[Purpose] This study compared the effects on neck-shoulder pain and mobility of strengthening exercises for the neck flexors and scapular retractors performed on a Swiss ball and a mat. [Subjects] Twenty student volunteers were the subjects. [Methods] The students were randomly assigned to two groups: Mat group (n=10), and Swiss ball group (n=10). At pre-test, post-test, and 1-week follow-up pain was assessed using the visual analogue scale (VAS), the pain pressure threshold (PPT) of the shoulder was measured with an algometer, and neck mobility was measured with a Zebris. [Results] The data analysis revealed that there was a significant decrease in pain and significant increase in neck flexion in both groups, and the Swiss ball group showed better results. [Conclusion] Strengthening the neck flexors and scapular retractors for stabilization of the neck using exercises on a Swiss ball was more effective at reducing the pain and stabilizing the neck than mat exercises.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the ability to perform the sit-to-stand movement and the maximum pelvic anteversion and retroversion angles of patients. [Subjects] Thirty-two stroke patients (66.7±7.6 years) (>3 months post-stroke) who were able to sit unsupported and 50 age-matched healthy subjects participated in this study. The stroke patients were classified into two groups according to the sit-to-stand movement test: the group that was able to stand up (the stand-able group) (18 persons) and the group that was unable to stand up (the stand-unable group) (14 persons). [Methods] Pelvic anteversion and retroversion maximum angles were measured by a manual goniometer attached to an inclinometer. [Results] The maximum pelvic anteversion angles were −1.6 ± 5.0°, 1.2 ± 2.8°, and −12.4 ± 6.1° in the control group, the stand-able stroke group, and the stand-unable stroke group, respectively. A significant main effect of group was found. An angle discriminating between the two stroke groups was found: the maximum anteversion angles in the stand-able group were distributed above −5°. [Conclusion] The maximum pelvic anteversion angle was significantly smaller in the stand-unable group than in the stand-able and control groups.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an exercise intervention on the balance ability and muscle function of elderly women. [Subjects] The subjects were randomly divided into a control group (n=10) and an exercise group (n=10). [Methods] The subjects participated in an elastic band exercise program lasting for 8 weeks, exercising for 40 minutes, four days a week with resting terms of 60 sec. Subjects used a band corresponding to 60% of the strength of the color band with which repetitive exercise was possible up to twelve times. The subjects performed elastic band exercises, with variations to the number of band exercises according to the improvement of their physical fitness levels. When fifteen repetitive elastic band exercises could be performed with no damage of the body, we changed the band for one which was one level up from the former one and subjects used the same band for the upper body and lower body. [Results] Leg muscular strength measured as sit-stand repetitions in 30 s significantly increased in the exercise group after the intervention compared to before the intervention. Leg muscular endurance measured as the number of knee ups in 2 minutes significantly increased in the exercise group after the intervention compared to before the intervention. Balance measured by one-leg standing time with the eyes open significantly improved in the exercise group after the intervention compared to before the intervention. [Conclusion] Balance ability and muscle function significantly improved in the exercise group and showing that the intervention is effective at improving balance, muscle strength, and muscle endurance of elderly women.
[Purpose] Carpal tunnel syndrome is the most common entrapment neuropathy of the median nerve. Splinting is one of the most used conservative treatment methods for carpal tunnel syndrome. The aim of this study was to show the effectiveness of splinting in carpal tunnel syndrome patients who were divided into two groups according to their level of symptoms. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 40 carpal tunnel syndrome patients were divided into 2 groups based on having symptoms only at night or during the day were included in this study. These two groups were compared at the end of a 3-months splinting therapy in terms of improvement of severity of symptoms, functional capacity, pain level, and electrophysiological findings. [Results] Pain levels of both groups were similar at baseline. After splinting, pain levels of night-only symptomatic patients were lower than those of sustained symptomatic ones. No differences were found in symptom severity, functional capacity, and the electrophysiological findings in either group after the splinting. [Conclusion] The results of this study show that splinting alone may be sufficient to decrease the pain for night-only symptomatic patients. Combined therapy methods may be needed for sustained symptomatic patients.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of aging on respiratory synergy, through the comparison of an elderly group and a young group, to help further understanding of postural control in the elderly. [Subjects and Methods] Ten community-dwelling elderly subjects and ten young subjects performed standing under two different respiratory conditions: quiet breathing and apnea. Center of foot pressure displacement and joint angular movements of the head, trunk, pelvis, hips, knees and ankles were measured. [Results] The results of this study showed that the elderly group had a respiratory synergy different from that of the young group. The elderly group in quiet stance used significantly more hip and pelvis movements when compensating for respiratory disturbance than standing with apnea, while the young group used significantly more whole body segments. There were no differences in angular displacements in the quiet stance between the elderly and the young groups. [Conclusion] The elderly group demonstrated a respiratory synergy pattern different from that of the young group. The findings indicate that aging changes the respiratory synergy pattern and this change is not due to decreased functioning of the ankle joint alone.
[Purpose] Physical therapists, osteopathic practitioners, and chiropractors often perform manual tests to evaluate sacroiliac joint (SIJ) mobility. However, the available evidence demonstrates an absence of reliability in these tests and in investigations with kinematic analysis. The aim of this study was to verify the three-dimensional kinematic reliability in SIJ movement measurements. [Subjects] This cross-sectional study analyzed 24 healthy males, aged between 18 and 35 years. [Methods] Three-dimensional kinematic analysis was performed for measurements of posterior superior iliac displacement and greater trochanter (femur) displacement during hip flexion movement in an orthostatic position. The distance variations were measured from a reference point in 3 blocks. The intra-observer reliability was compared with the mean of three 3 blocks using the interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and a 99% significance level. [Results] The measurements indicated a strong correlation among blocks: ICC = 0.94 for right side SIJ and ICC = 0.91 for left side SIJ. The mean displacement between the reference points was 7.7 mm on the right side and 8.5 mm on the left side. [Conclusion] Our results indicate that three-dimensional kinematic analysis can be used for SIJ mobility analyses. New studies should be performed for subjects with SIJ dysfunction to verify the effectiveness of this method.
