[Purpose] To evaluate the efficacy of our special rehabilitation method for patients with low back pain (LBP). [Subjects and Methods] All participants (n=33) received at least five individual 30-minute therapy sessions per week using the INFINITY method® and six group therapy sessions per week in a gymnasium and swimming pool, each lasting 30 minutes and including the INFINITY method®. The treatment lasted between four to seven weeks. Plantar function using a graphic method (computer plantography), graphical quantification of postural control during static standing (posturography), and pain were measured and evaluated before and after rehabilitation therapy. The INFINITY method® is a special rehabilitation method for patients with musculoskeletal problems. The method focuses on stabilization and strengthening of the trunk, dorsal and abdominal muscles, including the deep stabilization system which is closely linked with diaphragmatic breathing. It teaches the central nervous system to control muscles more precisely. [Results] Plantar functions, postural control in the upright stance and pain of LBP patients were significantly improved by 4−7 weeks of rehabilitation treatment with the INFINITY method®. There were significant differences in all measured dependent variables of the patients between before and after treatment. [Conclusion] Rehabilitation therapy with the INFINITY method® positively influences body stabilization and pain in patients with problems of the lumbar spine. This method presents a new improved approach (with enhanced effect) to rehabilitation therapy for LBP patients.
[Purpose] Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a disease of civilization with epidemiological coverage. An integral component of a comprehensive process of type 2 diabetes mellitus prevention and treatment is reasonably proportioned exercise. The aim of the study was to evaluate the weekly physical activity of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and healthy subjects with respect to recommendations of the American College of Sports Medicine and American Diabetes Association. [Subjects] The study involved 31 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (treatment duration 9 ± 0.8) and 31 healthy people. [Methods] Physical activity levels were determined by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. A χ2 test was applied to determine the percentage of people who met recommendations. [Results] Analysis of the obtained results demonstrated that the intensity of physical activity in patients with diabetes was moderate or low. The men in the control group met the recommendations for standard health-related activities significantly more often than the patients with diabetes. In women, there was no such relationship, since most of the women were insufficiently physically active. [Conclusion] The conclusion to be drawn is that there is an urgent need to develop and implement effective programs to enhance physical activity among people at risk of diseases of civilization, including type 2 diabetes.
[Purpose] This study was conducted to examine physical status and life satisfaction of workers in Korea. [Subjects] In total, 25,455 workers from eight geographical areas were evaluated from 2007 to 2008. [Methods] Physical status of the subjects was measured based on cardiopulmonary endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, and explosive muscular strength, and a life satisfaction index was used to measure life satisfaction. [Results] Higher levels of cardiopulmonary endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, and explosive muscular strength of workers were correlated with higher life satisfaction. [Conclusion] The result suggests it is necessary to improve life satisfaction through continuous health management of workers.
Ji-Woong Noh, Byoung-Sun Park, Mee-Young Kim, Lim-Kyu Lee, Seung-Min Yang, Won-Deok Lee, Yong-Sub Shin, Ju-Hyun Kim, Jeong-Uk Lee, Taek-Yong Kwak, Tae-Hyun Lee, Ju-Young Kim, Jaehong Park, Junghwan Kim
[Purpose] This study describes the characteristics of injuries in strike and non-strike combat sports, and the results are intended for use in the area of sports physiotherapy research. [Subjects and Methods] The study was conducted on 159 athletes involved in a variety of combat sports. The participants included elite college players of the following sports: judo (47), ssireum (19), wrestling (13), kendo (30), boxing (16), and taekwondo (34). Of the participants, 133 were male and 26 were female. In the case of ssireum and boxing, all of the athletes were male. [Results] In the case of the combat sports, the types of injury and injured regions differed according to playing style. Dislocation and injuries to the neck, shoulders, and elbows were more frequent in the non-strike sports, while injuries to the wrists and hands were more frequent in the strike sports. There was a high incidence of sprains, strains, bruises, and injuries to the lower limbs in both groups. [Conclusion] We suggest that the characteristics of injuries in combat sports differ according to playing style, and our study will therefore provide physical therapists and researchers with information that can be used to prevent injury.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of energy expenditure rate on work productivity performance at different levels of production standard time. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty industrial workers performed repetitive tasks at three different levels of production standard time, normal, hard, and very hard. Work productivity and energy expenditure rate were recorded during the experimental tasks. [Results] The work productivity target was not attainable for the hard and very hard production standard times. This was attributed to the energy expenditure rate, which increased as the level of production standard time became harder. The percentage change in energy expenditure rate for the very hard level (32.5%) relative to the normal level was twice that of the hard level (15.5%), indicating a higher risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders for the harder production standard time. The energy expenditure rate for the very hard production standard time (1.36 kcal/min) was found to exceed the maximum energy expenditure rate recommended for light repetitive tasks involving both arms (1.2 kcal/min). [Conclusion] The present study shows that working with an energy expenditure rate that is either equal to or above the maximum energy expenditure rate of the tasks results in decreased work productivity performance due to the onset of physical fatigue and a higher risks of work-related musculoskeletal disorders.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of visibility and types of ground surface (stable and unstable) during the performance of squats on the muscle activities of the vastus medialis oblique (VMO) and vastus lateralis (VL). [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 25 healthy adults in their 20s. They performed squats under four conditions: stable ground surface (SGS) with vision-allowed; unstable ground surface (UGS) with vision-allowed; SGS with vision-blocked; and UGS with vision-blocked. The different conditions were performed on different days. Surface electromyogram (EMG) values were recorded. [Results] The most significant difference in the activity of the VMO and VL was observed when the subjects performed squats on the UGS, with their vision blocked. [Conclusion] For the selective activation of the VMO, performing squats on an UGS was effective, and it was more effective when subjects’ vision was blocked.
