To investigate the population structure and genetic diversity of indigenous chicken breeds in Guizhou, a total of 150 individual samples were collected from 12 breeds, including seven local chicken breeds in Guizhou Province, three Chinese native breeds found in other provinces, and two commercial breeds. The genotype datasets were obtained using a 50K single nucleotide polymorphism array method, and then a series of population analyses were performed. The obtained population parameters and linkage disequilibrium decay indicated a higher degree of genetic diversity in Guizhou chickens than in commercial breeds. Two Guizhou local breeds, Wumeng black-bone and Weining, were clustered with a breed from a neighboring province, Xinwen black-bone, which exhibited similar ancestral composition patterns. A newly found breed, Wumeng crested, had high genetic diversity and displayed genetic differences from other Guizhou breeds. These findings provide insight into the establishment of efficient conservation and utilization programs for Guizhou chicken breeds.
The study was conducted to test the effects of using yeast culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) as feed additive on the growth performance, noxious gas emission, utilization of nutrients, excreta microbial count, and meat quality of broilers. In total, 360 one-day-old Ross 308 broilers with average body weight (BW) of 42.90±1.43 g were randomly selected and allotted to two groups; they were fed either a basal diet (control) or a basal diet supplemented with 1% yeast culture (YC). Each treatment group had 10 replication pens and each replication contained 18 birds. The experiment was divided into 3 phases (1 to 7, 8 to 21, and 22 to 35 days) for growth performance observation. In the 1st phase (1 to 7 days), only the body weight gain (BWG) significantly increased (P<0.05) in birds with the YC diet compared to the control diet. Significant effects on BWG (P<0.05) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) (P<0.05) were seen in birds receiving the YC-supplemented diet in the 3rd phase (22 to 35 days) as compared to the control diet. In addition, during the overall period (1–35 d), BWG was significantly higher (P<0.05) and FCR was reduced (P<0.05). Throughout this experiment, the meat quality, nutrient utilization, noxious gas emission, and bacterial count in the excreta did not vary significantly between the groups. This study proved that a higher dose of YC (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) supplementation could maintain the consistent positive effect on broiler growth but eliminated the speculated outcomes on digestibility, bacterial count, or excreta gas emission.
Insects are a potential source of proteins and fats which can be incorporated into diets of broiler chickens. Accordingly, black soldier fly larvae oil (BSFLO) needs to be tested as an appropriate fat source to produce healthy chickens for consumers. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the replacement of soybean oil (SBO) with BSFLO in broiler diets on intestinal health and blood profiles. A total of 210 one-day-old male broilers were randomly allocated to three dietary treatments (10 replicates of seven birds per group): a control diet and two experimental diets in which SBO was replaced with 50% (50 BSFLO) or 100% (100 BSFLO) BSFLO. At the end of the study (35 days), 18 birds (six broilers per treatment) were slaughtered to determine the intestinal morphology, digestibility, and volatile fatty acid (VFA) profile. Blood samples were collected from 24 randomly selected birds (eight broilers per treatment) to determine the blood profiles. BSFLO supplementation positively affected villus height but did not affect digestibility. BSFLO showed no adverse effects on the VFA and blood profiles. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that SBO can be replaced by BSFLO without any adverse effects on broiler health.
This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of probiotic Bacillus subtilis C-3102 feed additive on quality characteristics including strength, thickness, and weight of eggshells of Boris Brown laying hens. The control group (n=64) was fed a basal diet comprised of maize and feed rice, whereas the experimental group (n=64) was fed a basal diet supplemented with B. subtilis C-3102 (3×105 CFU/g) starting at 49 weeks of age. From 67 to 69 weeks, all hens were induced to molt using an anorexic program; then, the birds in both groups returned to their respective diets (from 69 to 82 weeks). Eggshell strength, measured six times with 60 eggs selected before the molting treatment, was significantly greater in the C-3102 group than in the control group at 51, 59, 63, and 66 weeks (3.45, 3.44, 3.28, and 3.13 kg/cm2; P<0.05, 0.05, 0.01, and 0.01, respectively). Moreover, eggshell strength—measured three times after the molting treatment—was significantly greater in the C-3102 group than in the control group at 73 and 77 weeks (3.79 and 3.65 kg/cm2; P<0.01 and 0.01, respectively). Eggshell thickness was also significantly greater in the C-3102 group than in the control group at 73 and 77 weeks (0.400 and 0.390 mm; P<0.01 and 0.01, respectively). Fecal samples collected from eight hens of each group at 70 weeks of age after forced molting, showed a significantly higher proportion of Lactobacillus spp. in the C-3102 group (8.94 log CFU/g) (P<0.05) than in the control group (8.63 log CFU/g). Clostridium spp. abundance was significantly lower in the C-3102 group (2.92 log CFU/g) than in the control group (4.3 log CFU/g). These results suggest that C-3102 supplementation improves eggshell quality in aged laying hens, particularly after forced molting.