[Purpose] This study examined the effects of neck exercises using PNF on the swallowing function of stroke patients with dysphasia. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 26 study subjects were selected and randomly divided into an experimental group of 13 subjects, who received the PNF-based short neck flexion exercises, and a control group of 13 subjects, who received the Shaker exercise. [Results] The experimental group showed statistically significant improvements in premature bolus loss, residue in the valleculae, laryngeal elevation, epiglottic closure, residue in the pyriform sinuses, and coating of the pharyngeal wall after swallowing, and improvements in pharyngeal transit time, and aspiration on both the new VFSS scale and the ASHA NOMS scale. [Conclusion] PNF-based short neck flexion exercises appear to be effective at improving swallowing function of stroke patients with dysphagia.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate three muscle activities of drivers with post-stoke hemiplegia while they were driving using a steering wheel or a spinner knob, and to compare them with those of non-disabled drivers. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were four non-disabled drivers and five drivers with left hemiplegia. The subjects drove forward in a straight line for 5 m and then turned right or left using the steering wheel or spinner knob with only their right hand. EMG electrodes were placed over the anterior deltoid, biceps and triceps brachii on the right-side. [Results] While differences in muscle activation between the spinner knob and the steering wheel in the control group were not significant, those of the experimental group were significant. Activation of the biceps brachii while the control group turned the vehicle to the right using the spinner knob was significantly lower than when using the steering wheel. Activation of the biceps brachii while the experimental group turned the vehicle to the right using the spinner knob was significantly lower than that of the control group. [Conclusion] The results of this study indicate that a spinner knob requires less activation of the main muscle than a steering wheel, especially in drivers who have had a stroke. The results could be used as basic data when driver rehabilitation specialists prescribe the spinner knob for patients.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the somatotype and physical characteristic differences among elite youth soccer players. [Subjects and Methods] In the present study, we evaluated twenty-two Korean youth soccer players in different playing positions. The playing positions were divided into forward (FW), midfielder (MF), defender (DF), and goalkeeper (GK). The participants’ lean body mass (LBM), fat free mass (FFM), fat mass (FM), and basal metabolic rate (BMR) were measured and their somatotype determined according to the Heath-Carter method. [Results] The youth soccer players had twelve ectomorphic, eight mesomorphic, and two central predominant types. The DFs were taller than, but otherwise similar in physical characteristics to the FWs and MFs. The GKs were taller and heavier than the other players; however, their somatotype components were not significantly different. LBM, FFM, and BMR were significantly higher in GKs than in FWs and MFs. Although LBM, FFM, and BMR values between GKs and DFs showed large differences, they were not statistically significant. [Conclusion] The present study may contribute to our understanding of the differences in somatotype and body composition of Korean youth soccer players involved in sports physiotherapy research.
[Purpose] This study investigated whether the toe-spread-out exercise affects the hallux valgus angle, the cross-sectional area of the abductor hallucis muscle, and the hallux valgus angle during active abduction. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-four subjects with hallux valgus were randomly assigned to orthosis and orthosis plus toe-spread-out exercise groups. The orthosis group wore the orthosis for 8 weeks, while the orthosis plus toe-spread-out group also performed the toe-spread-out exercise. The hallux valgus angle, the cross-sectional area of the abductor hallucis muscle, and the hallux valgus angle during active abduction were measured initially and after 8 weeks by radiography and ultrasonography. [Results] While there were no significant changes in the three parameters in the orthosis group, there were significant differences in the orthosis plus toe-spread-out exercise group after 8 weeks. In addition there were significant differences in the three measures between the two groups. [Conclusion] The toe-spread-out exercise reduces the hallux valgus angle and hallux valgus angle during active abduction, and increases the cross-sectional area of the abductor hallucis muscle. The toe-spread-out exercise is recommended for patients with mild to moderate hallux valgus.
[Purpose] This study investigated the effects of accuracy constraints (targets) placed on the stepping-limb heel-strike (HS) on the electromyogram (EMG) and ground reaction forces (GRFs) during gait initiation. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty healthy subjects (29.2 ± 2.9 years) were asked to begin walking or stepping over a 10-cm-high obstacle at a fast speed. A 3-cm-diameter target was placed on the ground to dictate the position and accuracy of the stepping-limb HS. [Results] The results showed that the initiation velocity increase in the no-target conditions was due to modulation of the stance- and stepping-limb GRFs and a corresponding increase in the tibialis anterior (TA) activities of both limbs before stepping-limb toe-off. This was achieved by significantly increasing the stepping- and stance-limb TAEMG1 (determined between the onset of movement and time to peak anteroposterior (A-P) GRF of the stepping- and stance- limb) for the no-target conditions. It seems, therefore, that TAEMG1 and the slope to stepping-limb peak A-P GRF contributed to the intended velocity of initiation. [Conclusion] These data indicate that gait initiation and/or stepping over an obstacle may prove to be tasks by which motor control can be measured. The present study provides insight into the working mechanisms of the stepping and stance limbs and shows a clear need to further investigate whether the intact or affected limb should be used to initiate gait during rehabilitation and prosthetic training.