[Purpose] This study applied proprioceptive circuit exercise to patients with degenerative knee osteoarthritis and examined its effects on knee joint muscle function and the level of pain. [Subjects] In this study, 14 patients with knee osteoarthritis in two groups, a proprioceptive circuit exercise group (n = 7) and control group (n = 7), were examined. [Methods] IsoMed 2000 (D&R Ferstl GmbH, Hemau, Germany) was used to assess knee joint muscle function, and a Visual Analog Scale was used to measure pain level. [Results] In the proprioceptive circuit exercise group, knee joint muscle function and pain levels improved significantly, whereas in the control group, no significant improvement was observed. [Conclusion] A proprioceptive circuit exercise may be an effective way to strengthen knee joint muscle function and reduce pain in patients with knee osteoarthritis.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the effects of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation techniques and simple exercise on subjective pain reduction and blood flow velocity in supraspinatus tear patients and to evaluate muscle recovery. [Subjects and Methods] The 20 subjects of this study were diagnosed with supraspinatus tears by MRI. The subjects have performed PNF techniques and Simple exercise for 12 weeks. [Results] After 12 weeks of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation techniques and simple exercise, the blood flow velocity, Visual Analogue Scale, and disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand score showed statistically significant difference. Also, the difference between the proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation techniques and simple exercise was statistically significant. [Conclusion] In conclusion, 12 weeks of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation treatment and simple exercise therapy had no effect on pain reduction in patients with supraspinatus tear, but in terms of functionality, the proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation treatment was effective.
[Purpose] The objective of this study was to perform forward bending of the trunk and reaching training in chronic stroke patients and to investigate subsequent changes in trunk control, dynamic balance, and gait. [Subject] Twenty-three chronic stroke patients were randomly divided into two groups, with 10 patients in the forward bending of the trunk and reaching group and 13 patients in the control group. [Methods] Both groups underwent 30 minutes of rehabilitation therapy, five days a week, for four weeks. The forward bending of the trunk and reaching group additionally performed forward bending of the trunk and reaching training five times a week for four weeks, which involved four sets of pressing buttons 35 times, for a total of 140 button presses per session. The subjects were tested before and after training using the Trunk Impairment Scale, Berg Balance Scale, Timed Up and Go Test, Six-Minute Walking Test, and 10-Meter Walking Test. Trunk control, dynamic balance, and walking ability were compared between the two groups. [Result] The results of the study showed that the results of the Trunk Impairment Scale, Berg Balance Scale, Timed Up and Go Test, Six-Minute Walking Test improved significantly in the FBR group, while there were no significant differences in the control group. [Conclusion] This study results suggest that forward bending of the trunk and reaching training can be an effective exercise method for chronic stroke patients.
[Purpose] This study investigated the effects of Nordic walking on physical functions and depression in frail people aged 70 years and above. [Subjects] Twenty frail elderly individuals ≥70 years old were assigned to either a Nordic walking group (n=8) or general exercise group (n=10). [Methods] The duration of intervention was equal in both groups (3 sessions/week for 12 weeks, 60 min/session). Physical function (balance, upper extremity strength, lower extremity strength, weakness) and depression were examined before and after the interventions. [Results] With the exception of upper extremity muscle strength, lower extremity strength, weakness, balance, and depression after Nordic walking demonstrated statistically significant improvement. However, in the general exercise group, only balance demonstrated a statistically significant improvement after the intervention. There were significant differences in the changes in lower extremity muscle strength, weakness and depression between the groups. [Conclusion] In conclusion, Nordic walking was more effective than general exercise. Therefore, we suggest that Nordic walking may be an attractive option for significant functional improvement in frail people over 70 years old.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of training using dual tasks on balance ability in stroke patients. [Subjects] Forty stroke patients were divided into a dual-task training group (N = 20) and a single task training group (N = 20) randomly. [Methods] The subjects in the single-task traing group stood in a comfortable position, faced a therapist, then threw a Swiss ball back and forth. They then performed balance training in which they raised and lowered their ankles while facing forward or moved objects from one table to another. The DTG performed dual tasks, which involved performing a task on an unstable surface using a balance pad. Both groups received training 30 min per day, five times per week, for eight weeks. [Results] The DTG showed significant increases in weight distribution rate, anterior limit of stability, posterior limit of stability, and BBS scores compared with the STG. [Conclusion] According to the results of this study, dual-task training and single-task training were effective in improving balance in stroke patients, dual task training is more effective for increasing balance ability.
[Purpose] To compare the influences of the active release technique (ART) and joint mobilization (JM) on the visual analog scale (VAS) pain score, pressure pain threshold (PPT), and neck range of motion (ROM) of patients with chronic neck pain. [Subjects] Twenty-four individuals with chronic neck pain were randomly and equally assigned to 3 groups: an ART group, a joint mobilization (JM) group, and a control group. Before and after the intervention, the degree of pain, PPT, and ROM of the neck were measured using a VAS, algometer, and goniometer, respectively. [Results] The ART group and JM group demonstrated significant changes in VAS and ROM between pre and post-intervention, while no significant change was observed in the control group. Significant differences in the PPT of all muscles were found in the ART group, while significant differences in all muscles other than the trapezius were found in the JM group. No significant difference in PPT was observed in any muscle of the control group. The posthoc test indicated no statistically significant difference between the ART and JM group, but the differences of variation in VAS, PPT, and ROM were greater in the ART group than in the JM and control groups. [Conclusion] ART for the treatment of chronic neck pain may be beneficial for neck pain and movement.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to carry out a comparitive analysis of hepatic fibrosis results of the liver hardness of patients with chronic liver disease as measured by elastography (TE), shear wave elastography (SWE), and liver biopsy. [Subjects and Methods] This study was a retrospective analysis of 304 patients who underwent SWE and TE before and after liver biopsy, taken from among patients who had been checked for liver fibrosis by liver biopsy between August 2013 and August 2014. We used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve to prove the diagnostic significance of liver stiffness, and then analyzed the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of SWE and TE, as well as the kappa index through cross-analysis of SWE, TE, and liver biopsy. [Results] For liver hardness, the sensitivity of SWE was 84.39%, the specificity of SWE was 97.92%, the accuracy of SWE was 87.33%, the positive predictive value of SWE was 99.32%, and the negative predictive value of SWE was 63.51%. The sensitivity of TE was 94.80%, the specificity of TE was 77.08%, the accuracy of TE was 90.95%, the positive predictive value of TE was 93.97%, and the negative predictive value of TE was 80.43%. [Conclusion] It is our opinion that SWE and TE are non-invasive methods that are more effective than the invasive methods used for diagnosing liver hardness. Invasive methods cover only a section of liver tissue, and are more likely to cause side effects during biopsy.
