as well as higher (P < 0.05) b* values in fried and boiled eggs. Yolk lutein content in fresh, fried, and boiled eggs was increased (P < 0.05) in NL and ML groups with the latter being higher. In conclusion, ML improved yolk pigmentation and lutein retention in laying hens better than NL.

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  • Chao Wen, Zhixian Leng, Yueping Chen, Liren Ding, Tian Wang, Yanmin Zh ...
    Article ID: 0200003
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: July 25, 2020
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    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary betaine (BET) on growth performance, redox state, and related gene expression in broilers under heat stress (HS). A total of 144 21-day-old male broiler chickens with similar body weights were assigned randomly to three treatments with six replicates (eight chickens per replicate cage). Broilers in the control (CON) group were kept at thermoneutral (TN, 22 ± 1°C) conditions and fed a basal diet until they were 42 days of age. Broilers in the other two groups (defined as HS and HS+BET) were exposed to HS (34 ± 1°C, 8 h/day) and fed the basal diet without or with 1000mg/kg BET, respectively. Rectal and cockscomb temperature of broilers was increased (P < 0.05) in HS and HS+BET groups compared with the CON group, whereas there was no difference between HS and HS+BET groups. Dietary BET supplementation restored (P < 0.05) average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) of broilers and reversed (P < 0.05) the increase in serum alanine transaminase (ALT) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the liver tissue of broilers under HS. The HS+BET group had higher (P < 0.05) activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in the liver tissue and mitochondria than the HS group, and the same pattern was observed for glutathione (GSH) and GSH/glutathione disulphide (GSSG) in the liver tissue. The decreased mRNA levels of GPX1 and uncoupling protein (UCP) in the liver induced by HS were restored by BET supplementation. In conclusion, dietary BET supplementation can alleviate HS-induced hepatic and mitochondrial oxidative damage of broilers by regulating mRNA expressions of GPX1 and UCP.

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  • Mohammad I. Haqani, Kensuke Kawamura, Atsushi Takenouchi, Mohammad H. ...
    Article ID: 0200020
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: July 25, 2020
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    This study aimed to evaluate the differences between the growth patterns of large- and normal-sized Japanese quail strains and their F1 progeny, by fitting their growth parameter values to five nonlinear regression growth models (Weibull, Logistic, Gompertz, Richards, and Brody). The Richards model presented the best fit for both sexes of the large-sized quail strain, whereas the Gompertz model presented the best fit for both sexes of the normal-sized quail strain, based on goodness-of-fit criteria (higher adjusted R2 and lower Akaike and Bayesian information criteria). Both sexes of F1 birds derived from the cross between normal-sized females and large-sized males were best fitted by the Richards model. In contrast, growth parameters of the F1 birds derived from the cross between large-sized females and normal-sized males were best fitted to the Gompertz model. The data could be fitted nearly as well to the Weibull and Logistic models as to the Richards and Gompertz models. The Brody model presented the poorest fit for the growth parameter values. The results indicated that the Richards and Gompertz models could best describe the growth characteristics of both large- and normal-sized quails. Moreover, the observed growth pattern of the F1 birds was likely inherited from the male parental strain. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study comparing the growth curves of the reciprocal F1 generations with their parental strains in quails.

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  • Tomohide Takaya, Yuma Nihashi, Tamao Ono, Hiroshi Kagami
    Article ID: 0200021
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: July 25, 2020
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    Skeletal muscle myoblasts are myogenic precursor cells that generate myofibers during muscle development and growth. We recently reported that broiler myoblasts, compared to layer myoblasts, proliferate and differentiate more actively and promptly into myocytes, which corresponds well with the muscle phenotype of broilers. Furthermore, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) revealed that numerous genes are differentially expressed between layer and broiler myoblasts during myogenic differentiation. Based on the RNA-seq data, we herein report that chicken myoblasts transcribe endogenous retrovirus group K member (ERVK) genes. In total, 16 ERVKs were highly expressed in layer myoblasts and two (termed BrK1 and BrK2) were significantly induced in broiler myoblasts. These transcribed ERVKs had a total of 182 neighboring genes within ±100kb on the chromosomes, of which 40% were concentrated within ±10kb of the ERVKs. We further investigated whether the transcription of ERVKs affects the expression of their neighboring genes. BrK1 had two neighboring genes; LOC107052719 was overlapping with BrK1 and downregulated in the broiler myoblasts, and FAM19A2 was upregulated in the broiler myoblasts as well as BrK1. BrK2 had 14 neighboring genes, and only one gene, LOC772243, was differentially expressed between layer and broiler myoblasts. LOC772243 was overlapping with BrK2 and suppressed in the broiler myoblasts. These data indicate that the transcription of ERVKs may impact the expression of their neighboring genes in chicken myoblasts.