[Purpose] This study investigated brain wave, memory and attention changes in adult stroke patients using computer assisted cognitive rehabilitation (CACR). [Subjects] Twenty-five stroke patients were randomly allocated to either the CACR group (n=12) or the control group (n=13). [Methods] Two expert therapists provided the CACR group and the control group with traditional rehabilitation therapy in 30-minute sessions, semi-weekly, for 6 weeks. CACR was provided only to the CACR group. The control group received traditional rehabilitation therapy only. Before and after the 6 weeks of intervention, electroencephalography (EEG) and a computerized neurocognitive function test (CNT) were performed, and the results were analyzed. [Results] After the intervention, the CACR group showed significant differences in the frontal lobe (Fp1, Fp2, and F4) and in the parietal lobe (P3 and P4), and also showed significant differences in CNT memory (DST and VST forward/backward test) and attention (VCPT correct responses), but no notable changes were observed in the control group. [Conclusion] These results suggest that CACR is feasible and suitable for individuals with stroke. Detailed and diverse investigations should be performed considering the numbers and characteristics of subjects, and the limitations affecting the CACR training period.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the ankle angle of an ankle foot orthosis (AFO) on foot pressure during the gait in healthy adults. [Subjects] Sixteen healthy males with neither orthopedic nor neurological problems participated in this study. [Methods] Subjects walked on a walkway at a self-selected pace with an AFO set at four different ankle angles (−5°, 0°, 5°, and 10°). Foot pressure was measured randomly according to the ankle angle of the AFO using an F-scan system. Three trials were measured and averaged for data analysis. [Results] The peak foot pressure of the hallux, 2nd–5th toes, 2nd and 3rd metatarsal heads, 4th and 5th metatarsal heads, and the heel showed significant differences among the AFO ankle angles: angles of 0° and −5° increased the foot pressure of the lateral legions, and the peak foot pressure of the heel at an AFO ankle angle of 10° was significantly greater than those of the other angles. [Conclusion] The ankle angle of the AFO affected foot pressure and gait patterns during gait. The results suggest that the appropriate angle for an AFO is between 5° and 10° when AFOs are prescribed by clinicians.
[Purpose] This study examined the selective electromyographic activity of the lumbar paraspinal muscles in healthy male and female subjects in the prone trunk extension (PTE) and four-point kneeling arm and leg lift (FPKAL) exercises to determine the most beneficial exercise for selective activation of the lumbar multifidus (LM). [Subjects and Methods] Twenty healthy male and female subjects participated in this study. Surface electromyographic data were collected from the left-side lumbar erector spinae (LES) and LM muscles during PTE and FPKAL exercises. [Results] The LM/LES ratio related to selective activation of the lumbar paraspinal muscles during the FPKAL exercise was higher than that during PTE. [Conclusion] FPKAL exercise is safe and effective for the selective activation of the LM muscle.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether neuromuscular joint facilitation (NJF) training is superior to NJF distal resistance training at improving the ROM and proprioceptive acuity of the neck. [Subjects] 10 healthy subjects (8 males, 2 females) participated in this study. [Methods] The participants were allocated to three groups: 10 in the control group, 10 in the NJF distal resistance training group, and 10 in the NJF training group. A miniature wireless motion recorder was used to record the maximum cervical range of motion and joint position error (JPE) before and after the interventions. The three interventions were tested on different days. [Results] No difference of ROM was observed among the three groups. A significant pre- to post-intervention decrease in JPE in extension was identified in the NJF group. No other significant differences were observed among the three groups. [Conclusion] The NJF training conferred remarkable benefits on the cervical JPE of healthy people. This result suggests that the best way to improve proprioceptive acuity is intervention together with proximal resistance training, such as NJF training.
[Purpose] This study aimed to determine the effect of mirror therapy (MT) with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on the recovery of the upper extremity function of chronic stroke patients. [Subjects] Twenty-seven patients at least 6 months after stroke onset were divided randomly into an experimental group (14 patients) and a control group (13 patients). [Methods] All subjects received tDCS for 20 min followed by a 5 min rest. Then the experimental group received MT while the control group conducted the same exercises as the experimental group using a mirror that did not show the non-paretic upper extremity. The groups performed the same exercises for 20 min. All subjects received this intervention for 45-min three times a week for 6 weeks. [Results] After the intervention, the experimental group showed significant improvements in the box and block test (BBT), grip strength, and the Fugl-Meyer assessment (FMA), and a significant decrease in the Jebsen-Taylor test. The control group showed a significant increase in grip strength after the intervention, and a significant decrease in the Jebsen-Taylor test. Comparison of the result after the intervention revealed that the experimental group showed more significant increases in the BBT and grip strength than the control group. [Conclusion] These results show that MT with tDCS has a positive effect on the functional recovery of the upper extremity of stroke patients, through activating motor regions in the brain, and thus plays an important role in recovery of neuroplasticity.
[Purpose] The study investigated stretching for safer a golf swing compared to present stretching methods for proper swings in order to examine the effects of stretching exercises on golf swings. [Subjects] The subjects were 20 amateur golf club members who were divided into two groups: an experimental group which performed stretching, and a control group which did not. The subjects had no bone deformity, muscle weakness, muscle soreness, or neurological problems. [Methods] A swing analyzer and a ROM measuring instrument were used as the measuring tools. The swing analyzer was a GS400-golf hit ball analyzer (Korea) and the ROM measuring instrument was a goniometer (Korea). [Results] The experimental group showed a statistically significant improvement in driving distance. After the special stretching training for golf, a statistically significant difference in hit-ball direction deviation after swings were found between the groups. The experimental group showed statistically significant decreases in hit ball direction deviation. After the special stretching training for golf, statistically significant differences in hit-ball speed were found between the groups. The experimental group showed significant increases in hit-ball speed. [Conclusion] To examine the effects of a special stretching program for golf on golf swing-related factors, 20 male amateur golf club members performed a 12-week stretching training program. After the golf stretching training, statistically significant differences were found between the groups in hit-ball driving distance, direction deviation, deflection distance, and speed.