To determine whether persimmon peel (PP) showing high chitinase activity could alleviate the detrimental dietary effects of chitin-rich shrimp meal (SM), we assessed the laying performance, nitrogen (N) balance, and egg quality of laying hens provided with SM diets containing PP. We also examined the color and antioxidant properties of egg yolk, as we anticipated these would be improved by providing SM and PP. Seventy-two laying hens (45 weeks of age) were allotted to one of the nine dietary treatments (eight hens each), namely three levels of SM (0%, 10%, and 15%)×three levels of PP (0%, 6%, and 8%), and fed with the experimental diets over a period of 6 weeks. Hen-day egg production, feed intake, egg mass, feed conversion ratio, and N balance reduced with increasing levels of SM, whereas the reductions were recovered in a dose-dependent manner in response to increasing levels of PP; however, the SM0% treatment showed that PP exerted little effects. Notably, reductions in the Haugh unit and albumen height of eggs with increasing SM levels, and recovery by provision of increasing levels of dietary PP, were observed. Yolk color was improved by SM, although PP exerted little effect, whereas the antioxidant properties of yolk were enhanced by the inclusion of both SM and PP in diets. Furthermore, eggshell strength, weight, and thickness were enhanced with increasing levels of SM, whereas dietary PP had little effect on these parameters. Thus, we suggest that PP can alleviate the negative effects of dietary SM and improve egg quality, without causing a reduction in laying performance, provided that the level of supplementary PP in diets is less than 8%. These findings accordingly indicate that PP is a promising feed constituent for laying hens fed with SM diets.
Nutrition and energy are essential for poultry growth and production performance. Fasting and refeeding have been widely used to study the effects of nutrition, energy, and related mechanisms in chicken. Previous studies have shown that geese have a strong capacity for fat synthesis and storage; thus, changes in the goose liver transcriptome may be different from those in chicken assessed with a model of fasting and refeeding. However, the responses of the goose liver transcriptome to fasting and refeeding have not yet been addressed. In this study, 36 70-day-old Si Ji geese with similar body weight were randomly assigned to three groups: control (ad libitum feeding), fasting (fasted for 24 h), and refeeding (fast for 24 h followed by 2-h feeding) groups. After treatment, eight geese per group were sacrificed for sample collection. Liver samples from four geese in each group were subjected to transcriptome analysis, followed by validation of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) using quantitative polymerase chain reaction with the remaining samples. As a result, 155 DEGs (73 up-regulated) were identified between the control and fasting groups, and 651 DEGs (321 up-regulated) were identified between the fasting and refeeding groups. The enrichment analyses of Gene Ontology terms and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways showed that fasting mainly influenced material metabolism in the liver, especially lipid metabolism; in contrast, refeeding affected not only lipid metabolism but also glucose and amino acid metabolism. In addition, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) signaling pathway may play an important role in lipid metabolism. In conclusion, fasting and refeeding have a strong effect on lipid metabolism in the goose liver; specifically, fasting promotes fatty acid oxidation and inhibits fatty acid synthesis, and refeeding has the opposite effect. The model of fasting and refeeding is suitable for goose nutrition studies.
Glycation is a non-enzymatic reaction, and amino acids are glycated by glucose in vivo. Tryptophan is glycated with glucose to form two types of glycated compounds, tryptophan-Amadori product and (1R, 3S)-1-(D-gluco-1, 2, 3, 4, 5-pentahydroxypentyl)-1, 2, 3, 4-tetrahydro-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid (PHP-THβC). Although PHP-THβC can be incorporated into various chicken embryonic cells, the mechanism of its incorporation into intracellular fluids has not been clarified. In this study, we examined whether PHP-THβC once incorporated into various chicken embryonic cells can combine with proteins. Embryonic cells from the breast muscle, liver, spleen, kidney, proventriculus, gizzard, and skin were prepared and 3H-PHP-THβC was added to the culture medium at final concentrations of 0, 200, 400, 600, and 800 µM to examine the incorporation of PHP-THβC. After 18 h of incubation, radioactivity was measured in the whole-cell and protein fractions of the chicken embryonic cells. As PHP-THβC concentration increased from 0 to 600 µM, its accumulation in the whole-cell fractions of all types of chicken embryonic cells linearly increased and reached the maximum level. The saturated PHP-THβC accumulation in the whole-cell fractions suggests that PHP-THβC could be incorporated into intracellular fluids across cellular membranes by some transporter proteins. As PHP-THβC concentration increased from 0 to 800 µM, its accumulation in the protein fractions of all types of chicken embryonic cells increased in a linear manner and reached a maximum level in the 800 µM PHPTHβC treatment group. This is the first study to indicate that a part of PHP-THβC incorporated into the whole-cell fraction was detected in the protein fraction of various chicken embryonic cells.