[Purpose] The purpose of the current research was to identify how gait training with shoe inserts affects the pain and gait of sacroiliac joint dysfunction patients. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty subjects were randomly selected and assigned to be either the experimental group (gait training with shoe insert group) or control group. Each group consisted of 15 patients. Pain was measured by Visual Analogue Scale, and foot pressure in a standing position and during gait was measured with a Gateview AFA-50 system (Alpus, Seoul, Republic of Korea). A paired sample t-test was used to compare the pain and gait of the sacroiliac joint before and after the intervention. Correlation between pain and walking after gait training with shoe inserts was examined by Pearson test. The level of significance was set at α=0.05. [Results] It was found that application of the intervention to the experimental group resulted in a significant decrease in sacroiliac joint pain. It was also found that there was a significant correlation between Visual Analogue Scale score and dynamic asymmetric index (r= 0.796) and that there was a negative correlation between Visual Analogue Scale score and forefoot/rear foot peak pressure ratio (r=-0.728). [Conclusion] The results of our analysis lead us to conclude that the intervention with shoe inserts had a significant influence on the pain and gait of sacroiliac joint patients.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify the imbalance of muscle recruitment in cervical flexor muscles during the craniocervical flexion test by using ultrasonography and to propose the optimal level of pressure in clinical craniocervical flexion exercise for people with neck pain. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 18 students (9 males and 9 females) with neck pain at D University in Gyeongsangbuk-do, South Korea, participated in this study. The change in muscle thickness in superficial and deep cervical flexor muscles during the craniocervical flexion test was measured using ultrasonography. The ratio of muscle thickness changes between superficial and deep muscles during the test were obtained to interpret the imbalance of muscle recruitment in cervical flexor muscles. [Results] The muscle thickness ratio of the sternocleidomastoid muscle/deep cervical flexor muscles according to the incremental pressure showed significant differences between 22 mmHg and 24 mmHg, between 24 mmHg and 28 mmHg, between 24 mmHg and 30 mmHg, and between 26 mmHg and 28 mmHg. [Conclusion] Ultrasonography can be applied for examination of cervical flexor muscles in clinical environment, and practical suggestion for intervention exercise of craniocervical flexors can be expected on the pressure level between 24 mmHg and 26 mmHg enabling the smallest activation of the sternocleidomastoid muscle.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of unstable modified wall squat exercises on the posture of female university students. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were 30 female university students who were equally and randomly allocated to an unstable modified wall squat exercises group the experimental group and a stable modified wall squat exercises group the control group. [Methods] Both groups performed their respective exercises for 30 minutes three times per week over a six-week period. Using BackMapper, trunk inclination, trunk imbalance, pelvic position, pelvic torsion, pelvic rotation, and position of the scapulae were evaluated. [Results] The unstable modified wall squat exercises group obtained significant results for trunk inclination, trunk imbalance, pelvic position, pelvic torsion, position of the scapulae, while the stable modified wall squat exercises group obtained significant results for trunk imbalance and pelvic position. [Conclusion] Unstable modified wall squat exercises may be applied as a method to correct the posture of average adults.
[Purpose] This study examined Nordic walking as an exercise intervention for the elderly with depression. [Subjects] Twenty-four patients who were diagnosed with depression were randomly selected and divided into two groups, an experimental group which performed Nordic walking, and a control group, which performed normal walking. [Methods] Both groups practiced their respective walking exercise for 50 minutes per day, three times a week for eight weeks. To compare the effects of the intervention, psychological factors using the Beck depression inventory and sleep quality was assessed using the Korean version Pittsburgh sleep quality index. Skeletal muscle mass, fat free mass, body mass index, body fat percentage, and basal metabolism were estimated three times by a body composition analyzer, before the intervention, four weeks after the intervention, and eight weeks after the intervention. [Results] There was a significant difference in depression with a main effect of time in both groups. There was also a significant difference in sleep in over time and interaction. The differences over time between the two groups were significant for depression, sleep, and skeletal muscle mass. [Conclusion] The results suggests that Nordic walking has a positive effect on depression and sleeping disorders of the elderly, suggesting that Nordic walking based exercise programs should be developed for the elderly who suffer from depression or a sleeping disorder.
[Purpose] The objective of this study was to examine the effect of cognitive rehabilitation using a computer on cognitive function and activities of daily living in stroke patients presenting impairment of cognitive function. [Subjects] Forty-six stroke patients were divided into two groups (a training group and control group) through random assignment. [Methods] The training group received rehabilitation therapy and an additional computerized cognitive rehabilitation program using The RehaCom software 30 minutes/day, 5 times/week for 5 weeks. The control group received only rehabilitation therapy including physical and occupational therapy. A comparative analysis on all subjects was conducted before and after the experiment using a cognitive test and activities of daily living test. [Results] After 5 weeks of therapy, the training group presented statistically significant improvement in cognitive function assessment items of digit span, visual span, visual learning, auditory continuous performance, visual continuous performance, and others compared with the control group but did not present statistically significant improvement in activities of daily living. [Conclusion] It was revealed through this study that computerized cognitive rehabilitation with the RehaCom program results in improvement in cognitive function and can be used as a treatment tool beneficial to stroke patients presenting cognitive impairment.