[Purpose] This study investigated the sensitivity of an accelerometer in a comparison with the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT). [Subjects] Fifteen stroke patients participated in this study. [Methods] Subjects wore accelerometers on both wrists and performed the ARAT items. We then compared the data measured by the accelerometer with that of the ARAT. [Results] ARAT scores were higher on the non-affected side than the affected side, while the amount of upper extremity movement was higher on the affected side. The correlation coefficients for the two tools were not significantly different. [Conclusion] Our findings indicate that an accelerometer is a useful and sensitive instrument for clinically measuring the upper extremity activity of patients with stroke.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate muscle activation related to postural stability depending on the pelvic position and frequency of whole body vibration (WBV) during quiet standing, and to identify the most effective training conditions that elicit the highest neuromuscular responses. [Subjects and Methods] Eighteen healthy subjects voluntarily participated in this single-group, repeated-measures study in which surface electromyography (EMG) data for the upper trapezius, rectus abdominis, external oblique abdominis, erector spinae, gluteus maximus, rectus femoris, semitendinosus, and medial gastrocnemius were collected at three frequencies (0 Hz, 10 Hz, and 20 Hz) of WBV and three pelvic positions (neutral, anterior tilt, posterior tilt) for each subject during quiet standing. [Results] The EMG activities of all the recorded muscles showed significant differences between the three frequencies of WBV and three pelvic positions during quiet standing. [Conclusion] The study findings suggest that a higher WBV frequency (20 Hz) should be used to strengthen most muscles, and that using the posterior pelvic tilt during WBV is much more effective at strengthening and training muscles related to core stability.
[Purpose] This study examined how an ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) influences the weight-bearing of chronic stroke patients during the performance of five functional standing tasks. [Subjects and Methods] Sixteen patients with stroke participated in this experiment. The subjects performed functional standing tasks with or without the AFO and weight bearing was measured during the tasks. [Results] Patients showed increased weight-bearing ability on the affected side during wearing the AFO in all tasks, and there were significant differences among Tasks 1, 2, and 3. Patients showed a small amount of increased weight bearing on the unaffected side while wearing the AFO in all tasks except for Task 2. [Conclusion] ADL-related functional standing tasks with AFO increased the weight bearing.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of humidity changes on the values of pulmonary function at rest. [Subjects and Methods] This study was conducted with 30 young adults (9 males, 21 females; mean age 19.4 years). Participants’ mean height was 165.1 cm, and their mean weight was 60.2 kg. The experimental setting was a laboratory in which temperature was fixed at 25 °C. Using a humidifier, relative humidity was successively to adjusted 25%, 50%, and 90%, and pulmonary were measured functions at each level. Using a spirometer, forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), expiratory reserve volume (ERV), and tidal volume (TV) were measured, and the results were compared and analyzed. [Results] Controlling for temperature, FVC and FEV1 showed statistically significant differences among different levels of relative humidity, but FEV1/FVC, TV, and ERV showed no significant difference. [Conclusion] In the case of exercises that require large respiration volumes, such as aerobic exercises or exercise load tests, it is recommended that higher than normal humidity levels should be maintained.
[Purpose] To investigate the impact of gender on mobilization and mechanical ventilation in hospitalized patients in an intensive care unit. [Subjects and Methods] A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted of the medical records of 105 patients admitted to a general intensive care unit. The length of mechanical ventilation, length of intensive care unit stay, weaning, time to sitting out of bed, time to performing active exercises, and withdrawal of sedation exercises were evaluated in addition to the characteristics of individuals, reasons for admission and risk scores. [Results] Women had significantly lower values APACHE II scores, duration of mechanical ventilation, time to withdrawal of sedation and time to onset of active exercises. [Conclusion] Women have a better functional response when admitted to the intensive care unit, spending less time ventilated and performing active exercises earlier.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of the Closed Kinetic Chain Upper Extremity Stability (CKCUES) test. [Subjects and Methods] A sample of 40 subjects (20 males, 20 females) with and without pain in the upper limbs was recruited. The subjects were tested twice, three days apart to assess the reliability of the CKCUES test. The CKCUES test was performed four times, and the average was calculated using the data of the last 3 tests. In order to test the validity of the CKCUES test, peak torque of internal/external shoulder rotation was measured using an isokinetic dynamometer, and maximum grip strength was measured using a hand dynamometer, and their Pearson correlation coefficients with the average values of the CKCUES test were calculated. [Results] The reliability of the CKCUES test was very high (ICC=0.97). The correlations between the CKCUES test and maximum grip strength (r=0.78–0.79), and the peak torque of internal/external shoulder rotation (r=0.87–0.94) were high indicating its validity. [Conclusion] The reliability and validity of the CKCUES test were high. The CKCUES test is expected to be used for clinical tests on upper limb stability at low price.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of mental practice on stroke patients’ upper extremity function and activities of daily living (ADL). [Subjects and Methods] In this study, 29 stroke patients were randomly assigned to two groups: an experimental group (n=14) and a control group (n=15). The experimental group performed 10 minutes of mental practice once a day, 5 days a week for 2 weeks in combination with conventional rehabilitation therapy. For the control group, general rehabilitation therapy was provided during the same sessions as the experimental group. The Action Research Arm Test (ARAT) and the Fugl-Myer assessment (FMA) were used to measure upper extremity function, and the Modified Bathel Index (MBI) was used to measure daily activity performance. [Results] After the intervention, the mental practice group showed significant improvements in upper extremity function on the affected side and ADL scores compared to the control group. [Conclusion] The results of this study demonstrate mental practice intervention is effective at improving stroke patients’ upper extremity function and daily activity performance. In follow-up studies, securing a greater number of experimental subjects, and evaluation of the intervention’s therapeutic durability are required.