The Journal of Poultry Science
Online ISSN : 1349-0486
Print ISSN : 1346-7395
ISSN-L : 1346-7395
Advance online publication
Showing 1-27 articles out of 27 articles from Advance online publication
  • Faisal Hussnain, Athar Mahmud, Shahid Mehmood, Muhammad H. Jaspal
    Article ID: 0190014
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: August 25, 2019
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    A study was conducted to determine the effect of transportation distance and crating density on meat quality traits during winter. ROSS-308 broilers aged 35 days were divided into 10 treatment groups based on three transportation distances (80, 160, and 240km) with three crating densities (10, 12, and 15 birds per crate) along with birds slaughtered on farm without crating as a control group. Each treatment was replicated 10 times and placed at various locations in the truck. The birds were transported in plastic crates of 3 ft × 1.8 ft × 1 ft at ambient temperature and relative humidity of 3.6–9.5°C and 63.3–78.8%, respectively. The breast meat quality parameters including pH, color, drip loss, shear force, marinade uptake and retention, cooking losses, and yield were determined. The results showed significantly higher pH 15 min post-slaughter (PS), drip loss, lightness, marinade uptake, raw meat cooking yield, and shear force in birds slaughtered on farm without any transportation. The birds transported for 240km had significantly higher pH at 2 hours (h) PS, marinade retention, and cooking yield. Whereas, pH at 24h PS, meat redness, yellowness, chroma, and marinated meat cooking yield were significantly higher in all transported treatments compared to the control group. Among different crating densities, the birds transported with 10 birds per crate showed significantly higher meat redness, marinade retention, and cooking yield. The crating density of 15 birds per crate had significantly higher lightness, hue, cooking loss, and shear force. However, no effect of crating density was observed on meat pH, drip loss, and marinade uptake. It can be concluded that an increase in transportation distance and low crating density during winter can negatively affect physical quality of meat with significant improvement in marination and cooking characteristics.

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  • Kazuhiro Rikimaru, Yuki Sato, Yukari Ito, Shiori Fukuda, Senetsu Sasak ...
    Article ID: 0190041
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: August 25, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    We have previously reported a significant association between the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; g.420 C>A) in the cholecystokinin type A receptor gene (CCKAR) and the growth traits of Hinai-dori, a breed of chicken that is indigenous to Japan. Moreover, we have demonstrated that the minor allele of this SNP improved the growth rate in a low-growth line of the Hinai-dori breed. Hence, in the present study, we verified the association between this SNP and the growth traits of the Hinai-jidori chicken: a cross between a Hinai-dori sire and Rhode Island Red dam. In addition, we verified whether the growth rate was improved in Hinai-jidori chickens produced from the parent stocks in which the SNP A/A genotype was fixed by selection (improved Hinai-jidori chickens). The Hinai-jidori female chicks at 4 weeks of age, were subdivided into three genotypic groups (A/A, A/C, and C/C), with 20 chicks in each group, and reared in an open-sided poultry shed until 23 weeks of age. The results showed that the body weight at 23 weeks of age and the average daily gain after 14 weeks of age were significantly higher in group A/A than in group C/C. Subsequently, the improved and the conventional Hinai-jidori chickens were reared until they reached 22 weeks of age to verify the effects on their growth traits. The body weight of the improved Hinai-jidori chickens at 22 weeks was significantly greater than the conventional Hinai-jidori chickens. Moreover, the association between the SNP and body weights of Hinai-jidori chickens at market age (24 weeks) on the production farms showed that the A allele was significantly superior to the C allele. In conclusion, the CCKAR g.420 C>A SNP improves the growth rate of commercial Hinai-jidori chickens and could be a candidate marker for improving the growth performance in selective breeding of Hinai-jidori chickens.

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  • Mashael R. Aljumaah, Manal M. Alkhulaifi, Alaeldein M. Abudabos
    Article ID: 0190042
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: August 25, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) have been used for many years as supplements in various livestock diets, including those for poultry. However, the use of AGPs in feed was also associated with an increasing number of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in livestock. In this study, the in vitro antibacterial efficacies of eight commercially available non-AGPs suitable for use in poultry were investigated. Assessments included a combination of antibacterial activity assays and estimations of the minimal inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations along with scanning electron microscopy analysis. The results showed that the probiotic, CloStat® exerted a bacteriostatic effect against all tested bacteria, namely Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Clostridium perfringens, whereas Gallipro Tect® and Bacillus Blend® demonstrated bacteriostatic activity towards most of the pathogens tested. Other commercial non-AGPs, Sangrovit®, Fysal®, and Mix oil blend® showed a stronger or equal antibacterial activity compared to the positive control (AGP Maxus® G100) againsts all bacteria tested, except C. perfringens. Nor-Spice AB® and VariumTM did not show any significant effect against the tested bacteria. Several of the tested AGP substitutes exhibited good antibacterial efficiency against pathogenic bacteria and thus may be good candidates for second-stage in vivo investigations into reducing pathogen colonization in broilers.