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  • Ryosuke Makino, Maaya Uda, Syoko Shuto, Kazumi Kita, Tetsuya Tachibana
    Article ID: 0200030
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: July 25, 2020
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    Glycation is a non-enzymatic reaction inducing the bonding of glucose to amino acids and proteins. Glycated amino acids are not useful for protein synthesis, suggesting that glycation reduces the utilization of amino acids. Metformin (MF) is well known as a therapeutic drug for type II diabetes that inhibits glycation. It is possible that treatment with MF raises the utilization of amino acids by the inhibition of glycation, thereby improving the growth performance of chickens. In the present study, therefore, we investigated the influence of dietary MF on the growth performance, and plasma concentrations of free amino acids and Nε-(Carboxymethyl)lysine (CML), which is an advanced glycation end product, in layer (Experiment 1) and broiler (Experiment 2) chickens. From 7 d of age, chicks were allowed free access to one of the experimental diets containing MF at 3 supplementation levels (0, 150, and 300mg/kg diet) for 14 days. Body weight and feed intake were measured every week. At the end of the experiments, blood and breast muscle (M. pectoralis major) were collected for further analysis. Dietary MF did not affect weight gain, feed intake, or feed efficiency in both layer and broiler chickens. Dietary MF at the level of 150mg/kg diet increased breast muscle weight in both layer and broiler chickens. Dietary MF increased plasma concentrations of branched chain amino acids and decreased concentrations of CML in layer chickens, although it did not affect plasma concentrations of glucose. The present study suggested that dietary MF might have the potency to increase breast muscle weight of layer chickens with an increment in plasma concentrations of branched-chain amino acids.

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  • Toki Nishiyama, Nobuhisa Ashida, Koichi Nakagawa, Shun Iwatani, Naoyuk ...
    Article ID: 0200036
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: July 25, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Among the reported probiotic Bacillus strains, B. subtilis C-3102 has the unique potential to improve feed uptake under stress conditions in the broilers, piglets, and cows. In this study, we sought to evaluate the protective effect of feed additive probiotic Bacillus subtilis C-3102 against Salmonella enterica infection of specific pathogen-free (SPF) chicks in floor pens in two experiments. In the experiment-1, the chicks in the control group (n = 32) were fed a basal diet and those in the C-3102 group (n = 32) were fed a basal diet supplemented with 1 × 106 CFU/g of feed for 28 days. On day 7 post-challenge with S. enterica, there was no significant change in the body weight between both the groups throughout the test period, whereas detection rates of S. enterica in the C-3102 group were significantly lower in the cecum and liver on days 21 and 14 post-challenge, respectively. In the experiment-2, minimum dosage of C-3102 cells required to protect Salmonella infection was evaluated using 3 dosages. Chicks were divided into four groups, fed with different dosages of C-3102 (1 × 106, 5 × 105, 3 × 105, and 0 CFU/g of feed), and challenged with S. enterica (2.8 × 108 CFU/chicken). S. enterica infection was completed within 7 days post- challenge and was almost excluded from the liver and spleen on day 21 post- challenge in the control group. Average values showed a trend for higher infection rates in the control group > 3 × 105 > 5 × 105 > 1 × 106 CFU/g on days 14 and 21 post-challenge. These results suggest that B. subtilis C-3102 supplementation has the potential to reduce S. enterica infection rates and/or to accelerate the exclusion of S. enterica from the chicks.