[Purpose] This study examined how the application of Low-Dye (LD) taping affected the pain and stability of patients with plantar fasciitis. [Subjects] The subjects were 30 patients with plantar fasciitis who were divided into two groups: a Low-Dye taping group (LTG, n=15) and a conservative treatment group (CTG, n=15). [Methods] The treatments were performed three times a week for six weeks in both groups. A visual analog scale (VAS) was used to evaluate the pain and stability of patients with plantar fasciitis, and the transfer area of the center of gravity (TAOCOG) was measured to evaluate stability using a BioRescue device. [Results] In the within-group comparison of the VAS, the LTG and CTG values significantly decreased. In the post-test between-group comparison, the VAS pain decreased more significantly in LTG than in CTG. In the within-group comparison of the TAOCOG, the LTG value significantly increased. In the post-test between-group comparison, the TAOCOG value increased more significantly than in LTG than in CTG. [Conclusion] Utilizing Low-Dye taping for patients with plantar fasciitis appears to be an effective intervention method for reducing pain and enhancing stability.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability of measuring the amount of pelvic floor elevation during pelvic and abdominal muscle contraction with a diagnostic ultrasonic imaging device. [Subjects] The study group comprised 11 healthy women without urinary incontinence or previous birth experience. [Methods] We measured the displacement elevation of the bladder base during contraction of the abdominal and pelvic floor muscles was measured using a diagnostic ultrasonic imaging device. The exercise was a four-part operation undertaken with the subjects in the lateral position. The reliability analysis included use of the interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to assess the reliability. [Results] ICC (1.1) values for the pelvic floor elevation measurement with a diagnostic ultrasonic imaging device were 0.98 [contraction of the transversus abdominis (TrA) muscle], 0.99 [contraction of pelvic floor muscles (PFMs)], 0.98 (co-contraction of the TrA and PFMs), and 0.98 (resistance of the TrA and PFMs). This study proved the reliability of the method because the coefficient of reliability was 0.97 or more for all of the measurements, even for those during exercise. [Conclusion] The diagnostic ultrasonic imaging device measures pelvic floor elevation with high reliability.
[Purpose] This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of mechanical horseback riding exercise on the balance ability of the elderly. [Subjects and Methods] Ten elderly patients were assigned to an experimental group, and they performed 15 min of horseback riding. Another 10 elderly patients were assigned to a control group, and they performed 15 min of one-leg standing exercise. Both exercises were repeated five times a week for a total of six weeks. The participants’ balance ability was evaluated. [Results] The horseback-riding group showed significant differences between the pre-and post-test balance abilities as assessed by the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test. [Conclusion] Horseback riding effectively improves the balance ability of the elderly. Horseback riding should be considered as a therapeutic method for the physical therapy of the elderly.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the addition of NMES to the post-TKA rehabilitation protocol on the functional status and quality of life of the patients. [Subjects and Methods] Patients were randomized into an exercise (control) and electrical stimulation (NMES) group. A home exercise program was prescribed for the control group. For the neuromuscular stimulation group 30 minute electrical stimulation applied to the vastus medialis muscle 5 days a week for 4 to 6 weeks. VAS, the timed up and go test, WOMAC and SF-36 scores were evaluated preoperatively and postoperatively at the first month and the third month of the follow-up period. [Results] Both the NMES group had 30 patients each, with 2 and 1 male patients respectively. The comparisons of WOMAC results at month 1 revealed that pain, stiffness, and total scores of the NMES group was significantly better than those of control group at the first and third months. Significantly better physical function and SF-36 subscales, except mental health, were found for the NMES group at the first month of follow-up. [Conclusion] The inclusion of the neuromuscular electrical stimulation program after knee arthroplasty was more effective at providing rapid improvements in knee pain, walking distance and quality of life.
[Purpose] This study evaluated the effect of smartphone use on lumbar spine repositioning error and lumbar curvature while walking on a treadmill. [Subjects] A total of 20 healthy individuals (18 males and 2 females) volunteered for this study. [Methods] The subjects walked for 20 min on a treadmill while using a smartphone. To determine the effect of smartphone use, lumbar repositioning error was measured using an electronic goniometer while lumbar curvature was assessed using a Spinal Mouse before and immediately after treadmill use. Differences in the lumbar repositioning error and lumbar curvature data between the pre- and post-walking were compared using the paired t-test. [Results] The lumbar spine repositioning error was significantly greater post-walking compared with pre-walking (6.70±2.91° vs. 3.02±1.79°). There was no significant difference in lumbar curvature between pre- and post-walking (14.24±3.18° vs. 13.94±3.12°). [Conclusion] These findings indicate that the lumbar repositioning error increased immediately after walking while using a smartphone, but that the lumbar curvature was unchanged.
[Purpose] The aim of the present study was to examine, in patients requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation, if the response of tidal volume during manually assisted breathing is dependent upon both upper extremity muscle tone and the pressure intensity of manually assisted breathing. [Subjects] We recruited 13 patients on prolonged mechanical ventilation, and assessed their upper extremity muscle tone using the modified Ashworth scale (MAS). The subjects were assigned to either the low MAS group (MAS≤2, n=7) or the high MAS group (MAS≥3, n=6). [Methods] The manually assisted breathing technique was applied at a pressure of 2 kgf and 4 kgf. A split-plot ANOVA was performed to compare the tidal volume of each pressure during manually assisted breathing between the low and the high MAS groups. [Results] Statistical analysis showed there were main effects of the upper extremity muscle tone and the pressure intensity of the manually assisted breathing technique. There was no interaction between these factors. [Conclusion] Our findings reveal that the tidal volume during the manually assisted breathing technique for patients with prolonged mechanical ventilation depends upon the patient’s upper extremity muscle tone and the pressure intensity.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the effects of visual feedback training on the balance of stroke patients performing ankle joint strategy exercises. [Subjects and Methods] In this study, 26 stroke patients were randomly and equally assigned to a visual feedback group (VFG) and a visual disuse group (VDG). They performed ankle joint strategy exercises for 30 minutes, three times per week for six weeks. The patients’ balance ability was measured before and after the exercises to compare the effects of visual feedback. To assess balance ability, the limits of stability (LOS) and the distance the center of pressure (CoP) moved were measured using a BT4 portable force platform. The Berg balance scale (BBS) and the timed up and go (TUG) test were also used to assess balance before and after the exercises. [Results] Changes in LOS were significant in the anterior, posterior, left, and right directions in each group, and the interactions between the two groups were significant in the posterior, left, and right directions. The changes in TUG and BBS results between pre-test and the post-test were statistically significant in the two groups, and also between the groups. [Conclusion] Visual feedback training had a positive effect on balance when ankle joint strategy exercises were performed by stroke patients to improve balance.