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  • Takahiro Nii, Haruna Kakuya, Naoki Isobe, Yukinori Yoshimura
    Article ID: 0190044
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: August 25, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Salmonella Typhimurium (ST) infection in chickens inhibits their growth and can lead to food-borne diseases in humans. Probiotics are expected to enhance the function of host intestinal barrier against pathogen infection. The aim of our study was to determine the effect of viable Lactobacillus reuteri (LR) on the response of the mucosal barrier function to antigen stimulation in broiler chicks. Day-old male (n = 8) and female (n = 4) broiler chicks were orally administered either 1 × 108 LR or a water-only control, every day for 7 days. After 7 days, either 1 × 108 heat-killed ST (k-ST), or a buffer-only control, was administered via intra-cardiac injection. The ileum and cecum were collected 3 h post-injection, and paraffin sections were prepared for either mRNA extraction (males), or gut permeability tests (females). Villus and crypt lengths were determined via histological analysis. Real-time PCR was used to calculate expression levels of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), pro-inflammatory cytokines, anti-inflammatory cytokines, avian β-defensins, and tight-junction-associated molecules. Gut permeability was assessed using the inverted intestine method. We found that (1) expression of TLR2-1, TLR21, TGF-β2 and TGF-β3 were reduced following k-ST stimulation, but were unaffected by LR-treatment; (2) oral administration of LR led to increased Claudin1, Claudin5, ZO2, and JAM2 expression following k-ST stimulation; (3) cecal permeability was reduced by co-treatment with LR and k-ST, but not by treatment with LR or k-ST alone. These results suggest that LR, as used in this study, may enhance the intestinal mucosal physical barrier function, but not the expression of other immune-related factors in newly hatched chicks.

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  • Asako Shigemura, Vishwajit S. Chowdhury, Mitsuhiro Furuse
    Article ID: 0190067
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: July 25, 2019
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    L-Pipecolic acid is an intermediate of L-lysine catabolism. Its central injection exerted a hypnotic effect on the brain, which was partially mediated by the activation of γ-aminobutyric acid-A and γ-aminobutyric acid-B receptors. L-Proline has also been shown to exert a similar effect on N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Furthermore, L-pipecolic acid is known as L-homoproline, and both L-pipecolic acid and L-proline belong to the imino acid group; therefore, it is plausible that they share certain commonalities, including similar functions. However, the role of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors with respect to the effects of L-pipecolic acid has not been examined yet. In the present study, the relationship between N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors and the central function of L-pipecolic acid was investigated in neonatal chicks. The behavioral postures for active wakefulness and standing/sitting motionless with eyes opened were significantly affected after intracerebroventricular injection of L-pipecolic acid; whereas, sitting motionless with head drooped (sleeping posture) was significantly enhanced. However, the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, MK-801, did not affect these changes. In conclusion, the central administration of L-pipecolic acid did not exert hypnotic effects through the activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in neonatal chicks. These results suggest that the imino group is not a determinant for activating N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors.

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  • Karthika Srikanthithasan, Shemil P. Macelline, Samiru S. Wickramasuriy ...
    Article ID: 0180143
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: June 25, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    This study was designed to determine the effect of phytase extracted from Aspergillus niger (Natuphos® E) on growth performance, bone mineralization, phosphorous excretion, and meat quality parameters in broilers fed available phosphorous (aP)-deficient diet. In total, 810 one-day-old Indian River broilers were randomly allotted into one of three dietary treatments, with six replicates per treatment. The three dietary treatments were 1) control group (CON: basal diet with sufficient aP), 2) low phytase (LPY: available phosphorus-deficient diet supplemented with 0.01% phytase), and 3) high phytase (HPY: available phosphorus-deficient diet supplemented with 0.02% phytase). Average daily gain and, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio were measured for 35 days. Excreta were collected from each pen on day 35. One broiler from each cage was euthanized to collect visceral organs and tibia samples. Broiler chickens fed LPY and HPY showed improved (P < 0.05) growth performance compared to broilers fed CON on day 35. The tibia length of HPY-fed broilers was more than those of broilers fed other diets on day 35 (P < 0.05). However, tibia calcium and phosphorous contents in LPY-fed broilers was higher (P < 0.05) than in CON and HPY-fed broilers. Tibia length and calcium and phosphorous content showed a positive correlation (P < 0.05) with the weight gain of broilers on day 35. Phosphorous level in the excreta of LPY- and HPY-fed broilers was lesser than those of CON broilers on day 35 (P < 0.05). Furthermore, HPY-fed broilers showed lower (P < 0.05) phosphorous content in the excreta than LPY-fed broilers. LPY- and HPY-fed broilers showed higher (P < 0.05) liver weight than the CON broilers. In conclusion, broilers fed aP-deficient diet supplemented with phytase from Aspergillus excreted less phosphorus, which enhanced growth performance and tibia development from time of hatching to day 35 post-hatching.