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  • Ruvini K. Mutucumarana, Velmurugu Ravindran
    Article ID: 0190118
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: June 25, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The experiment reported herein was conducted to estimate the ileal and excreta endogenous phosphorus (P) losses in broiler chickens. Three purified diets, namely a P-free diet, a gelatin-based diet containing negligible amounts of P, and a casein-based diet with 100% available P, were formulated. Test diets were offered ad libitum from day 25 to 28 post hatch and ileal digesta were collected. Excreta samples were also collected to estimate total tract endogenous P losses. Ileal endogenous P losses in birds fed the casein-based diet were higher (P < 0.05) than those in birds fed P-free and gelatin-based diets. The ileal endogenous losses of P in birds fed P-free, gelatin-based, and casein-based diets were 25, 104 and 438mg/kg dry matter intake, respectively. The endogenous P loss values estimated at the excreta level were 830, 560 and 372mg/kg dry matter intake, respectively. Ileal and excreta endogenous losses of P in birds fed a casein-based diet were similar (P > 0.05), but ileal losses were lower (P < 0.05) than the excreta values in birds fed P-free and gelatin-based diets, resulting in a significant (P < 0.001) assay diet by site of measurement interaction. The present data demonstrate that values determined for endogenous P losses in broiler chickens vary widely depending on the assay diet used.

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  • Yi Wan, Ruiyu Ma, Yan Li, Wei Liu, Junying Li, Kai Zhan
    Article ID: 0190145
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: June 25, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Effects of a large-sized cage with a low metabolizable energy and low crude protein (LME-LCP) diet on growth performance, feed cost, blood biochemistry, and antibody response of growing layers were evaluated. A total of 668 one-day-old female Gushi chicks were randomly allocated into three different cages, namely, large, medium, and small cages, referred to as Group A, Group B, and Group C, respectively, and fed LME-LCP diets. A fourth group of birds raised in small cages and fed a standard diet (STD) was designated Group D i.e. the control. Equal stocking densities were maintained among the four groups throughout the experiment, from 50–20 birds/m2. Large cages with LME-LCP diet (Group A) increased the shank length and girth as chicks grew, improved the activities of serum creatine kinase, and reduced serum triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations. The total feed intake in birds from Group A was higher than those from the other groups at every stage. The total cost (rmb/bird) of feed was 6.70% lower in Group A than that in Group D, which indicated the cost-effectiveness of large cages. In conclusion, large cages with LME-LCP diets have positive effects on body weight, shank growth, and serum biochemical indices of growing Gushi chicks, and can reduce feed costs.

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  • Yeong-Hsiang Cheng, Yi-Bing Horng, Andrzej Dybus, Yu-Hsiang Yu
    Article ID: 0200010
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: June 25, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Necrotic enteritis caused by Clostridium perfringens has reemerged as a severe poultry disease worldwide since the ban on the routine use of antibiotics in animal feed. Probiotics are considered alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters. Bacillus species are the most common microorganisms used as probiotics in the feed industry. The current study investigated the growth and surfactin levels of Bacillus licheniformis in solid-state fermentation using different substrates and evaluated the effects of B. licheniformis-fermented products on growth performance and intestinal morphology in broilers exposed to C. perfringens. The highest viable biomass and surfactin concentration of B. licheniformis-fermented products was observed at 2% molasses and 20% soybean meal supplementation during fermentation (P < 0.05). B. licheniformis-fermented product-derived surfactin inhibited the growth of C. perfringens in vitro in a dose dependent manner (P < 0.05). B. licheniformis-fermented product supplementation (2g/kg) significantly improved the body weight and average daily gain weight of broilers challenged with C. perfringens (P < 0.05). B. licheniformis-fermented products significantly alleviated necrotic lesions and ameliorated intestinal morphology in broilers exposed to C. perfringens (P < 0.05). Collectively, these observations demonstrate that B. licheniformis-fermented products improve growth performance and gut morphology in broilers under C. perfringens challenge. B. licheniformis-fermented products may have the potential to be used as alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters for preventive treatments against C. perfringens in broilers.