[Purpose] We developed socks which improve foot sensation and investigated their effect on the velocity and stride length of elderly women crossing obstacles. [Subjects] Ten community-dwelling, elderly women who could walk independently were recruited. [Methods] We measured velocity and stride length using the GAITRite system while the participants crossed obstacles under three conditions: barefoot, wearing ordinary socks, and wearing the socks which improve foot sensation. [Results] Velocity and stride length in bare feet and when wearing the sense-improving socks increased significantly compared to their values when wearing standard socks. Velocity and stride length did not differ between the bare foot and improved sock conditions. [Conclusion] Wearing socks helps protect the foot, but can decrease foot sensory input. Therefore, the socks which improve foot sensation were useful for preventing falls and protecting the feet of the elderly women while they crossed obstacles.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate health conditions and HRQoL (health-related quality of life) of community-dwelling populations with cancer, stroke, and CVD (cardiovascular disease) based on standardized data. [Subjects] The study subjects numbered 422 in total: 179 patients had cancer, 128 were stroke patients, and 115 were CVD patients. [Methods] This study used data collected during health interviews carried out as part of the sixth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Face-to-face health interviews were conducted by trained surveyors who visited households during 2013. The contents of the interviews included data on demographic factors, physical condition, psychological condition, and HRQoL. [Results] Stress perceptions related to health condition differed significantly across the populations of cancer, stroke, and CVD patients. The HRQoL items of mobility, self-care, usual activities, and anxiety/depression also differed significantly across these populations. [Conclusion] Healthcare teams will now be in a position to plan programs for improvement in these areas according to the features of each disease.
[Purpose] The aims of our study were, 1. to assess pain, limitation of movement ability, and functionality in osteoarthritis patients scheduled to undergo total knee arthroplasty, 2. to determine if pain (Group 1) or function loss (Group 2) has a greater influence on the decision of patients to have surgery, and 3. to compare results between Group 1 and Group 2. [Subject and Methods] Fifty-five osteoarthritis patients classified as grades 3 and 4 according to the Kellgren-Lawrence system of classification were evaluated for preoperative pain intensity with the Visual Analogue Scale, knee flexion/extension range of movement with a clinical goniometer, and function with the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index. Patients were examined to reveal their reasons regarding the decision to undergo total knee arthroplasty (pain or function loss). [Results] The Visual Analog Scale scores at rest and during activity were 5.62 and 7.42, the knee flexion range of movement and extension limitation were 93.17° and −7.04°, and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index value was 82.09. Regarding the decision to undergo surgery, 47.3% (n=26) of the knees were in Group 1, and 52.7% were in Group 2; the two groups were not significantly different. There were also no significant differences between the groups in Visual Analog Scale score during activity, the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index value, and knee flexion range of movement and extension limitation. The only statistically significant difference was found in the Visual Analog Scale score at rest in Group 1, which was significantly higher than that in Group 2. [Conclusion] Our results showed that osteoarthritis patients decided to undergo surgery only if all of the parameters were impaired significantly. Both pain and function loss have a similar impact on a patient’s decision to undergo surgery. We observed no significant difference in clinical and self-reported outcomes between patients who decided to undergo surgery due to pain or function loss.
[Purpose] We examined the improvement of hand function and activities of daily living in stroke patients after carrying out task-oriented training. [Subjects] Thirty-two patients who had been diagnosed with stroke and underwent rehabilitation therapy participated in the task-oriented training. [Methods] The participants carried out task-oriented training for 30 min per day for 4 weeks. Their hand function and activities of daily living were evaluated before and after the training. [Results] The task-oriented training had a significant impact in terms of improving hand function and activities of daily living. [Conclusion] According to the results of this study, task-oriented training resulted in improved hand function and activities of daily living in stroke patients.
[Purpose] The study aimed to characterize patients treated by rehabilitation section after establishment of an acute stroke unit. [Subjects and Methods] Medical consultation records of individuals with ischemic stroke were studied retrospectively, excluding individuals with hemorrhagic stroke, thrombolysis, previous Modified Rankin Scale ≥ 1, prior stroke, structural bone deformities, associated neurological disease, and prior cognitive deficit. The data evaluated were age, gender, etiology, localization, treatment received, ictus onset, hospitalization time, discharge date, and date of first evaluation at the rehabilitation center. The Modified Rankin Scale in 90 days after ictus was utilized to measure functional incapacity with the individuals divided into two groups, before and after acute stroke unit implementation (2010). Functional incapacity was compared between before and after acute stroke unit implementation by the Mann-Whitney test, χ2 test and Fisher’s exact test. [Results] The medical records of 170 patients were evaluated. In the group evaluated after 2010, the patients were significantly older and presented a shorter time between hospitalization and discharge, shorter time until the first evaluation in rehabilitation, and increased percentage of mild incapacity (Modified Rankin Scale = 0 to 2). [Conclusion] After acute stroke unit implementation, the patients treated in the rehabilitation section presented a shorter hospitalization time and rehabilitation delay and less functional incapacity.
[Purpose] This study aimed to examine the correlation between menopausal syndrome and sleep state of middle-aged women, and to examine the factors influencing menopausal syndrome. [Subjects] The subjects included 59 middle-aged women in Seoul, South Korea. [Methods] A cross-sectional design was adopted. The measurement tools were a general characteristics form, Menopause Symptom Index (MENSI), and sleep state scale. [Results] There was a significantly negative correlation between menopausal syndrome and sleep state of middle-aged women. The analyses showed that the prediction model was significant. The value of the adjusted R2 was 0.279, which corresponds to an explanatory power of 27.9%. The factor found to have the most influence on menopausal syndrome of middle-aged women was sleep state, followed by sexual life satisfaction, and health status. [Conclusion] Nursing intervention programs for alleviating menopausal syndrome of middle-aged women are essential in order to improve sleep state, sexual life satisfaction, and health status. The findings from this study will contribute to help them for controlling and relieving the menopausal syndrome of middle-aged women.