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of activation of the foot on the trunk mobility of patients with hemiplegia. [Subjects] Sixteen subjects with hemiplegia took part in the immediate group (IG), and 14 subjects with hemiplegia participated in the 2-month group (2MG). [Methods] The subjects in IG were given one leg stance training through activation of the foot only once, and 2MG received the same intervention for 30 minutes 3 times a week for, 8 weeks. The Spinal Mouse was used to collect spinal alignment data. Also, the trunk Impairment Scale (TIS) and Sensory test were used as functional tests. [Results] Sacral hip (SH), lumbar spine (LS) and thoracic spine (TS) angles in IG improved significantly, but not inclination (I), and 2MG showed increased angles of SH, LS and I, but not TS. Also, TIS Dynamic, TIS Coordination and Sensory test results of 2MG increased significantly. [Conclusion] One leg stance training through activation of the foot was effective at improving sensory input and alignment of the spine, therefore trunk mobility was improved.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine whether an aerobic interval exercise using an eccentric contraction would result in skeletal muscular hypertrophy and augmentation of muscular strength in rats. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-one female Wistar rats were used in this study. The rats were randomly divided into three groups. The control group performed no exercise. The aerobic endurance exercise group ran for 90 min. The aerobic interval exercise group ran for a total of 90 minutes in 5 minute bouts separated by 2 minute rest periods. The exercise groups ran on a downhill treadmill incline, once every three days, for a total of twenty sessions. [Results] The muscle wet weights, the muscle fiber cross-section minor axes, and the tetanus tension results of the aerobic endurance and aerobic interval exercise groups were significantly larger than those of the control group. [Conclusion] These results indicate that aerobic interval exercise may be an effective method of inducing hypertrophy and augmenting muscular strength in skeletal muscle.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors affecting the coefficient of variation (CV) of stride time in an exercise intervention for the elderly without falling history. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 42 elderly women who had participated in a care prevention program for 12 weeks. Stride time CV, motor function, movement ability, balance, Modified Falls Efficacy Scale (MFES) score, and Life-space Assessment (LSA) score before and after the intervention were examined for significant differences using the paired t-test. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine the factors that changed in the stride time CV. [Results] There were significant differences in muscle strength, sit-and-reach flexibility, the one-leg standing time (eyes open), the maximum walking speed, local stability of trunk acceleration, The Timed Up and Go Test (TUG-T), the MFES score, and the LSA score between the pre-intervention and post-intervention. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that improvement of quadriceps muscle strength, sit-and-reach flexibility, the one-leg standing time, TUG-T, local stability of trunk acceleration (vertical direction) and MFES score were independent variables explaining the reduction in stride time CV. [Conclusion] The results was suggested that it might be possible to reduce the stride time CV by improving strength, flexibility and dynamic balance, and reducing fear of falls through interventions.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effect of spatial target reaching training (TRT) based on visual biofeedback (VB) on the upper extremity (UE) function of hemiplegic subjects. [Subjects and Methods] Forty subjects between six and eighteen months post-stroke were enrolled in this study. They were randomly allocated to an experimental group (EG, n=20) and a control group (CG, n=20). All subjects received an hour of routine therapy for stroke three times a week for four weeks. Subjects in EG received additional spatial TRT based on VB using a 2-dimensional motion capture analysis system. Both groups were tested at pre and post-intervention. The motor function of each subject’s UE was assessed using the Fugl-Meyer (FM) test of UE and the Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT). The reaching speed, angle and maximum reach distance were recorded using the motion capture analysis system. The experimental data were analyzed using the paired and independent t-tests. [Results] The mean change scores of the FM Test of UE and WMFT show there was significantly more improvement at post-intervention in EG than in CG. Also, the speed and angle reached showed significantly more increase in the EG compared with the CG. [Conclusions] The findings indicate that UE motor recovery of hemiplegic stroke patients can be enhanced through the use of TRT based on VB.
[Purpose] The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the associations between clinical, physical, and neurophysiological outcomes and self-reported symptoms and functions of patients after surgical carpal tunnel release. [Subjects and Methods] Among 261 patients who had undergone open surgical carpal tunnel release within the last three years, 83 (mean age 50.27 ± 11.13 years) participated in this study. Their socio-demographics and comorbidities were recorded. The intensity of pain, paresthesia, and fatigue symptoms in the hand were assessed by means of a Visual Analogue Scale, the Semmes-Weinstein Monofilaments test of light touch pressure sensation, and Jamar dynamometry for measurement of grip and pinch strengths. The Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire evaluated the severity of symptoms and hand functional status, and the variables were analyzed by multivariate linear regression. [Results] The severity of the symptoms and functional status of release surgery patients was associated with diabetes mellitus, migraine, night pain, paresthesia and fatigue symptoms, impaired light touch pressure, and lack of medical treatment. [Conclusion] Appropriate post-surgery treatment programs for these factors should be taken into consideration to help patients obtain optimal functionality and health in their daily lives.
[Purpose] Spine disorders affect various sections of the spine and have a variety of causes. Most pain occurs in the lumbo-sacral and cervical regions. Dance is associated with exercise. High levels of physical activity predispose to back pain occurrence. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 237 ballet learners; 80 children (primary school level), mean age 11.24±0.77, mean of years of training ballet 2.14±0.74; 93 students (junior high school level), mean age 14.01±0.84, mean of years of learning ballet 4.64±1.24; 64 students (high school) mean age 17.01±0.77, mean of years of learning ballet 7.47±1.54. Numeric rating scale was used to determine spine pain. [Results] Feelings of pain were analyzed on the basis of “now” and “before” between levels education by using point statistics and statistical tests to compare groups. “Now” exhibited weaker back pain feelings than “before” at all the education levels. There were statistically significant differences in pain feeling for “before” (at any time of learning) and “now” (the day of survey). [Conclusion] All patients reported pain “before” and “now” in cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine. At all levels of education there were statistically significant differences in feelings of pain between “before” and “now”.