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  • Xiao Liu, Kwan-Sik Yun, In-Ho Kim
    Article ID: 0190007
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: June 25, 2019
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    We evaluated the effects of supplementing an emulsifier blend (sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate and 1, 3-diacylglycerol) in diets with different energy content (normal and 100kcal/kg reduced) on the growth performance, meat quality, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD), and blood lipid profile of broiler chickens. Male broiler chickens (n = 1024), with an initial body weight (BW) of 43.60 ± 0.2g, were used in a 35-day trial. Broiler chickens of similar body weight were randomly allocated to one of four treatment groups in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with two levels of dietary energy content and with or without emulsifier blend. Broiler chickens fed on emulsifier blend supplemented diet had a higher body weight gain (BWG) during d 7-21, d 21-35, and overall period (P < 0.05), higher BW during overall period (P < 0.05), and lower feed conversion ratio (FCR) during d 7-21, d 21-35, and overall period (P < 0.05) compared with broilers fed on diets without emulsifier supplementation. Broiler chickens fed on the diet with low energy content had a lower BWG during d 1-7, d 21-35, and overall period (P < 0.05), lower BW during overall period, and higher FCR during d 1-7, d 21-35, and overall period (P < 0.05). The ATTD of energy tended to decrease in response to low-energy content diet (P < 0.1). Drip loss at 7 d post slaughter tended to decrease in response to dietary emulsifier blend supplementation (P < 0.1). However, no interactive effects of dietary energy content and emulsifier blend supplementation (P > 0.10) were observed on the growth performance, ATTD, blood lipid profiles, meat quality and relative organ weight. In conclusion, dietary emulsifier blend supplementation could improve growth performance, while low dietary energy content would decrease growth performance and ATTD of energy.

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  • Kazuki Nakashima, Aiko Ishida
    Article ID: 0190008
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: June 25, 2019
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    Autophagy in the skeletal muscle increases under catabolic conditions resulting in muscle atrophy. This study investigated the effect of inhibition of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) on autophagy in chick skeletal muscle. We examined the effects of Torin1, an mTOR inhibitor, on autophagy. Chick myotubes were incubated with Torin1 (100 nM) for 3 h. It was observed that Torin1 inhibited the phosphorylation of AKT (Ser473), p70 ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (S6K1, Thr389), S6 ribosomal protein (Ser235/236), and eukaryotic translation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1, Thr37/46), which are used for measurement of mTOR activity. Torin1 significantly (P < 0.01) increased the LC3-II/LC3-I ratio, an index for autophagosome formation, while it did not influence the expression of autophagy-related genes (LC3B, GABARAPL1, and ATG12). In addition, Torin1 increased atrogin-1/MAFbx (a muscle-specific ubiquitin ligase) mRNA expression. Fasting for 24 h inhibited the phosphorylation of AKT (Ser473), S6K1 (Ther389), S6 ribosomal protein (Ser235/236), and 4E-BP1 (Thr37/46) in chick skeletal muscle and significantly (P < 0.01) increased the LC3-II/LC3-I ratio. Fasting also increased GABARAPL1 and atrogin-1/MAFbx mRNA expression but not LC3B or ATG12 mRNA expression. These results indicate that mTOR signaling regulates autophagy and the ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway in chick skeletal muscle.

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  • Mei Matsuzaki, Shusei Mizushima, Hideo Dohra, Tomohiro Sasanami
    Article ID: 0190049
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: June 25, 2019
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    Because of the presence of sperm storage tubules (SSTs) in the utero-vaginal junction (UVJ) in the oviduct, once ejaculated sperm enter the female reproductive tract, they can survive for a prolonged period in domestic birds; however, the specific mechanisms involved in sperm maintenance within the SST remain to be elucidated. In this study, we showed that transferrin (TF) and albumin (ALB) are expressed in SSTs. When UVJ extracts were subjected to size-exclusion column chromatography, we obtained fractions that extend sperm longevity in vitro. LC-MS/MS analysis of the two major proteins in the fractions identified these proteins as TF and ALB. Immunohistochemical analysis using specific antisera against TF and ALB indicated that both proteins were localized not only in the SSTs, but also in the surface epithelium of the UVJ. When the ejaculated sperm were incubated with either purified TF or ALB, sperm viability increased after 24 h. These results indicated that oviductal TF and ALB are involved in the process of sperm storage in SSTs and may open a new approach for technological improvement to prolong sperm longevity in vitro.