[Purpose] Video-assisted thoracic surgery and preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation are effective in preventing postoperative complications in patients with cardiopulmonary disease. The present study aims to elucidate the presence of postoperative pneumonia and atelectasis in patients with nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease who underwent lung resection with video-assisted thoracic surgery and preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation. [Subjects and Methods] Nineteen patients with nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease who had undergone lung resection with video-assisted thoracic surgery and preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation were enrolled in this study. The presence of postoperative pneumonia and atelectasis was evaluated, and preoperative and postoperative pulmonary functions were compared. [Results] Postoperative pneumonia and postoperative atelectasis were not observed. Decreases of pulmonary function were 5.9% (standard deviation, 8.5) in forced vital capacity (percent predicted) and 9.6% (standard deviation, 11.1) in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (percent predicted). [Conclusion] The present study indicates that the combination of lung resection with video-assisted thoracic surgery and preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation in patients with nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease may be effective in preventing postoperative complications.
[Purpose] Muscle tone is known to predict the motor function of the upper extremity within 12 months after onset in stroke survivors. The aim of this study was to investigate whether motor function of the upper extremity can predict the risk of hypertonia in chronic stroke survivors, and to analyze the correlation between the two variables to determine the predictive validity. [Subjects and Methods] Forty-three chronic stroke survivors were assessed using the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) for elbow flexor tone, the Fugl-Meyer assessment of the upper extremity (FM-UE), and the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT) for upper extremity motor recovery and function. [Results] Elbow flexor tone (MAS≥1+) increased by 0.246 compared with the baseline muscle tone even at month 12 and appeared to negatively affect the motor function of the upper extremity. The cutoff value for predicting muscle tone (MAS≥1+) was 24 for FM-UE and 15.5 for ARAT. FM-UE had the biggest impact on elbow flexor tone (MAS≥1+), and the risk of elbow flexor hypertonia (MAS≥1+) increased 0.764-fold for a cutoff value of FM-UE≤24 compared with a cutoff value of FM-UE>24. [Conclusion] The results show that the most important variable for predicting muscle tone of the elbow flexor in stroke survivors is the FM assessment of the upper extremity.
[Purpose] We examined the impact of exercise on the expression pattern of nerve growth factor in the spinal cord of rats with induced osteoarthritis of the knee joint. [Subjects and Methods] To produce monosodium iodoacetate-induced arthritis, rats were administered 3 mg/50 µL monosodium iodoacetate through the interarticular space of the right knee. The animals were randomly divided into four groups: rats sacrificed 3 weeks after 0.9% saline solution injection (shame group, n = 10), rats sacrificed 3 weeks after monosodium iodoacetate injection (control group, n = 10), rats with 4 weeks rest from 3 weeks after monosodium iodoacetate injection (no exercise group, n = 10), and rats with 4 weeks treadmill training from 3 weeks after monosodium iodoacetate injection (exercise group, n = 10). Serial coronal sections of the lumbar spine were cut and processed for immunohistochemistry. [Results] The expression of nerve growth factor was significantly increased in the EG compared with the SG, CG, and NEG. [Conclusion] Increased nerve growth factor expression in the spinal cord due to exercise-induced stimulation can be effective in treating chronic pain. Such treatment will contribute not only to improving the joint function of patients with chronic pain but also their quality of life.
[Purpose] To investigate how increased training participation time and intensity affect postural control in young soccer players. [Subjects and Methods] Variability and mean velocity of sway were compared in U14 and U20 players during two-legged and one-legged quiet stances on a force plate with the player’s eyes open or closed. [Results] U20 players performed much better with vision, and eyes closure considerably deteriorated their performance. The increased reliance on vision in the older group most likely resulted from the longer exposure of the U20 players to strenuous exercise, overload, and cumulative residual effects of earlier contusions. [Conclusion] These specific postural deficits in apparently healthy soccer players were found only because of objective and sensitive posturographic tests. The results of this study suggest that such tests should be regularly performed to increase the efficiency and precision of motor control evaluation in athletes. The corresponding results may help therapists mitigate the indiscernible yet detrimental changes in postural control that predispose soccer players to injury and negatively affect their performance.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes of cardiopulmonary function in normal adults after the Rockport 1 mile walking test. [Subjects and Methods] University students (13 males and 27 females) participated in this study. Before and after the Rockport 1 mile walking test, pulmonary function, respiratory pressure, and maximal oxygen uptake were measured. [Results] Significant improvements in forced vital capacity and maximal inspiratory pressure were observed after the Rockport 1 mile walking test in males, and significant improvements in forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume at 1 s, maximal inspiratory pressure, and maximal expiratory pressure were observed after the Rockport 1 mile walking test in females. However, the maximal oxygen uptake was not significantly different. [Conclusion] Our findings indicate that the Rockport 1 mile walking test changes cardiopulmonary function in males and females, and that it may improve cardiopulmonary function in middle-aged and older adults and provide basic data on cardiopulmonary endurance.
[Purpose] This study compared the analgesic effects of extracorporeal shock wave therapy with those of ultrasound therapy in patients with chronic tennis elbow. [Subjects] Fifty patients with tennis elbow were randomized to receive extracorporeal shock wave therapy or ultrasound therapy. [Methods] The extracorporeal shock wave therapy group received 5 treatments once per week. Meanwhile, the ultrasound group received 10 treatments 3 times per week. Pain was assessed using the visual analogue scale during grip strength evaluation, palpation of the lateral epicondyle, Thomsen test, and chair test. Resting pain was also recorded. The scores were recorded and compared within and between groups pre-treatment, immediately post-treatment, and 3 months post-treatment. [Results] Intra- and intergroup comparisons immediately and 3 months post-treatment showed extracorporeal shock wave therapy decreased pain to a significantly greater extent than ultrasound therapy. [Conclusion] Extracorporeal shock wave therapy can significantly reduce pain in patients with chronic tennis elbow.
