The health effects of climate change are becoming increasingly important; there are direct effects from heatwaves and floods, and indirect effects from the altered distribution of infectious diseases and changes in crop yield. Ironically, the healthcare system itself carries an environmental burden, contributing to environmental health impacts. Life cycle assessment is a widely accepted and well-established method that quantitatively evaluates environmental impact. Given that monetary evaluations have the potential to motivate private companies and societies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions using market mechanisms, instead of assessing the carbon footprint alone, we previously developed a life cycle impact assessment method based on an endpoint that integrates comprehensive environmental burdens into a single index—the monetary cost. Previous investigations estimated that therapy for chronic kidney disease had a significant carbon footprint in the healthcare sector. We have been aiming to investigate on the environmental impact of chronic kidney disease based on field surveys from the renal department in a hospital and several health clinics in Japan. To live sustainably, it is necessary to establish cultures, practices, and research that aims to conserve resources to provide environmentally friendly healthcare in Japan.
Objective: To evaluate the characteristics and risk factors of puerperal hematoma.
Materials and Methods: Data from the medical records of 2,776 women, who delivered vaginally between January 2008 and December 2017 in the authors’ hospital, were analyzed retrospectively.
Results: Primigravida status was considered to be a significant risk factor. Among women with multigravida status, maternal age, instrumental delivery, and episiotomy were considered to be statistically significant risk factors. Regarding characteristics, hematoma occurred on the right side in 61.5% of cases, 53.8% were ≥50 mm in size, 61.5% were detected within 2 h of delivery, 46.2% were associated with severe pain, and 61.5% required surgical treatment.
Conclusion: Primigravida status a risk factor for puerperal hematoma, and maternal age, instrumental delivery, and episiotomy were risk factors for puerperal hematoma in women with multigravida status. Puerperal hematomas occurred more frequently on the right side than the left reflected by the number of episiotomies performed on the right side. Approximately one-half of the hematomas were associated with severe pain, and many were detected within 2 h after delivery. Many hematomas, especially those associated with severe pain, required surgical removal.
Objective: Our knowledge of human neural crest stem cells (NCSCs) is expanding, owing to recent advances in technologies utilizing human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) that generate NCSCs. However, the clinical application of these technologies requires the reduction of xeno-materials. To overcome this significant impediment, this study aimed to devise a novel method to induce NCSCs from hiPSCs without using a feeder cell layer.
Materials and Methods: hiPSCs were cultured in feeder-free maintenance media containing the Rho-associated coiled-coil forming kinase inhibitor Y-27632. When the cells reached 50–70% confluence, differentiation was initiated by replacing the medium with knockout serum replacement (KSR) medium containing Noggin and SB431542. The KSR medium was then gradually replaced with increasing concentrations of Neurobasal medium from day 5 to 11.
Results: Immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry were performed 12 days after induction of differentiation and revealed that the cells generated from hiPSCs expressed the NCSC markers p75 and HNK-1, but not the hiPSC marker SOX2.
Conclusion: These findings demonstrate that hiPSCs were induced to differentiate into NCSCs in the absence of feeder cells.
Objectives: To examine the efficacy and clinical and radiological outcomes of the use of a streamlined clavicle plate® (MEIRA, Aichi, Japan) for midshaft clavicular fractures.
Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of 155 patients with displaced midshaft clavicular fractures treated using a streamlined clavicle plate between 2015 and 2019 in 18 hospitals across Japan. A questionnaire regarding bone union and postoperative complications was used, and 136 cases were followed up for one year or until bone union. Plate fitting was evaluated retrospectively using surgical records, radiographic findings, and surgeon’s opinion.
Results: During surgery, plate bending was needed in 19 cases (12.3%), poor fitting was observed in 8 cases (5.2%), and bone union was achieved in 133 cases (97.8%). Total implantation failure, including plate breakage and screw loosening, occurred in 10 cases (6.5%) from the intraoperative to postoperative period. Subjective complications were observed in 26 cases (16.8%): incongruity around the surgical scar or in the anterior chest in 23, and contracture of the shoulder in three. Plate removal was performed in 66 cases (48.5%) per patient’s request.
Conclusion: The use of a streamlined clavicle plate is effective for midshaft fractures of the clavicle, and the success rates of bone union and implantation using this approach are comparable to those of other existing plates.
Objective: In 2020, coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) became the cause of a pandemic. In response, the Japan Sports Agency issued warnings about secondary damage to health, such as the threat to physical and mental well-being due to the lack of exercise in this situation. In this study, we report on cross-sectional and longitudinal examinations of standing trunk flexion to evaluate how temporary long-term school closures affected musculoskeletal function in elementary school students.
Patients and Methods: All children in one public elementary school in T-city during the school years 2019 and 2020 were included in this study. A digital forward flexion meter was used to measure standing trunk flexion.
Results: In this study, 284 (284/289: 98.3%) and 266 (266/274: 97.1%) children in school years 2020 and 2019, respectively, were found to have valid data for cross-sectional analysis. The standing trunk flexion did not show significant differences between grades or sexes. In the longitudinal analysis, the results of the comparison of standing trunk flexion in children for two consecutive years revealed significant differences only between grades 3 and 4 (P<0.05) and between girls in grades 3 and 4 (P<0.01), but no significant differences in other grades or among boys or girls were observed.
Conclusion: Initially, we expected that there would be a difference in the results of functional assessment using standing trunk flexion depending on the period of absence from school. However, the results of this study showed no significant changes in standing trunk flexion. Moreover, since children’s musculoskeletal functions may be affected by various factors during the COVID-19 pandemic, they should be carefully monitored in the future.