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  • Linh T. N. Nguyen, Hatem M. Eltahan, Cuong V. Pham, Guofeng Han, Vishw ...
    Article ID: 0190054
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: June 25, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Oral administration of L-citrulline (L-Cit) caused hypothermia, but L-Cit is not recommended in poultry diets in Japan. Watermelon is a natural source of L-Cit. The objective of this study is to examine the effect of watermelon waste, i.e., watermelon rind (WR) on the body temperature and plasma free amino acids of chicks. In Experiment 1, 14-day-old chicks were subjected to acute oral administration of WR extract (WRE) (2ml) under control thermoneutral temperature (CT). In Experiment 2, 15-day-old chicks were orally administered 1.6 ml of either WRE, low-dose L-Cit (7.5mmol/10ml), or high-dose L-Cit (15mmol/10ml) under CT. In both experiments, rectal temperature (RT) and plasma free amino acids were analyzed. In Experiment 3, after dual oral administration of (1.6ml) WRE or L-Cit (15mmol/10ml), 15-day-old chicks were exposed to high ambient temperature (HT; 35 ± 1°C, 2h) to monitor changes in RT. Acute oral administration of WRE significantly reduced RT under CT. The degree of RT reduction by WRE was similar to that by high L-Cit. Moreover, RT was significantly low at HT owing to the oral administration of WRE. However, the reduced RT was difficult to explain by the content of Cit in WRE alone. In conclusion, WRE could be used as a dietary ingredient to reduce body temperature for imparting thermotolerance in chicks.

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  • Sadequllah Ahmadi, Misa Takeda, Takeshi Ohkubo
    Article ID: 0180087
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: May 25, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    We investigated means to improve the production of the indigenous Naked Neck chicken in Afghanistan. Specifically, we analyzed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the prolactin (PRL) (24 bp indel), growth hormone (GH) (T185G), and pituitary transcript factor 1 PIT-1 (intron 5) genes. Blood samples were collected from 52 birds and genomic DNA was extracted. Polymorphisms in the mentioned loci were analyzed by PCR, allele-specific PCR, and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) using TaqI and MspI endonucleases. Cloning followed by DNA sequencing was performed to ascertain the accuracy of the PCR-RFLP analysis. Two alleles were found for the PRL 24 bp indel, GH (T185G), and PIT-1/TaqI, with the following respective allelic frequencies: PRL-In 0.64 and PRL-Del 0.36, GH-T 0.91 and GH-G 0.09, and PIT-1-A 0.64 and PIT-1-B 0.36. Regarding the PIT-1/MspI polymorphism, three novel MspI recognition sites, as well as two reported MspI recognition sites, were detected in intron 5. Moreover, during sequence screening, two novel SNPs were found that generated restriction sites for MseI. Therefore, our results suggest that the PRL indel, GH T185G, and PIT-1/TaqI polymorphisms may be used as selection markers for Afghanistan Naked Neck chickens. Intron 5 of PIT-1 in the Afghani Naked Neck chicken was highly polymorphic compared to the reported Gallus gallus PIT-1 gene (GenBank accession no. NC_006088.4). The correlation between novel SNPs in PIT-1 and enhanced economic value of the Afghani Naked Neck chicken warrants future investigation.

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  • Natsuki Takahashi, Ryosuke Makino, Kazumi Kita
    Article ID: 0180150
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: May 25, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Eighty14-d-old single-comb White Leghorn male chicks were divided into 16 groups with five birds each. Fructosyl-valine, which is a valine-glucose-Amadori product, was intravenously (2,250 nmol/kg body weight) or orally (300 µmol/kg body weight) administered to chicks. Blood samples were collected 15, 30, 60, 120, 180, 360, 720 and 1440 min after administration. Plasma concentrations of fructosyl-valine were measured by using a liquid chromatography / mass spectrometry (LC/MS). The time course change in plasma fructosyl-valine concentration showed an exponential curve, as y = a + be-λt. The half-life of plasma fructosyl-valine was calculated by the following equation: (log e 2) / λ. When fructosyl-valine was injected intravenously, the highest value for plasma fructosyl-valine concentration was observed 15 min after administration. When injected intravenously, the half-life of plasma fructosyl-valine was calculated to be 231 min. When fructosyl-valine was administered orally to chicks, the highest value for plasma fructosyl-valine concentration was observed 180 min after administration. When administered orally, the half-life of plasma fructosyl-valine was calculated to be 277 min. We conclude that the half-life of fructosyl-valine in plasma was approximately 4 h, which is longer than that of glycated tryptophan.