[Purpose] This study evaluated the effects of Thai dance on cardiopulmonary factors in menopausal women. [Subjects] Sixty-six menopausal women aged 40 years or more. [Methods] Subjects were randomly assigned to either the Thai dance or control group. The Thai dance group performed a traditional Thai dancing exercise program for 60 minutes, 3 times per week for 6 weeks. The control group received general health guidance. The 6-minutewalk test, peak expiratory flow, forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second, maximal voluntary ventilation, and chest expansion were assessed at baseline and at the end of the study. [Results] Sixty-six menopausal women were eligible. At the end of the study, all variables were significantly better in the Thai dance group than the control group. Moreover, all variables improved significantly compared to baseline in the Thai dance group but not in the control group. For example, the mean 6-minutewalk test result in Thai dance group at the end of the study was 285.4 m, which was significantly higher than that at baseline (254.8 m) and the control group at baseline (247.0 m). [Conclusion] A 6-week Thai dance program improves cardiorespiratory endurance in menopausal women.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of various hand position widths during the push-up plus (PUP) exercise on the activity of the scapular stabilizing muscles and other upper-extremity muscles involved in the exercise. [Subjects and Methods] Nine healthy men participated in our study. The PUP exercise was performed on a stable surface in seven different hand positions, namely shoulder width (SW), and narrower SW (NSW) and wider SW (WSW) at 10%, 20%, and 30%. Surface electromyography was used to measure the muscle activities and muscle ratio of the upper trapezius (UT), middle trapezius, lower trapezius (LT), serratus anterior (SA), pectoralis major, deltoid anterior, latissimus dorsi (LD), and triceps muscles. [Results] The SA and LD muscle activities significantly decreased in the 30% NSW and 20% WSW hand positions, respectively. The UT/LT muscle ratio significantly increased in the 30% WSW hand position. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that during the PUP exercise, the SW hand position should be used. In the 30% NSW hand position, the SA muscle activity decreased, and the UT/ LT ratio increased in the 30% WSW hand position.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of a Korean computer-based cognitive rehabilitation program (CBCR) on the cognitive function and visual perception ability of patients with acute stroke. [Subjects] The subjects were 30 patients with acute stroke. [Methods] The subjects were randomly assigned to either the experimental group (EG) or the control group (CG). The EG subjects received CBCR with the CoTras program. The CG subjects received conventional cognitive rehabilitation. All subjects participated in a standard rehabilitation program according to a daily inpatient treatment schedule. In addition to standard rehabilitation, the subjects received 20 sessions (5 days a week for 4 weeks) of CBCR or conventional cognitive rehabilitation for 30 min. To compare the two groups, the Lowenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment (LOTCA) and Motor-free Visual Perception Test-3 (MVPT-3) were performed. [Results] Both groups showed significant improvement in LOTCA and MVPT-3. Furthermore, there were significant differences in LOTCA and MVPT-3 between the two groups. [Conclusion] CBCR with CoTras may contribute toward the recovery of cognitive function and visual perception in patients with acute stroke.
[Purpose] This study aimed to elucidate the effects of a novel walking training program with postural correction and visual feedback on walking function in patients with post-stroke hemiparesis. [Subjects] Sixteen subjects were randomly allocated to either the experimental group (EG) or the control group (CG), with eight subjects in each. [Methods] EG and CG subjects performed a 30-min treadmill walking training exercise twice daily for 2 weeks. EG subjects also underwent postural correction using elastic bands and received visual feedback during walking. The 10-m walk test was performed, and gait parameters were measured using a gait analysis system. [Results] All parameters showed significant main effects for the group factor and time-by-group interactions. Significant main effects for the time factor were found in the stride length and stance phase ratios. [Conclusion] The novel walking training program with postural correction and visual feedback may improve walking function in patients with post-stroke hemiparesis.
[Purpose] This study aimed to determine whether self-control mediates the relation between depression, stress, and activities of daily living in community residents with stroke. [Subjects and Methods] This study is a secondary analysis of data from 108 community-dwelling stroke patients in Korea. Data were collected through self-reporting questionnaires, including the Korean version of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, Korean version of the Brief Encounter Psychosocial Instrument, and the modified Barthel index. The path model was tested to investigate causal relations between variables, obtain maximum-likelihood estimates of model parameters, and provide goodness-of-fit indices. [Results] The proposed path model showed good fit to the data. Depression and stress have a significant direct effect on self-control and a significant indirect effect on activities of daily living through self-control. Depression and stress accounted for 28.0% of the variance in self-control. Depression, stress, and self-control accounted for 8.4% of the variance in explaining activities of daily living. [Conclusion] The level of self-control is an important indicator of activities of daily living in stroke patients. We suggest that interventions such as enhancement of confidence in one’s self-control ability could be effective in improving the physical activity of stroke patients with depressive mood and stress.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 6 weeks sling exercise training for clients with low back pain on the levels of pain, disability, muscular strength and endurance. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve chronic LBP subjects participated in this study. Subjects were randomly divided into a control group and a training group. Subjects in the training group performed sling exercise training for six weeks, and participants in the control group did not perform any exercise. [Results] Pain, disability levels and muscular strength significantly improved in the training group, but not in the control group. The left multifidus showed a significant improvement in muscular endurance, measured as the slope of the median frequency after training. [Conclusion] Six weeks of sling exercise training was effective at reducing pain intensity, and improving the disability level and trunk muscular strength of subjects with low back pain.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the speed of squat exercises on paretic lower extremity muscle activity in patients with hemiplegia following a stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Ten stroke patients performed fast and slow squat exercises for 2 seconds and 8 seconds, respectively. The muscle activities of the paretic and non-paretic sides of the rectus femoris muscle, the biceps femoris muscle, and the tibialis anterior muscle were assessed and compared using surface electromyography. [Results] The paretic side of the rectus femoris muscle showed statistically significant differences in the fast squat exercise group, which demonstrated the highest muscle activity during the rapid return to the upright position. [Conclusion] The rectus femoris muscle showed the highest muscle activity during the return to the upright position during the fast squat exercise, which indicates that the rectus femoris muscle is highly active during the fast squat exercise.
