This study was guided by the experiences of senior citizens, and collected its data through non-participant observations and in-depth interviews. Affinity diagrams were used to consolidate senior citizens' behaviors and thoughts, and indicated that smart pillboxes require 3 dimensions and 6 design criteria to comply with the mental models of senior citizens. Based on this discovery, 3 conceptual designs were subsequently developed: (A) the Smart Drug Identification Pillbox, which focuses on the correct dispensing and safe use of medications and easy operation; (B) the Smart Mirror Pillbox, which focuses on simultaneously managing the medication of all the members in the family; and (C) the Smart Companion Pillbox, which focuses on reducing the medication rejection of senior citizens by implementing a family companion function and enhancing the convenience for senior citizens with movement difficulties by implementing a mobile design. Finally, the design criteria were converted to evaluation criteria for the assessment of the conceptual designs. The results of the experts evaluation were consistent with the satisfaction of senior citizens, and conceptual design A was assessed to be the smart pillbox design most suitable for senior citizens.
Radical innovation (RI) can be easily identified after a product's success in the market. However, it is hard to identify beforehand. This paper aims to extend the study of RI by focusing on its development process. We hypothesize that RI and Incremental Innovation (II) consist of different sets of activities during the new product development (NPD) stage. To test this hypothesis, we examined the development process of six successful RI projects over the last twenty years by studying certain key activities that were conducted in each stage. This study yielded three key findings: (1) The analytical activities that occur in the early stage of NPD are conducted by lead individuals in an intuitive way, rather than in a deliberate way; (2) Needs were determined internally by firm or individuals, rather than by external user studies; and (3) New product categories were defined and redefined iteratively throughout the entire NPD process, rather than fixed at the first stage. Those three findings have important implications for designers involved with NPD, especially regarding these types of products. Design usually starts with an open case rather than a well-defined case.
In user-product interaction, there are different stages of user experiences which are constructed from various sources during interaction. These stages are occurred before, during and after the usage of a product. This research aims to identify the dominant, instrumental, symbolic, and affective factors that influences in three different stage of experience in car usage and how the experience is shifting from before usage, during usage, and after usage. This paper reports the results of a questionnaire study aimed towards different kinds of user's experience responses during interaction with a car in three different conditions of interaction stages. We found that there are significant relationships between product attachment and the length of immersive interaction which mainly created by three of five experience attributes. This research is expected to help designers to identify which important factors for user experience and as well as to foster greater user experience within their product.
The "overall form" of an object comprises form elements that are combined using composition features. In this study, form composition was divided into different items and categories by using form principles, the Semantic Differential evaluation and content analysis method were employed to analyze the form composition. In addition, the Pleasure-Arousal affective space was adopted to facilitate classification and comprehensive analysis. The results of the affective response of form composition was generalized into four features governing form composition in the P-A affective space The overall form of an object exhibits an intensity that is either strong or weak, which strongly corresponds with its power to arouse. The results can provide insights to designers on how to use different form elements to achieve the affective response requirement, as well as on how to use different composition features to create differences in the affective response displayed in the overall form while employing only one form element.
A literature review on painting history in Taiwan revealed that "Min-Practice and Taiwanese style" seems to be the typical characteristic of modern painting. However, there are many different viewpoints on the styles of Min-practice. In contemporary painting history, criticism and commentary, when it comes to Chinese painting, the Zhe school and Lingnan school are generally taken as examples, while the contributions of the Min schools have not been sufficiently recognized. This study probed into the transformation of traditional painting during modernization from the perspectives of stylish aesthetics and the formation of painting schools. This study found that the Min school silently inherited both the styles and painting techniques of Chinese painting, facilitating the preservation of folk painting in Fujian and Taiwan. In addition, Min-practice met the conditions for the formation of a painting school (namely, it should not simply be regarded as a certain kind of practice), and its value in the history of Chinese modern painting should be demonstrated.
This study investigated the mutual relationship between columns and rotational speed as well as the causal relationship between induced movement, columns, and rotational speed from the perspective of the appearing angles at the rotational speed threshold boundary line by using visual psychology and psychophysical adjustment methods. When columns with varying numbers of sides rotate at various speeds, two types of visual influence phenomena form and exhibit differing amplitudes. This directly influences the appearance of boundary lines of the upper and lower absolute thresholds and the range of the rotational speed threshold of the induced movement in individual and whole columns. As the number of column sides increases, the rotation angle decreases, reducing the area of the dynamic virtual shape. As a column's number of sides decreases, the visual influence level increases. A cylinder is the optimal design for dynamic optical illusions for perception of induced movement, and a triangular column has the lowest rotational speed threshold for perception of induced movement and disappears the fastest.
Culture is an important aspect to consider when designing a product, both as an inspiration and influence in the cognitive process of design. The cultural backgrounds of users and designers should be taken into account in the context of cognitive processing. Cultural schema refers to culture at the cognitive level, which provides references in the form of knowledge while also shaping perspectives. This study explores the role of cultural schema in culture-based product design by attempting to identify the opportunities and constraints posed by culture. Examples were drawn to explain about cultural schema role in designing products based on cultural artifacts that suggest design context interacted with cultural schema in design process that results in different interpretation of design from the same cultural artifact.
Following the growth of aboriginal self-awareness, aborigines start to combine local history and culture with the natural environment to provide experience services. This trend has become an important direction for tribes to develop the experience economy and Laiji Tribe provides a good example. This research has adopted literature analysis, participant observation and contextual interview to acquire field data and information for analyzing the touchpoint design of Laiji Tribe's experience journey. The research results indicate that: 1) Among stakeholders of tribal experience activity, the role that provides most experience activities is often increasingly connected with other service providers and is the core-node of this service system. 2) Experiential values pursued by the tourists in tribal experience journey are induced into five major perspectives, including thirty particulars and relevant elements. 3) Eight sweet points, eight pain points and relevant impact elements can be induced from tourists' experience feelings during the journey.
Due to the specialization and professionalization of design activities, sharing the product information between the members of a product development team has become important. In the previous study, we proposed M-QFD by applying the concept of Multi-space design model to QFD (quality function deployment) and the modularization method, which arranges the relationships between the diverse design elements extracted using M-QFD and modularizes (clusters) the product components. However, the clustering method has difficulty in deriving the adequate number of the clusters because the more types of the interactions become, the more the number of the trade-off relationships between the components included in a cluster. This paper presents the clustering method dealing the trade-off relationships between the product components. This method can support designers to integrate or decompose the components on the basis of the trade-off relationships. Moreover, this paper describes the illustrative example of the proposed method.
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