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  • Ye Kang, Takahiro Nii, Naoki Isobe, Yukinori Yoshimura
    Article ID: 0190034
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: May 25, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The aim of this study was to examine whether Salmonella enteritidis (SE) vaccination affects innate immune function and histone modifications responsible for epigenetic reprogramming in the follicular theca of laying hens. White Leghorn laying hens were administered the SE vaccine or phosphate buffered saline (PBS; control) one week before sample collection. The largest follicles (F1) were collected for total RNA and histone protein extraction. Gene expression levels of immune molecules (Toll-like receptors [TLRs], cytokines, and avian β-defensins [AvBDs]), and histone modifications in the follicular thecal tissues, were examined using real-time PCR and western blot, respectively. The results showed that the expression levels of TLR1-1, 2-1, 4, and 15 were upregulated by SE vaccination. Although vaccination caused no significant change in cytokine expression, AvBD1, 2, 4, and 7 expression levels were significantly upregulated in the vaccinated group. In addition, the relative density of histone H3-lysine9 dimethylation (H3K9me2) was increased by the vaccination. These results suggest that SE vaccination enhances innate immune functions in the ovary of laying hens, including upregulating TLR and AvBD expression, and is also associated with an increase in histone H3K9me2 in thecal cells.

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  • Takahiro Nii, Jirapat Jirapat, Naoki Isobe, Yukinori Yoshimura
    Article ID: 0190035
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: May 25, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Probiotic bacteria are known for their beneficial effects on the intestinal immune function of the host animal. However, their effects on mucosal barrier function in chicks are not completely understood. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of the probiotic bacterium, Lactobacillus reuteri (LR), on the gastrointestinal mucosal barrier function of broiler chicks. One day-old male broiler chicks were orally injected water (300 μL) with or without 1 × 108 cfu of LR (5 mg FINELACT, Asahi Calpis Wellness Co. Ltd.) every morning for 7 days (day 0 to 6). The crop, duodenum, ileum, and cecum were collected on day 7 and were used for histological analysis and RNA extraction. Then, the thickness of the mucosal structures and the number of goblet cells in the digestive tract were assessed using histological analysis. The expression of Mucin 2, factors related to the formation of tight junctions (Claudin1, 5, and 16, ZO2, and JAM2), cytokines (IL-6, CXCLi2, and IL-10), and avian β-defensin 10 (AvBDs) (AvBD2, 10, and 12) in the crop, duodenum, ileum, and cecum were analyzed using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results showed that oral administration of LR increased ileal villus height and crypt depth, decreased Claudin16 level in the crop and increased JAM2 level in the crop and ileum, and decreased the expression of AvBD10 in the ileum and cecum and that of AvBD12 in the crop. It did not affect goblet cell number and Mucin 2 expression. These results suggested that LR used in this study may enhance mucosal barrier function by regulating tight junctions in the upper gastrointestinal tract.

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  • Faramin Javandel, Mehran Nosrati, René van den Hoven, Alireza Seidavi, ...
    Article ID: 0180081
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: April 25, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The effect of different levels of hogweed powder (HP; Heracleum persicum), flavophospholipol (antibiotic), and probiotics in diet on the performance, carcass quality, blood biochemical parameters, immunity, and intestinal flora of broiler chickens was investigated. In total, 270-day-old male broilers were randomly assigned to six treatment groups as follows: control basal-diet and diet supplemented with flavophospholipol, probiotics, or 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75% HP. Birds in each group were divided into three subgroups with 15 chicks each. Results indicated that the treatment groups did not vary with respect to feed intake (FI), whereas those supplemented with the antibiotic or 0.5% HP showed significantly higher body weight gain (BWG) and improved feed conversion ratio (FCR). Carcass characteristics did not vary among treatments, with the exception of abdominal fat percentage, which was the lowest in broilers fed 0.5% and 0.75% HP. Supplementation of 0.5% and 0.75% HP decreased plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Furthermore, dietary HP significantly reduced serum low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels compared to that in the other groups. Antibody titers against Newcastle disease vaccine were not markedly affected by the treatments, whereas titers against avian influenza vaccine were significantly higher in probiotic- and 0.75% HP-supplemented groups. Antibody production against sheep red blood cells (SRBC) and IgM and IgG levels were not significantly different among groups. The ileum Lactobacillus counts in broilers fed 0.5% or 0.75% HP were significantly higher than those in the other treatment groups, whereas Escherichia coli counts in all treatments were significantly lower than that in the control. Therefore, our observations indicated that HP positively affected the gut microbiota and enhanced feed digestion. In conclusion, supplementation of 0.50-0.75% HP in broiler diet during the entire rearing period improved BWG and decreased abdominal fat deposition.