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  • Min Zhang, Jianlei Li, Yuting Zhu, Qiong Wu, Yan Li, Dingrui Huang, Zh ...
    Article ID: 0200011
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: June 25, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The aim of this study was to study the regulation of abdominal fat deposition by DL-α-tocopherol acetate (vitamin E) in broilers. Diets supplemented with 50 IU vitamin E significantly diminished abdominal fat deposition in broilers at day 35. Transcriptome sequencing results for abdominal fat tissues of the control (FC) and 50 IU vitamin E-supplemented (FT) groups identified 602 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), which were enriched in cellular process, cell and cell part, and binding Gene Ontology terms. Pathway functional analysis revealed that the DEGs were enriched in 42 metabolic pathways. Notably, the most enriched pathway, fatty acid biosynthesis, was found to play a key role in lipid metabolism. Further, the key regulators of lipid metabolism, including fatty acid synthase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase alpha, and acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 1, demonstrated decreased expression following vitamin E supplementation. Herein, we have identified pathways and genes regulated by vitamin E, thereby providing novel insights into the nutrients regulating abdominal fat deposition in broilers.

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  • Manisa Sangkaew, Katsuki Koh
    Article ID: 0200024
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: June 25, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The present study was conducted to analyze the chemical properties of persimmon peel (PP) and the in vitro digestibility of shrimp meal (SM) diets containing PP. Discussions whether PP can be used as a feed additive to promote digestion of SM in chickens are also included. The chemical composition and chitinase activity of dried PP was studied. SM diets containing PP were formulated according to the 4 by 6 factorial design: 4 levels of SM (0%, 10%, 15%, and 20%) × 6 levels of PP (0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, and 10%). The in vitro digestibility of dry matter (IVDMD), crude protein (IVCPD), and chitin (IVCD) was also studied. PP was rich in nitrogen-free extract (NFE, about 74%) and tannin (2.8%), and the highest chitinase activity of PP was observed at pH 4.5. Approximately 50% of chitinase activity was also observed at acidic (3.0) and alkaline (8.0) pH. Its activity was slightly affected by pepsin treatment. IVDMD increased upon addition of up to 8% PP, but decreased with an increase in the level of SM. When PP level was increased up to 6%, IVCPD in the group containing 0% SM, changed slightly; however, an increasing trend was observed in the other groups. When PP level was more than 6%, IVCPD decreased in all the groups. IVCD increased dose-dependently with increasing level of PP and decreased with increasing level of SM. In conclusion, PP was rich in NFE, had high chitinase activity, and improved all digestibility parameters, such as IVDMD, IVCPD, and IVCD, in SM diets where the PP level was under 6%. Thus, up to 6% of PP can be safely included in SM diets as a digestion promoter.

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  • Alip Kumar, Abdolreza Hosseindoust, MinJu Kim, KwangYeol Kim, YoHan Ch ...
    Article ID: 0190115
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 25, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The effects of dietary supplementation of zinc (Zn) sources and concentrations were investigated on growth performance, absorption into tissues, fecal excretion, nutrient retention, and intestinal morphology in broilers fed a corn-soybean meal basal diet. A total of 525 one-day-old chicks (Ross 308) were assigned based on body weight to seven dietary treatments. There were five replicate pens for each treatment and 15 broilers per replicate pen. The dietary treatments included a basal diet (control, without supplementing Zn), and basal diet supplemented with Zn, as inorganic zinc sulfate (ZnS; 110 mg/kg); organic Zn-methionine (ZnM; 110 mg/kg); hot-melt extruded (HME) 25 zinc sulfate (27.5 mg/kg); HME50 zinc sulfate (55 mg/kg); HME75 zinc sulfate (82.5 mg/kg); or HME100 zinc sulfate (110 mg/kg) for 35 days in two phases (d 1-21, phase I and d 22-35, phase II). Bodyweight and feed efficiency of broiler chicks fed diets supplemented with increasing dietary concentrations of HME-Zn improved linearly during the study period (P < 0.05). Compared to the control treatment, the ZnS, ZnM, and HME diets increased Zn concentrations in the serum and liver. Inorganic ZnS supply resulted in the highest Zn concentration in excreta. Increasing supplemented Zn content in diets as HME linearly increased Zn concentration in the excreta, serum, liver, and tibia. Broiler chicks fed diets supplemented with increasing concentrations of HME increased villus height (VH; linear and quadratic) of the jejunum and VH of the ileum (linear). Increasing concentrations of dietary Zn supplied as HME resulted in linearly enhanced dry matter, gross energy, and nitrogen retention of broilers on day 21. These results suggest that dietary HME-Zn at a lower level (55 ppm) shows the same growth performance as common ZnSO4 at 110 ppm.