[Purpose] Musculoskeletal disorders are common causes of work-related disability in different professions involving the frequent practice of lifting, stooping, twisting, prolonged sitting, or standing. The dental profession is one such profession. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders among dental professionals in Saudi Arabia, the factors associated with them, and their consequences and to propose preventive measures for them. [Subjects and Methods] A self-administered online questionnaire was sent to 225 members of the Saudi Dental Association. It included questions on demographic and professional characteristics, general medical history, and history of work-related musculoskeletal disorders before and after joining the dental profession. [Results] The questionnaire was completed by 65% of the respondents. Among them 85% reported that they had developed some pain due to work after joining the dental profession, and 42% reported that they were suffering pain at the time of the survey. Besides lower back, shoulder, and neck regions, the hands, upper back, and other regions like the elbows, buttocks, thighs, leg, and feet were areas in which they pain. [Conclusion] The prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders among dental professionals in Saudi Arabia is high, affecting their daily activities, sometimes even forcing them to change their work setting. Age, gender, specialty of work, work setting, number of contact hours with patients, etc., were all found to be related to their work-related pain. We need to emphasize the role of ergonomics, counseling, proper techniques of patient handling, etc., during the training of dental professionals so that they can work efficiently.
[Purpose] Sit-to-walk performance is linked to proper proprioceptive information processing. Therefore, it is believed that an increase of proprioceptive inflow (using muscle vibration) might improve sit-to-walk performance. However, before testing muscle vibration effects on a frail population, assessment of its effects on healthy young people is necessary. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of muscle vibration on sit-to-walk performance in healthy young adults. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen young adults performed the sit-to-walk task under three conditions: without vibration, with vibration applied before movement onset, and with vibration applied during the movement. Vibration was applied bilaterally for 30 s to the tibialis anterior, rectus femoris, and upper trapezius muscles bellies. The vibration parameters were as follows: 120 Hz and 1.2 mm. Kinematics and kinetic data were assessed using a 3D motion capture system and two force plates. The coordinates of reflective markers were used to define the center-of-mass velocities and displacements. In addition, the first step spatiotemporal variables were assessed. [Results] No vibration effect was observed on any dependent variables. [Conclusion] The results show that stimulation of the proprioceptive system with local muscle vibration does not improve sit-to-walk performance in healthy young adults.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the blood levels related to the bone mineral density by using the dual energy X-ray absorption for females before menopause and males younger than 50 years old. [Subjects and Methods] Between August 1, and September 15, 2013, the Z-score was measured in females before menopause and males younger than 50 years old using a bone mineral density measuring instrument. After the measurement, the subjects were classified into two groups, that is, the below expectations and within expectations groups. Next, we analyzed and compared the differences in age, body mass index, and blood levels between the 2 groups. [Results] The results showed a correlation of 0.212 for total protein, −0.317 for alanine aminotransferase, −0.199 for gamma-glutamyl transferase, −0.358 for alkaline phosphatase, 0.266 for uric acid, −0.313 for lactate dehydrogenase, 0.244 for creatinine, −0.234 for the red blood cell count, and −0.230 for the red cell distribution width in patients with less than expected level for their age. [Conclusion] In conclusion, osteoporosis may occur in females before menopause and males younger than 50 years old, and aggressive attention is required for prevention and treatment.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the effect of chest expansion resistance exercises (CERE) on chest expansion, maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP), and maximal expiratory pressure (MEP) in elderly people with inspiratory muscle weakness. [Subjects] Thirty elderly people with inspiratory muscle weakness (MIP < 80% of the predicted value) were randomly and equally assigned to a chest expansion resistance exercise (CERE) group, core conditioning exercise (CCE) group, and control group. [Methods] The intervention was applied to the CERE group and CCE group five times per week, 30 minutes each time, for six weeks. A tapeline was used to measure upper and lower chest expansion. MIP and MEP before and after the intervention were measured and compared. [Results] There was significant improvement in upper and lower chest expansion and MIP after the intervention in both the CERE group and the CCE group, whereas the control group did not show any significant difference. MEP did not significantly change in any of the three groups after the intervention. [Conclusion] The CERE group underwent greater changes than the CCE group, which proves that the CERE is more effective for improving elderly people’s chest expansion capacity and MIP in elderly people. Therefore, application of the CERE by therapists is recommended if the environment and conditions are appropriate for enhancement of chest expansion capacity and MIP in elderly people.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the effects of horse-riding simulator exercise and Kendall exercise on forward head posture. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty elderly college students with a forward head posture were randomly divided into two groups for 15 persons each, a horse-riding simulator group and Kendall exercise group, and performed exercise for eight weeks. [Results] The horse-riding simulator group and Kendall exercise group showed significant differences after the intervention in New York state posture rating, craniovertebral angle, and cranial rotation angle. The horse-riding simulator group showed a significantly smaller value than the Kendall exercise group for New York state posture rating evaluation after the intervention. [Conclusion] The results of this study indicate that horse-riding simulator exercise is more effective on forward head posture than Kendall exercise. Therefore, horse-riding simulator exercise can be used as a new simple treatment method for the ever-growing forward head posture.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of revised high-heeled shoes on the foot pressure ratio and static balance during standing. [Subjects and Methods] A single-subject design was used, 15 healthy women wearing revised high-heeled shoes and general high-heeled shoes in a random order. The foot pressure ratio and static balance scores during standing were measured using a SpaceBalance 3D system. [Results] Forefoot and rearfoot pressures were significantly different between the 2 types of high-heeled shoes. Under the 3 conditions tested, the static balance score was higher for the revised high-heeled shoes than for the general high-heeled shoes, but this difference was not statistically significant. [Conclusion] Revised high-heeled shoes are preferable to general high-heeled shoes, as they result in normalization of normalized foot pressure and a positive effect on static balance.
[Purpose] The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) in the horizontal direction on the motor function and balance of chronic stroke survivors. [Subjects and Methods] This study was a randomized controlled trial. Twenty-one individuals with chronic stroke from an inpatient rehabilitation center participated in the study. The participants were allocated to either the WBV training group or the control group. The WBV training group (n = 12) received whole-body vibration delivered in the horizontal direction (15 min/day, 3 times/week, 6 wks) followed by conventional rehabilitation (30 min/day, 5 times/week, 6 wks); the control group (n = 9) received conventional rehabilitation only (30 min/day, 5 times/week, 6 wks). Motor function was measured by using the Fugl-Meyer assessment, and balance was measured by using the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test before and after the interventions. [Results] After the interventions, all variables improved significantly compared with the baseline values in the WBV training group. In the control group, no significant improvements in any variables were noted. In addition, the BBS score in the WBV training group increased significantly compared with that in the control group. [Conclusion] WBV training with whole-body vibration delivered in the horizontal direction may be a potential intervention for improvement of motor function and balance in patients who previously experienced a stroke.