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  • Pensiri Kaewthong, Luigi Pomponio, Jorge R. Carrascal, Susanne Knøchel ...
    Article ID: 0180106
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: April 25, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The aim of this study was to determine the changes in chicken breast meat quality (water-holding capacity, color, texture, myofibrillar fragmentation index (MFI), total protein solubility, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), total viable count (TVC), and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) count) due to storage under superchilling conditions (−1.3 °C) and fluctuating temperatures (ranging from −20 °C to −5 °C) as compared to the quality of meat stored at chilled (2–4 °C) and frozen (−20 °C) temperatures, respectively. Results indicated that the TVC and LAB count of the chilled and superchilled breast meat increased with storage time. TVC of the chilled and superchilled breast meat reached the safety level of 7 log cfu/g at approximately day 8 and 18, respectively. This suggested that the superchilling method extended the storage duration by 10 days. Weight loss and TBARS of the chilled and superchilled samples tended to increase with increasing storage time. The color, texture, protein solubility, and MFI were stable throughout the entire storage period of the chilled (9 days) and superchilled (28 days) samples. Results indicated that while three cycles of storage temperature fluctuation influenced the weight loss and dry matter of the meat, they did not affect the TVC, LAB count, texture, color, pH, MFI, and protein solubility. The superchilling technique (−1.3 °C) could extend the shelf-life of meat and maintain the quality of chicken breast meat. Fluctuations in temperature during frozen storage decreased the water-holding capacity of chicken breast meat, indicating that temperature stability should be maintained during frozen storage.

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  • Eunjoo Kim, Samiru S. Wickramasuriya, Taeg-Kyun Shin, Hyun-Min Cho, Sh ...
    Article ID: 0180118
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: April 25, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    This study investigated bioaccumulation and toxicity derived from heavy metals in laying hens. The 160 52-week old laying hens were divided into 5 treatments with 8 replicates of 4 birds per pen. The treatments consisted of the control diet (without heavy metals), control diet with half the available dosage (AD, 5 ppm lead and 0.2 ppm mercury), AD (10 ppm lead and 0.4 ppm mercury), 2-fold AD (20 ppm lead and 0.8 ppm mercury), and 3-fold AD (30 ppm lead and 1.2 ppm mercury), and were provided to the laying hens for 8 weeks. Food and water were provided on an ad libitum basis at all times. Body weight and food intake were recorded once every two weeks, and eggs were collected and recorded daily. Two birds from each pen were euthanized to collect blood and organ samples on week 4 and 8. The 3-fold AD diet reduced food intake compared to that of the control and AD diets (P < 0.05). Hens fed the half AD diet had darker yolk compared to those fed the control and AD diet on week 4 (P < 0.05). Hens fed the 2- and 3-fold AD diets had increased relative liver weight, blood glutamic pyruvic transaminase and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase levels (P < 0.05), while F1 follicle weights decreased on week 4 and 8. No difference was found in egg production rate, egg quality, ovarian follicle, blood metabolites including protein, globulin, albumin, and urea nitrogen throughout the study (P > 0.05). Heavy metal concentrations in the liver, eggs, and feathers were not detected at both week 4 and 8. Our results indicate that in-feed heavy metals for layer diets up to 30 ppm of lead and 1.2 ppm of mercury brought on hepatic dysfunction increasing blood metabolites that are associated with liver inflammation.

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  • Phuong V. Tran, Phong H. Do, Guofeng Han, Mohammad A. Bahry, Hui Yang, ...
    Article ID: 0180136
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: March 25, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Recently, we showed that oral administration of crystallized L-citrulline (L-Cit) caused hypothermia under a control thermoneutral temperature (CT) and provided thermotolerance under high ambient temperature (HT) in chicks. The aim of this study was to clarify whether oral administration of a medium containing L-Cit-producing live bacteria can reduce body temperature in chicks under CT. In Experiment 1, 7-day-old chicks were orally administered either a medium (containing mainly L-Cit-producing live bacteria and 277 mM L-Cit) or an equimolar amount of L-Cit to determine their effects on body temperature (acute treatment). In Experiment 2, chicks were subjected to the same treatment from 7 to 13 days of age (chronic treatment). Rectal and surface body temperatures were recorded daily after 1 h of treatment. Both acute and chronic oral administration of the medium, but not of the equimolar amount of L-Cit, significantly reduced the rectal and surface body temperatures of the chicks. Chronic administration of the medium resulted in consistently low rectal and surface body temperatures during the entire experimental period. In conclusion, acute or chronic administration of the medium containing L-Cit-producing live bacteria, but not of the equimolar amount of L-Cit, reduced the rectal and surface body temperatures of the chicks. Our results suggest that medium containing L-Cit-producing live bacteria can be used as a new feed supplement for lowering the body temperature of chicks.