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  • Shojiroh Horinouchi, Hiromi Nakayama, Tadahiro Ando, Hideaki Takahashi
    Article ID: 0190127
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 25, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    This study aimed to examine 1) whether selection for a superior allele at a single nucleotide polymorphism site (SNP; AB604331, g.420 C>A) of the chicken cholecystokinin type A receptor (CCKAR) gene in Miyazaki Jitokko chickens is detectable in commercial poultry farms, and 2) whether the reproductive traits of the Kyushu Rhode hens, as a maternal stock line of the Miyazaki Jitokko chickens, are affected by SNP selection. Conventional and A-allele fixed (improved) Miyazaki Jitokko chicks were hatched on the same day and raised in a battery cage until 7 days of age. The chicks were then deposited at two commercial poultry farms and reared until slaughter at 126 and 163 days for cockerels and pullets, respectively. Body weight on the day of hatching (day 0), at 5 days of age, and at slaughter were measured. The differences in the body weights of the farm and test groups at slaughter were analyzed using the linear mixed effects-model with restricted maximum likelihood and considerations for body weight measurements at 0 and 5 days. A-allele fixation increased the body weight at slaughter by approximately +123.5 g and +131.9 g in in cockerels and pullets, respectively. No significant differences between the conventional and improved hens were detected in terms of egg-laying rate, fertilization rate, and hatchability in the Kyushu Rhode hens. The data suggest that fattening chicks can be supplied as usual, even if Kyushu Rhode hens are switched from the conventional to improved type. In conclusion, genetic improvements using the CCKAR SNP site as a marker were effectively established in terms of the growth of the Miyazaki Jitokko chickens in commercial farms and the reproductive traits of the Kyushu Rhode hens.

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  • Yutaka Tahara, Katsuya Obara
    Article ID: 0200016
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 25, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Ex ovo culture of avian embryos can be applied not only to embryology but also to various fields of basic research such as embryo manipulation, toxicology, and regenerative medicine. The windowing method, which facilitates various manipulations and observations by opening a hole in one part of the eggshell, and culture systems using surrogate eggshells, are widely used. Despite this, biology lessons in high schools cover shell-less culture systems, which involve the development of avian embryos in artificial vessels, such as rice bowls, without using surrogate eggshells. However, as embryo development stops at its early stages in this method, it is not possible to continuously observe the development of the embryo. This led to attempts to develop an embryo culture method using a complete artificial culture vessel that does not use surrogate eggshells, and Kamihira et al. (1998) succeeded in hatching quail embryos in an artificial culture vessel using polytetrafluoroethylene membranes. In addition, Tahara succeeded in hatching chick embryos in artificial culture vessels that used cling film made of polymethylpentene and reported their detailed methodology (Tahara and Obara, 2014). These technologies are being applied not only to school education but also to various fields of research.