[Purpose] The aim this study was to assess the relation between bone mineral density (BMD) and mean platelet volume (MPV) in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients, and evaluate the diagnostic role of the diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). [Subjects and Methods] Fifty patients diagnosed with AS were divided into two groups on the basis of BMD, a normal group (n=30) and an osteopenic (n=20) group. [Results] Duration of disease in the group with a normal BMD was 10.3±7.0 years, while it was 16.7±12.2 years in the osteopenia group. MPV was high in the osteopenia group, while no significant differences were observed between the groups in terms of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and platelet distribution width (PDW). There was a positive correlation between MPV and duration of disease. Correlations between ADC value and the lumbar T score, femoral neck T score, and duration of disease were insignificant. A negative correlation was observed between BMD and disease duration. [Conclusion] Diffusion-weighted imaging provides valuable results in osteoporosis but is not a suitable technique for evaluating BMD in patients with AS because of the local and systemic inflammatory effects in the musculoskeletal system. The common pathophysiology of atherosclerosis and osteoporosis plays an important role in the negative correlation observed between MPV and BMD in patients with AS.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the inter- and intra-examiner reliability of measurement methods for femoral anterversion during Craig’s test. [Subjects and Methods] The study included 37 healthy participants (20 males and 17 females). Two novice examiners (Department of Physical Therapy students at Silla University) used three different methods to measure the femoral anterversion during Craig’s test: a goniometer, a goniometer with a laser beam, and an inclinometer. [Results] The intra-examiner reliability was high for both examiners with all three measurement methods, with scores of 0.82, 0.86, and 0.73 for examiner 1 and 0.74, 0.78, and 0.72 for examiner 2 for the goniometer, goniometer with the laser beam, and inclinometer, respectively. The inter-examiner reliability during Craig’s test was below moderate for both the goniometer (0.25) and inclinometer (0.27) and moderate for the goniometer with the laser beam (0.62). [Conclusion] This study found that Craig’s test using a goniometer with a laser beam had high intra-examiner reliability and moderate inter-examiner reliability. Clinically, these findings may supplement existing measurement skills and reduce the difficulty of locating the goniometer axis during Craig’s test.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to compare the effects of Wii Fit balance training (WBT) and progressive balance training (PBT) approaches on balance functions, balance confidence, and activities of daily living in chronic stroke patients. [Subjects] A total of 30 patients were randomized into the WBT (n=15) and PBT (n=15) groups. [Methods] All of the subjects received exercise training based on a neurodevelopemental approach in addition to either Wii Fit or progressive balance training for total of 1 hour a day, 3 days per week for 4 weeks. Primary measurements were static balance function measured with a Wii Balance Board and dynamic balance function assessed with the Berg Balance Scale, Timed Up and Go test, Dynamic Gait Index, and Functional Reach Test. Secondary measures were balance confidence assessed with the Activities-specific Balance Confidence scale and activities of daily living evaluated with the Frenchay Activity Index. [Results] There was not remarkable difference between the two treatments in dynamic balance functions, balance confidence, and activities of daily living. [Conclusion] Although both of the approaches were found to be effective in improving the balance functions, balance confidence, and activities of daily living, neither of them were more preferable than the other for the treatment of balance in patients with chronic stroke.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the effect of trunk stability exercise and combined exercise program on pain, flexibility, and static balance in chronic low back pain patients. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty persons diagnosed with chronic low back pain were divided into a trunk stability exercise group and a combined exercise group and then conducted exercise for six weeks. [Results] VAS and sway lengths decreased significantly in both groups. A comparison of sway lengths after the intervention between the two groups revealed that the trunk stability exercise group had a bigger decrease than the combined exercise group. [Conclusion] The results of this study indicated that trunk stability exercise would have bigger effect than combined exercise on the daily activities of chronic low back pain patients as it strengthens deep abdominal muscles and improves flexibility and balancing ability.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the effects of ball exercise as a general exercise on the balance abilities of elderly individuals by comparing ball exercise with virtual reality exercise. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty elderly individuals residing in communities were randomly divided into a virtual reality game group and a ball exercise group and conducted exercise for 30 min 3 times a week for 8 weeks. [Results] Step length increased significantly, and the average sway speed and Timed Up and Go time significantly decreased in both groups. A comparison of sway length after the intervention between the two groups revealed that the virtual reality game exercise resulted in a reduction than the ball exercise. [Conclusion] The results of this study indicated that the virtual reality game exercise may improve balance and gait of elderly individuals in communities.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of thorax correction exercises on flexed posture and chest function in older women with age-related hyperkyphosis. [Subjects and Methods] The study participants included 41 elderly women who were divided into a thorax correction exercise group (n = 20) and a control group (n = 21). Participants in the exercise group completed a specific exercise program that included breathing correction, thorax mobility, thorax stability, and thorax alignment training performed twice per week, 1 hour each session, for 8 weeks. Outcome measures included the flexed posture (thoracic kyphosis angle, forward head posture) and chest function (vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in a second, and chest expansion length). [Results] Participants in the thorax correction exercise group demonstrated significantly greater improvements in thoracic kyphosis angle, forward head, and chest expansion than those in the control group. [Conclusion] This study provides a promising exercise intervention that may improve flexed posture and chest function in older women with age-related hyperkyphosis.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the effect of a pelvis-concentrated exercise program and walking on the changes in body shape and foot base pressure. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty adults from K University in Busan, Republic of Korea, were randomly divided into the Swiss-ball exercise group and McKenzie exercise group, and they conducted exercise for 40 min 3 times a week for 6 weeks. [Results] Global postural system results and foot base pressure significantly decreased in both groups. A comparison of foot base pressure after the intervention between the two groups revealed that the Swiss-ball exercise group exhibited a greater reduction than the McKenzie exercise group. [Conclusion] The results of this study indicated that the Swiss-ball exercise may improve posture and foot base pressure in male adults.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the effect of horseback riding on body mass index (BMI) and gait in obese women. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-four obese women residing in Seoul and Gyeonggi-do were randomly divided into a horseback riding group and a walking group and conducted their respective exercises 3 times a week for 8 weeks. [Results] Step length increased significantly and BMI and width of the base of support significantly decreased in both groups. A comparison of BMI and width of the base of support after the intervention between the two groups revealed that the horseback riding group showed larger decreases than the walking group. [Conclusion] The result of this study indicated that the horseback riding may improve gait ability and obesity.