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  • Kohzy Hiramatsu
    Article ID: 0190003
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: March 25, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Many types of endocrine cells have been identified in the gastroenteropancreatic system of vertebrates, which have subsequently been named with alphabet(s). L cells, which secrete the glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 are scattered in the intestinal epithelium. This review discusses the morphological features of chicken L cells and GLP-1 secretion from intestinal L cells. L cells, identified using GLP-1 immunohistochemistry, are open-type endocrine cells that are distributed in the jejunum and ileum of chickens. GLP-1 co-localizes with GLP-2 and neurotensin in the same cells of the chicken ileum. Intestinal L cells secrete GLP-1 in response to food ingestion. Proteins and amino acids, such as lysine and methionine, in the diet trigger GLP-1 secretion from the chicken intestinal L cells. The receptor that specifically binds chicken GLP-1 is expressed in pancreatic D cells, implying that the physiological functions of chicken GLP-1 differ from its functions as an incretin in mammals.

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  • Dez-Ann A. T. Sutherland, Christa F. Honaker, Elizabeth R. Gilbert, Le ...
    Article ID: 0180098
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: February 25, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Responses of an individual to food deprivation, such as a 16-h fast, are complex, and are influenced by environmental and genetic factors. Domestication is an ongoing process during which adaptations to changing environments occur over generations. Food deprivation by their caretakers is less for domestic chickens than for their junglefowl ancestors. Unlike domestic chicken, the junglefowl adapted over generations to periods of food deprivation, which may be reflected in differences in metabolic responses to brief periods without food. Here, we compared the blood glucose and plasma levels of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) among four populations when deprived of feed for 16 h. The four populations included a domestic White Rock experimental line (LWS) maintained for generations under ad libitum feeding, adult red junglefowl (RJF), and a reciprocal cross of the lines. Although there were significant differences in adult (31-week) body weight between the RJF (683g) and LWS (1282g), with the weight of F1 crosses being intermediate, the amount of abdominal fat relative to body weight was similar for all populations. Patterns for blood glucose responses to a glucose bolus after a 16-h fast were similar for the initial and final points in the parental and cross populations. However, RJF reached their peak faster than LWS, with the reciprocal cross intermediate to the parental populations. Plasma NEFA concentrations were higher after the 16-h fast than in fed states, with no population differences for the fasting state. However, in the fed state, NEFA levels were lesser for LWS than for others, which was reflected further in percentage change from fed to fasted. This larger change in LWS suggests differences in mobilization of energy substrates and implies that during domestication or development of the LWS line, thresholds for responses to acute stressors may have increased.

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  • Shoichi Fujita, Kazuhisa Honda, Mika Yamaguchi, Satoshi Fukuzo, Takaok ...
    Article ID: 0180127
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: February 25, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is a key regulator of muscle development and metabolism in chickens. Recently, we have demonstrated that intracerebroventricular administration of IGF-1 significantly decreased food intake in broiler chicks. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the IGF-1-induced anorexia and the anorexigenic effect of IGF-1 in different strains of commercial chicks have not been investigated. Neuropeptide Y (NPY, a hypothalamic orexigenic neuropeptide), agouti-related protein (AgRP, a hypothalamic orexigenic neuropeptide), and proopiomelanocortin (POMC, the precursor of hypothalamic anorexigenic neuropeptides) play important roles in the regulation of food intake in both mammals and chickens. Evidence shows that several cell signaling pathways in the hypothalamus are involved in regulating the feeding behavior of mammals. In the present study, we first investigated the effects of IGF-1 on the expression of appetite-regulating neuropeptides and phosphorylation of signaling molecules in the hypothalamus of broiler chicks. Intracerebroventricular administration of IGF-1 significantly increased the mRNA levels of POMC, whereas the mRNA levels of NPY and AgRP were not significantly altered. IGF-1 also significantly induced the phosphorylation of v-Akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1 (AKT) in the hypothalamus of chicks, but did not influence the phosphorylation of forkhead box O1, S6 protein, AMP-activated protein kinase, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2. We also compared the effect of IGF-1 on food intake in broiler chicks (a hyperphagic strain of chickens) and layer chicks. Results demonstrated that the threshold of IGF-1-induced anorexia in broiler chicks was higher than that in layer chicks. Our observations suggest that hypothalamic POMC and AKT may be involved in the IGF-1-induced anorexigenic pathway and that high threshold of IGF-1-induced anorexia in broiler chicks might be one of the causes of hyperphagia in broiler chicks. Overall, it appears that IGF-1 plays important roles in the central regulation of feeding behavior in chicks.