Objective: The details regarding the development of fibrocartilage layers in Achilles tendon (AT) enthesis are unknown. Therefore, we evaluated the development of fibrocartilage layers in AT enthesis using a rabbit model.
Materials and Methods: Forty-eight male Japanese white rabbits were used in this study. Six of them were euthanized at different stages (day 1, and 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, and 24 weeks of age). The proliferation, apoptosis, Sox9-positivity rates, and chondrocyte number were evaluated. Additionally, safranin O-stained glycosaminoglycan (GAG) areas, width of AT enthesis, and calcaneus length were assessed. All parameters were compared to those at 24 weeks of age.
Results: The level of chondrocyte apoptosis was high from 1 to 8 weeks of age, and high expression level of Sox9 was maintained from day 1 to 6 weeks of age, which decreased gradually. Safranin O-stained GAG areas increased up to 12 weeks, calcaneus length increased up to 6 weeks, and the width of AT enthesis increased up to 1 week of age.
Conclusion: The changes in chondrocyte and extracellular matrix were completed by 8 and 12 weeks of age, respectively. The development of fibrocartilage layers in AT enthesis was completed by 12 weeks of age. Our results contribute to the administration of appropriate treatments based on age and aid in the development of novel methods for regenerating AT enthesis.
Objectives: Duodenal perforation as a complication of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration may progress to acute peritonitis and septic shock. Open surgery, the standard treatment, can be avoided by performing closure during endoscopy using endoscopic clips.
Patient: A 77-year-old woman was referred to our hospital with salivary gland swelling. She had elevated hepatobiliary enzymes and jaundice. Computed tomography (CT) revealed pancreatic head swelling and bile duct dilation. Endoscopic ultrasonography revealed a hypoechoic mass in the pancreatic head. The pancreatic head mass was punctured twice using a 22-gauge Franchine-type puncture needle at the duodenal bulb. The endoscope was advanced to the descending part of the duodenum, and part of the superior duodenal angle was perforated (diameter approximately 15 mm) with the endoscope. The duodenal mucosa around the perforation was immediately closed using endoscopic clips.
Results: Abdominal CT showed gas in the peritoneal and retroperitoneal spaces. The patient experienced abdominal pain and fever and was treated with fasting and antibiotics. The gas gradually decreased, symptoms improved, and she was discharged 18 days after the perforation. Histopathologically, the pancreatic tissue was consistent as autoimmune pancreatitis.
Conclusion: Endoscopic closure using endoscopic clips may be a better therapeutic option for duodenal perforation caused by endoscopy.
Objective: We report two cases of atypical femoral fracture (AFF) in patients with cancer.
Patients: Two patients, a 53-year-old woman with breast cancer and a 77-year-old man with prostate cancer, could not walk after being injured in a fall. They used bone-modifying agents (BMA) for the prevention of bone metastasis for three and four years, respectively.
Results: Intramedullary nails were placed to fix the femoral fractures in each patient. Neither of them had pathological metastatic femoral fractures based on fracture site specimens; however, severe suppression of bone turnover at the fracture site was suspected. Both patients could ambulate with a T-cane and were free of hip pain after surgery. Radiographs showed no callus formation at the fracture site.
Conclusion: Based on the two cases of AFF in patients with cancer related to BMA use, we should consider that the incidence of AFF may be associated with long-term BMA use.
Objectives: Virtual reality (VR) has been shown to facilitate rehabilitation at hospitals by distracting patients’ attention from pain and by providing a virtual environment favorable for motivating the patients to continue rehabilitation. However, the application of VR in a home-visit rehabilitation remains to be validated. Here, we report a case in which home-visit rehabilitation using immersive VR was effective for post-stroke hemiplegic shoulder pain.
Case presentation: After treatment, at a general hospital, for the hypertensive hemorrhage in the right brain capsule that resulted in the residual attention deficit disorder and left hemiplegia, a 63-year-old woman was cared for with a home-visit rehabilitation in a rural area. The patient had persistent pain in her left shoulder, which increased during activities of daily living and during rehabilitation, and the pain precluded rehabilitation. A VR relaxation program was delivered to the patient to alleviate pain during rehabilitation. Her shoulder pain was successfully alleviated using VR during training for muscle stretching and passive joint mobilization.
Conclusion: The application of VR to home rehabilitation in rural areas may augment the effectiveness of home rehabilitation by alleviating pain during the procedure and sustaining the motivation for home rehabilitation.
A 63-year-old man was admitted to our hospital in March 2017 with dysphagia and right homonymous hemianopsia. We diagnosed him with esophagogastric junction cancer (adenocarcinoma) with metastases to the cerebral occipital lobe, bone, and lymph nodes. After one cycle of 5FU + cisplatin (FP), the brain metastasis was resected because of the hemiplegic symptoms he developed. Histology of the resected tissue showed no viable tumor cells. After three cycles of FP, the primary lesion and metastases were resolved. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed a scar at the primary site. This was considered a complete response (CR). In April 2018, CT revealed a mass at the cardia, which was considered as lymph node metastases with gastric wall invasion. Although two additional cycles of FP were administered for recurrent tumors, the efficacy was progressive. In August 2018, proximal gastrectomy and D1 + lymph node dissection were performed. The pathological diagnosis was gastric intramural metastases and lymph node metastases (ypN1 [2/22]). Weekly paclitaxel therapy was administered for three months after surgery. Two years have passed since the last surgery without recurrence. We report a rare case of esophagogastric junction cancer with brain, bone, and gastric intramural metastases that responded to combined modality therapy.