[Purpose] The aims of this study were to identify the relationship between motor recovery and gait velocity during dual tasks in patients with chronic stroke and determine automatic gait ability following stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-three outpatients and twelve healthy subjects participated in a cross-sectional assessment. Community ambulation was assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. Outcome measures included the Motricity index, Berg Balance Scale, and gait speed under three conditions (self-paced ambulation for 10 m, ambulation while performing dual cognitive tasks, and ambulation while performing dual manual tasks). Gait automaticity was calculated. [Results] No significant differences were observed for muscle strength or balance between the limited community ambulation and the community ambulation groups. However, a significant difference in gait velocity was observed between the groups under the three conditions. In particular, a significant difference was detected only in the limited community ambulation group depending on the level of motor function recovery during cognitive and manual dual task ambulation. Additionally, we revealed that the community ambulation group had a lower level of gait automaticity compared with that in the normal group. [Conclusion] Our results show the influence of motor recovery on the change in gait velocity depending on the task if a patient is limitedly ambulatory. We revealed that community ambulators did not have a sufficient level of gait automaticity.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to access the effect of weight bearing exercise (treadmill exercise) and non-weight-bearing exercise (swimming exercise) on gait in the recovery process after a sciatic nerve crush injury. [Subjects and Methods] Rats were randomly divided into a swimming group (n=3) with non-weight-bearing exercise after a sciatic nerve crush and a treadmill group (n=3) with weight bearing exercise after a sciatic nerve crush. Dartfish is a program that can analyze and interpret motion through video images. The knee lateral epicondyle, lateral malleolus, and metatarsophalangeal joint of the fifth toe were marked by black dots before recording. [Results] There were significant differences in TOK (knee angle toe off) and ICK (knee angle at initial contact) in the swimming group and in TOK, ICA (ankle angle at initial contact), and ICK in the treadmill group. In comparison between groups, there were significant differences in TOA (ankle angle in toe off) and ICA at the 7th day. [Conclusion] There was no difference between weight bearing and non-weight-bearing exercise in sciatic nerve damage, and both exercises accelerated the recovery process in this study.
[Purpose] We aimed to evaluate the effects of Phyllanthus amarus (PA) on oxidative stress and damage, inflammation, and soreness in muscle after a single session of moderate-intensity exercise. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve men randomly participated in 2, three-day phases with a one-week washout period. On the first day, participants consumed two capsules of PA or placebo control (CTL) before 20 min of cycling. They then consumed four capsules on the same day after exercise and six capsules/day for the next two days. Blood samples were obtained before, immediately after exercise and 24 h and 48 h after exercise. The pain tolerance was measured at both legs. [Results] Plasma vitamin C levels in the PA group were higher than those in the CTL group after exercise. At 48 h after exercise, vitamin C levels were higher in the PA group, but those in the CTL group were lower than the pre-exercise levels. However, plasma levels of creatine kinase were increased in both groups after exercise compared with the pre-exercise levels. The neutrophil count was higher immediately after exercise than the pre-exercise levels in the CTL group. [Conclusion] Acute supplementation with PA improves antioxidant status after a single session of moderate-intensity exercise.
[Purpose] The present study examined the influence of treadmill exercise added to a low back pain rehabilitation program on low back extensor strength, pain, and dysfunction in chronic low back pain patients. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty men aged 22–36 years with chronic low back pain were randomly divided into experimental and control groups of 10 patients each. Both groups underwent a low back pain rehabilitation program lasting 30 min each, thrice/week for 8 weeks. The experimental group was prescribed an additional 30 min of treadmill exercise without a slope at a speed of 3.0–3.5 km/h, at which patients could walk comfortably. Low back extensor strength was tested using the Medx lumbar extension machine, pain level was tested, using the visual analog scale, and dysfunction was tested, using the Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire. [Results] Changes in low back extensor strength by angle showed significant interaction effects between measurement time and group at 12°, 24°, and 36°. The results of the visual analog scale and Oswestry Questionnaire showed a decreasing trend after the experiment in both groups. However, there was no interaction effect of the additional treadmill exercise in the experimental group. [Conclusion] The combination of a low back pain rehabilitation program and treadmill exercise has a synergistic effect, to some extent, on the improvement of low back extensor strength and should be considered for treatment and rehabilitation of low back pain patients.
[Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the effects of body awareness training (BAT) on mild visuospatial neglect in patients following acute stroke. [Subjects] The subjects were 12 stroke patients randomly assigned to either the experimental group (n1=6) or control group (n2=6). [Methods] The experimental group underwent BAT for 15 minutes and then task-oriented training for 30 minutes a day, five times a week for three weeks. The control group underwent task-oriented training for 30 minutes a day, five times a week for three weeks. Assessments were made using the Motor-free Visual Perception Test (MVPT), Line Bisection Test (LBT), and modified Barthel index (MBI). [Results] Following the interventions, the experimental group showed a significant change in MVPT, LBT, and MBI scores. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest the feasibility and suitability of BAT with task-oriented training for mild visuospatial neglect in patients with acute stroke.
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