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  • Cyrill John P. Godinez, Masahide Nishibori, Megumi Matsunaga, Dinah M. ...
    Article ID: 0180131
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: February 25, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    A study was conducted to provide genetic information on the matrilineal phylogeny and genetic diversity of Red junglefowl (RJF) and native chickens in Samar Island, Philippines and to identify the genetic distance between Philippine junglefowls and other RJF species in Southeast Asia using complete mitochondrial DNA D-loop sequences. A total of 5 RJFs and 43 native chickens from Samar Island were included in this study. The results showed that Samar RJFs had a nucleotide diversity of 0.0050 ± 0.0016, which was lower than those of three subspecies of Gallus gallus: G. g. gallus, G. g. spadiceus, and G. g. jabouillei. Meanwhile, Samar native chickens showed lower nucleotide diversity (0.0056 ± 0.0004) than domestic fowls in some neighboring Southeast Asian countries, but higher than those in African and European countries. Phylogenetic analysis showed that 3 haplotypes of Samar RJFs clustered to haplogroup D1, and that 2 haplotypes clustered to haplogroup D2. Chickens native to Samar Island showed 100% resemblance to those in the haplogroup shared by domestic chickens and RJFs. Haplogroups A and B and sub-haplogroups D1 and E1 were the more widely distributed matrilineal lineages in Samar Island. Phylogenetic analysis of Samar RJFs showed that they were closely related to Myanmar RJFs (99.6%), Indonesia RJFs (99.5%), and Thailand RJFs (99.1%). This study is an initial investigation estimating the matrilineal phylogeny and genetic diversity of chicken populations in Samar Island, Philippines for developing strategies aimed at the future conservation and improvement of valuable genetic resources.

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  • Zhiqun Yan, Naomasa Kamiguri, Naoki Isobe, Shin-Ichi Kawakami
    Article ID: 0180135
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: February 25, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Testosterone (T) is known to induce aggressive behavior, mainly in male animals. Subcutaneous implantation of T-filled silastic tubes, rather than intramuscular injection of T, is generally recommended for long-term treatment using exogenous T. However, the effect of T implantation on chicken aggressive behavior has not been investigated. In addition, the concentration of T required to induce aggressive behavior or whether rearing conditions such as isolated- or grouped-raising affect T-induced aggressive behavior in chickens is not known. The present study aimed to examine the relationship between the lengths of T-filled tubes, blood T concentration, and aggressive behavior in group- and isolation-raised male layer chicks. The testes were bilaterally removed and silactic tubes of various lengths filled with crystalline T were subcutaneously implanted at 14 days of age. A social interaction test was performed to quantitatively assess chick aggressive behavior at 32 days of age. Comb weight and size were used to assess the activation of endogenous androgen receptors. Total aggression frequencies (TAF) and aggression establishment rate (AER) were used to evaluate aggressiveness. Significant positive correlations (P < 0.001) were observed between the comb parameters and plasma T concentration. In the isolation-raised chicks, the TAF and AER were high irrespective of the lengths of the implanted T tubes or the corresponding plasma T concentrations. However, in the group-raised chicks, the AER tended to differ between the T-implanted aggressors (P = 0.0902), and the AER significantly increased with implantation of 1.0-cm-long T-filled tubes (P < 0.05), which corresponded to approximately 47pg/mL plasma T concentration. These results suggest that both grouped raising and approximately 47pg/mL plasma T concentration are required for the induction of T-dependent aggressive behavior, and that isolation-induced aggressive behavior is T-independent in male layer chicks.

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  • Takeshi Ohkubo, Susumu Atomura, Hiromi Adachi, Daisuke Murase
    Article ID: 010111e
    Published: 2013
    [Advance publication] Released: February 22, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    The above article released online on February 25, 2011 as advanced publication has been withdrawn by authors.
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  • Guang-Zhi He, Wei-Yi Tian, Shu-Xuan Deng
    Article ID: 010133e
    Published: 2013
    [Advance publication] Released: February 22, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    The above article released online on April 25, 2011 as advanced publication has been withdrawn by Editorial Office due to serious concerns on data.
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  • Guang-Zhi He, Wei-Yi Tian, Shu-Xuan Deng
    Article ID: 010133
    Published: 2011
    [Advance publication] Released: April 25, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    The above article released online on April 25, 2011 as advanced publication has been withdrawn by Editorial Office due to serious concerns on data.
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  • Takeshi Ohkubo, Susumu Atomura, Hiromi Adachi, Daisuke Murase
    Article ID: 010111
    Published: 2011
    [Advance publication] Released: February 25, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    The above article released online on February 25, 2011 as advanced publication has been withdrawn by authors.
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