This study focused on international students (ISs) studying in Japan and investigated (a) the effects of their generalized trust and group identification on their social support networks (SSNs) with Japanese people, same-language speakers, and other-language speakers; (b) their SSNs formed through face-to-face (FTF) communication and instant messaging (IM) usage; and (c) whether these relationships differed between Chinese ISs and other ISs, as over 60% of ISs in Japan are Chinese, who more easily form in-groups than other ISs. A self-report questionnaire survey was conducted in 2018, and the following results were observed based on 209 valid responses. (a) ISs with higher levels of generalized trust felt less stress, while ISs with higher levels of group identification felt more stress. (b) ISs with higher levels of generalized trust were able to receive more social support from Japanese people and other-language speakers, but only social support from Japanese people helped decrease their feelings of stress in Japan. (c) ISs with higher levels of group identification tended to form larger SSNs with same-language speakers and received more social support from them, which in turn, led them to feel more stress. (d) The above results were found both in SSNs formed via FTF communication and through IM usage. (e) For non-Chinese ISs, their group identification did not lead them to receive more social support from the same-language speakers. The results suggest that it is necessary to distinguish the effects of generalized trust toward out-group members between Japanese people and otherlanguage speakers when examining ISs' intercultural adaptation.
Aiming to contribute to the debate whether the Internet and in particular social networks are leading to echo chambers of fragmented groups or to public sphere, this article investigates the dynamics of echo chambers of followers of Turkish political youth groups on Twitter. It focuses on two classes: Official youth organizations of ruling party and main opposition party, and one independent group. Retrieving over 40 million tweets of 30 thousand followers of these groups, 5.5 million interactions between 2016 and 2018 were analyzed. Strong echo chambers are found, and no weakening observed with a small-scale exception through cross-ideology exposure by individuals following two groups. The results are discussed along with the political lines and the independence level of the groups.
The purpose of this study was to examine how high school adolescents interact with a person of the opposite sex acquainted through SNS and what kind of the interactions result in meeting him or her in real life. A total of 207 high school adolescents who had experienced meeting in someone of the opposite sex acquainted through SNS reported their SNS interactions before the meetup. Results showed that the successive interaction about a common subject such as local being the same and hobbies led to meeting the person in real life. In addition, results showed that high school adolescents met in person not when he or she wanted to see them but when they want to see him or her. Based on these results, future contents of crime prevention education are discussed.