[Purpose] This study researched the influences of different loads on muscle activity of the posterior fibers of the gluteus medius in a one-leg standing position. [Subjects] Twenty-four healthy adult men participated in this study. [Methods] All participants performed the one-leg standing position under four conditions: the standard no-load condition, in which the non-weight-bearing leg was lifted and kept parallel to the back and then pelvic or lumbar rotation was performed without thorax rotation, and the 0 kg, 1 kg, and 3 kg load conditions, in which horizontal shoulder abduction was performed with a load of 0 kg, 1 kg, or 3 kg added to the hand. The electromyographic activity of the posterior fibers of the gluteus medius was measured using a wireless surface electromyography under all conditions. The electromyographic activity of each muscle under the four conditions during the one-leg stance was analyzed using one-way analysis of variance. [Results] The electromyographic activity of the posterior fiber of the gluteus medius was significantly increased under the 3 kg load condition compared with the no-load, 0 kg load, and 1 kg load conditions. [Conclusion] These findings indicated that muscle activation is affected by increases in load in the one-leg standing position. The load on the upper extremity influences the muscle activity of the contralateral lower extremity.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the timing of leg support elevation on the horizontal force acting on the buttocks in a reclining wheelchair. [Subjects and Methods] The participants were 17 healthy men. Two experimental conditions were tested: the leg-down and leg-up conditions. The back support was reclined at increasing angles, from the initial upright position (IUP), proceeding to the fully reclined position (FRP), and returned to the upright position (RUP). The posterior inclination phase was from IUP to FRP, and the returning inclination phase was from FRP to RUP. [Results] The horizontal force under the leg-up condition was significantly higher than that under the leg-down condition in all positions of back support. [Conclusion] The leg supports should be positioned downward before reclining the back support of a wheelchair.
[Purpose] This study investigated the relationship between activity limitation and participation restriction in school-aged children with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] Data were collected from 109 children with cerebral palsy aged 6–12 years. Activity limitations were assessed by using functional classification systems including the Korean-Gross Motor Function Classification System, the Korean-Manual Ability Classification System, and the Korean-Communication Function Classification System. Participation restriction was measured using the Korean-Frequency of Participation Questionnaire. Physical or occupational therapists and parents collected the data. [Results] All levels of the functional classification systems were significantly negatively correlated with Korean-Frequency of Participation Questionnaire ratings (r= −0.382 to −0.477). The Korean-Frequency of Participation Questionnaire ratings differed significantly with respect to the functional classification systems; in particular, the differences in the ratings of levels I and V were significant. The Korean-Communication Function Classification System and Korean-Gross Motor Function Classification System were significant predictors of participation, explaining 26.5% of the variance. [Conclusion] Intervention programs are required to promote communication skills and gross motor ability in order to improve the participation of children with cerebral palsy.
[Purpose] This study compared the T10 and L4 paraspinal muscle activities over time during continuous computer work. [Subjects] Ten male workers participated in this study. [Methods] The T10 and L4 paraspinal muscle activities were measured using a surface EMG system after 0, 20, 40, and 80 minutes of continuous computer work. [Results] The T10 and L4 paraspinal muscle activities after 20 and 40 minutes were increased significantly compared with the initial values, while they were decreased significantly after 80 minutes compared with the initial readings. [Conclusion] This study suggests that workers using computers for short periods would benefit from back muscle stretching exercises due to increased tension in these muscles. For longer computer work, strengthening exercises would be more effective than stretching due to decreased back muscle activation.
[Purpose] This study aims to investigate how squat exercises on a decline board and how the knee joint angles affect the muscle activity of the lower limbs. [Subjects] The subjects were 26 normal adults. [Methods] A Tumble Forms wedge device was used as the decline board, and the knee joint angles were measured with a goniometer. To examine the muscle activity of the biceps femoris, rectus femoris, gastrocnemius lateralis, and tibialis anterior of the lower limbs, a comparison analysis with electromyography was conducted. [Results] The muscle activity of the biceps femoris, rectus femoris, gastrocnemius lateralis, and tibialis anterior increased with increased knee joint angles, both for squat exercises on the decline board and on a flat floor. When the knee joint angle was 45°, 60°, and 90°, the muscle activity of the rectus femoris was significantly higher and that of the tibialis anterior was significantly lower during squat exercises on the decline board than on the flat floor. When the knee joint angle was 90°, the muscle activity of the gastrocnemius lateralis was significantly lower. [Conclusion] Squat exercises on a decline board are an effective intervention to increase the muscle activity of the rectus femoris with increased knee joint angles.
[Purpose] This study aimed to improve the asymmetrical weight-bearing ratio by applying repetitive sit-to-stand training methods that feature a step-foot position to the paretic-side foot of hemiplegic patients; it sought also to provide the information needed to apply weight-bearing and balance training to hemiplegic patients. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were divided into two groups: a spontaneous group and a step group. They all performed repetitive sit-to-stand training five times per week for a total of six weeks. The Biodex Balance System, TUG, and 5XSST were used to measure the static and dynamic standing balance of each patient. A foot mat system was used to measure foot pressure. [Results] In the balance measurements, differences in the Overall index, Ant-post index, Med-lat index, Fall risk index, TUG, and 5XSST after training was significantly different between the two study groups. In evaluating foot pressure measurements, we found that the COP (Ant-post), Peak pressure: hind foot, and Contact area: hind foot measurements significantly differed between the groups after the training. [Conclusion] Repetitive sit-to-stand training that involves positioning the non-paretic leg upward can be considered a significant form of training that improves the symmetric posture adjustment and balance of hemiplegic patients following a stroke.
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