Communication between tissues and organs plays an important role in the maintenance of normal physiological functions as well as the occurrence and development of diseases. Communication molecules act as a bridge for interactions between tissues and organs, playing not only a local role in the tissues and organs where they are secreted but also in exerting systemic effects on the whole body via circulation. In this study, blood microRNA-omics analysis of overfed vs. normally fed (control) Landes geese revealed that the content of each of the 21 microRNAs (miRNAs) in the blood of overfed geese was significantly higher than that in the blood of control geese. These miRNAs may have systematic effects in the development of goose fatty liver as well as being candidate markers for the diagnosis of goose fatty liver. We determined the expression of miR-143, miR-455-5p, miR-222a-5p, miR-184, miR-1662, and miR-129-5p using quantitative PCR in goose fatty liver vs. that in normal liver. The expression of these miRNAs, except miR-129-5p, in goose fatty liver was also significantly higher than that in normal liver (P<0.05), suggesting that these blood miRNAs are released from goose fatty liver. In addition, we found that expression of IGFBP5, the predicted target gene of miR-143, was significantly decreased in goose fatty liver vs. the normal liver (P<0.05), indicating that miR-143 may exert both local and systematic effects by inhibiting the expression of IGFBP5, thus promoting the development of goose fatty liver. In conclusion, we identified several miRNAs, including those we validated (i.e., miR-143, miR-455-5p, miR-222a-5p, miR-184, miR-1662, and miR-129-5p) that may serve as candidate markers in the diagnosis of goose fatty liver as well as local and global regulators contributing to the development of goose fatty liver.
Cultured cells are a useful resource for poultry scientists, since these cells allow scientists to evaluate biological responses to conditions such as infectious diseases in vitro while mimicking the whole-body response in birds. However avian cell culture requires an optimized basal medium, and there are currently relatively few options for this basal medium (medium 199 and KAv-1). This means that there is still room for the development of an optimal basal medium for avian cell culture. Here we compare KAv-1 medium, Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium (DMEM) and medium 199 during the culture of chick fibroblasts and determine that KAv-1 remains the optimal medium for these assays. Our results show that DNA damage is reduced in fibroblasts cultured in the KAv-1 medium, when compared to both DMEM and Medium 199 and that these cells also display improved growth dynamics in KAv-1 medium when compared to both DMEM and medium 199. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to describe a comparative analysis of culture media for avian cells, which would provide useful information for poultry scientists.
This study aimed to investigate the effects of thermal conditioning and folic acid on the methylation levels of the avian brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promoter region at the M3 and M9 positions in the early life of broiler chicks. In Experiment 1, male broiler chicks (day 3 of life) were orally injected with methyl cellulose solution with or without folic acid (25 mg). The chicks in the heat-treatment groups were immediately exposed to a high ambient temperature (40±0.5°C) for 12 h, while chicks in the non-heat treatment groups were left in the thermoneutral zone (30±0.5°C). The groups were as follows: 1) no thermal conditioning group without folic acid (control), 2) thermal conditioning group without folic acid, 3) no thermal conditioning group with folic acid, and 4) thermal conditioning group with folic acid. In Experiment 2, treatments were similar to those in Experiment 1, except for the usage of female chicks. After the treatments, the methylation levels of the BDNF promoter in chicks were determined using semiquantitative PCR. There were no significant differences between groups in the levels of methylation at the M3 position in both males and females as a result of thermal conditioning and folic acid treatment. Interestingly, significant effects of thermal conditioning and folic acid treatment on methylation at the M9 position were found. BDNF methylation levels at M9 significantly decreased following thermal conditioning, while folic acid suppressed demethylation in both male and female chicks. These data suggest that folic acid and thermal conditioning affects DNA methylation patterns in the central nervous system of chicks, regardless of sex.