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  • Nobuhiro Nakao, Kei Nakagawa, Asuna Sasaki, Arisa Yamaguchi, Nobumichi ...
    Article ID: 0190135
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: April 25, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The molecular mechanism underlying photoperiodic response in seasonal breeding animals such as the Japanese quail, red jungle fowl, sheep, mouse, and hamster involves thyroid-stimulating hormone beta subunit (TSHβ) mRNA expression in the pars tuberalis stimulated by the extension in day length. Furthermore, this mechanism is regulated by eyes absent 3 (Eya3) in mammals. Even in birds, the expression of both TSHβ and EYA3 is induced in the pars tuberalis by the extension in day length; however, the relationship between the two genes is unknown. To clarify the function of EYA3 in quail photoperiodism, in the present study, we performed mRNA structure analysis of the Japanese quail EYA3 mRNA using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Southern blot analysis. The results revealed that there are four types of splice variants within regions of exons 7, 8, and 9 of quail EYA3 mRNA. Among the four splice variants of quail EYA3, the splice variant containing exon 7 was expressed in the pars tuberalis on the first long day, when quails were transferred from the short-day condition to the long-day condition. The results indicate that EYA3 splice variant containing exon 7 is involved in the photoperiodic response of the pars tuberalis in the Japanese quail.

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  • Yunjie Tu, Yifan Liu, Ming Zhang, Yanju Shan, Gaige Ji, Xiaojun Ju, Ji ...
    Article ID: 0190104
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: December 25, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The aim of this study was to identify genes involved in comb development to provide insights into the molecular mechanism of chickens’ comb formation. Fixation index (FST) and average number of base differences ( π) of males with large and small combs were calculated based on whole-genome resequencing data. Chromosome regions with larger FST values and smaller π were considered candidate selection regions. Through further annotation of gene functions and pathways, we sought to screen possible selected genes associated with comb development. By screening whole genome resequencing data, FST and π were calculated using a 40Kb sliding window strategy and eight regions were identified. Quantitative trait loci (QTL; FOX1 gene) related to comb length were found on chromosome 1. QTL (GLP1R, BTBD9, MIR6633, and MDGA1 genes) related to comb weight were found on chromosome 3. QTL (ALDH1A1, TMC1, and ANXA1 genes) associated with comb area were found on the Z chromosome. Nineteen genes, Wnt signaling pathway and neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction signaling pathway directly or indirectly related to comb growth and development were found through functional annotation and GO analysis. Among the selected genes LYN, GLP1R, FOX1, TBK1, STRAP, ST6GALNAC, and Wnt signaling pathways were related to immunity. MDGA1, BTBD9, MTSS1, SrGAPs, and neuroactive ligand receptor interaction signaling pathways related to neural function were screened. ALDH1A1, ANXAl, THBS, HIF-1α, and ACTN1 genes were related to heat dissipation. Among the selected genes FOX1, MDGAl, and ANXAl associated with immunity, neurological function, and heat dissipation function coincided with genes affecting the length, weight, and area of the comb. Comprehensive analysis suggested that comb development was due to multiple genes and signaling pathways.

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  • Takeshi Ohkubo, Susumu Atomura, Hiromi Adachi, Daisuke Murase
    Article ID: 010111e
    Published: 2013
    [Advance publication] Released: February 22, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    The above article released online on February 25, 2011 as advanced publication has been withdrawn by authors.
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  • Guang-Zhi He, Wei-Yi Tian, Shu-Xuan Deng
    Article ID: 010133e
    Published: 2013
    [Advance publication] Released: February 22, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    The above article released online on April 25, 2011 as advanced publication has been withdrawn by Editorial Office due to serious concerns on data.
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  • Guang-Zhi He, Wei-Yi Tian, Shu-Xuan Deng
    Article ID: 010133
    Published: 2011
    [Advance publication] Released: April 25, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    The above article released online on April 25, 2011 as advanced publication has been withdrawn by Editorial Office due to serious concerns on data.
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  • Takeshi Ohkubo, Susumu Atomura, Hiromi Adachi, Daisuke Murase
    Article ID: 010111
    Published: 2011
    [Advance publication] Released: February 25, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    The above article released online on February 25, 2011 as advanced publication has been withdrawn by authors.
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