We conducted a retrospective analysis of patients younger than 60 years (N = 10, median age 54.5) with newly diagnosed primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) at the University of Tsukuba Hospital from January 2008 to November 2016. All the patients were scheduled to receive a single regimen without registration to any clinical trials. This was based on a phase 2 study by Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC); induction chemotherapy with rituximab, methotrexate, procarbazine, and vincristine (R-MPV) (five to seven cycles), followed by whole-brain radiotherapy (rd-WBRT) (23.4 Gy) and two high-dose cytarabine (HD-AC) cycles as a consolidation. The median age was 54.5 years, and median follow up duration was 33.1 months. The 3-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were 69% (95% CI 31–89%) and 56% (95% CI 20–81%). The median OS and PFS were not reached, respectively. Acute and delayed toxicities were manageable. In particular, OS and PFS of seven patients who achieved CR by the R-MPV induction chemotherapy were signiﬁcantly superb (3-year OS, 100%; 3-year PFS, 80%), implying that a large proportion of patients in CR after the completion of this treatment may achieve durable disease control.
On the other hand, all of the three patients who had progressive disease during this treatment died of disease progression within 1 year after diagnosis without achieving CR. Identifying the patients having a risk of failure in the R-MPV induction chemotherapy is important, and may allow us to consider a potentially more effective regimen.
Many patients with immunoglobulin M (IgM) monoclonal gammopathy remain asymptomatic and, consequently, untreated; however, few studies have evaluated the clinical course and prognosis of these patients. Using the screening procedures at our hospital, 74 patients with IgM monoclonal gammopathy were selected. We excluded 11 patients in whom the treatment for lymphoid neoplasms had been initiated at the time of IgM monoclonal protein detection. The remaining 63 patients were considered to be the patient population with IgM MGUS and asymptomatic WM, and were analyzed. In these patients, the median overall survival was longer than 14 years. More than half of these patients died from causes other than lymphoid neoplasm. The cumulative incidence of lymphoid neoplasm requiring treatment was 17.5%. In five of eight patients requiring treatment for lymphoid neoplasms, the causes of death were related with these lymphoid neoplasms. Our study suggests that not all patients with IgM monoclonal gammopathy require uniform treatment for prolonged survival; however, most lymphoid neoplasms requiring treatment are refractory diseases. Our findings may help manage patients with macroglobulinemia.
The estimation of clinical prognosis for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) with a quick, cost-efficient method is necessary because of the clinical heterogeneity of this disease, which leads to death, relapsed or refractory disease in approximately 40% of patients. We analyzed 320 cases diagnosed from 2007 to 2013 treated with R-CHOP therapy at Tokai University Hospital and associated institutions. DLBCL was classified according to the cell-of-origin using the Hans algorithm [germinal center B-cell-like (GCB) vs non-GCB subtypes], and into 6 subgroups derived from combinations of CD10, BCL6 and MUM1 markers. The percentage of GCB and non-GCB (NGCB) subtypes was 35% and 65%, respectively. GCB-DLBCL was characterized by lower BCL2 immunohistochemical expression, extranodal sites ＜1, better therapeutic response, and favorable overall survival (OS) and progression free survival (PFS) (P＜0.01). The most frequent subgroup was NGCB-1 (CD10-BCL6+MUM1+, 51%) followed by GCB-1 (CD10+BCL6+or-MUM1+, 21%), NGCB-2 (CD10-BCL6-MUM1+, 13%), GCB-2 (CD10+BCL6+or-MUM1-, 10%), GCB-3 (CD10-BCL6+MUM1-, 4%) and NGCB-3 (CD10-BCL6-MUM1-, 2%). In comparison with GCB-2 and GCB-3 (both MUM1-), the GCB-1 (MUM1+) was characterized by favorable PFS (5-year PFS 84% vs 65%, OR 0.368, P＜0.05), independent of high LDH (associated with unfavorable PFS, OR 7.04, P＜0.01) in the multivariate analysis. This predictive value of MUM1 was independent of CD10. Interestingly, triple-negative NGCB-3 tended to have a more favorable prognosis than the other NGCB subgroups.
In conclusion, the Hans classifier is a valid method to evaluate the prognosis of DLBCL NOS. In the GCB subtypes, GCB subtypes, MUM1-positivity is associated with a more favorable outcome (PFS).
Primary testicular lymphoma (PTL) is a rare but aggressive disease. Although most patients present in the early stage, their prognosis is poor. Similar with PTL, cardiac lymphoma is also an uncommon disease characterized by its aggressive clinical course and poor prognosis. We herein report an extremely rare case of advanced stage PTL with cardiac involvement, treated by high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplantation (HDT-ASCT) followed by systemic chemotherapy, prophylactic intrathecal methotrexate (IT-MTX), and radiotherapy. A 48-year-old man presented with painless left scrotal swelling. He was diagnosed with PTL after orchiectomy, and the histological type was diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. For staging of lymphoma, positron emission tomography was performed, which revealed uptake in the right atrium and early cardiac metastasis within just 2 months after orchiectomy. He underwent 6 cycles of systemic chemotherapy that consisted of rituximab, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisolone (R-CHOP). He also received central nervous system prophylaxis 4 times with weekly IT-MTX during the first 2 cycles of R-CHOP. He achieved complete response after 6 cycles of R-CHOP, and underwent HDT-ASCT and radiotherapy as consolidation therapy without irreversible adverse effects. He is currently doing well, with a progression-free survival of 31 months. The above treatment strategy including HDT-ASCT may be one of the treatment options for advanced stage PTL with cardiac metastasis in patients younger than 65 years old.
A 69-year-old man was diagnosed with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and treated with dasatinib. After two years on dasatinib, the patient achieved complete molecular response, but dasatinib treatment was discontinued due to exacerbation of pleural effusion. Nilotinib and imatinib were started but stopped due to an increase in pleural effusion. Thoracentesis was performed and he was diagnosed with human herpesvirus 8-unrelated primary effusion lymphoma (PEL)-like lymphoma. Complex chromosomal abnormality, including BCL6 rearrangement, was found on chromosome analysis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of PEL-like lymphoma following tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment for CML.
Herein, we describe a 61-year-old man diagnosed with pulmonary hemosiderosis following chemotherapy for acute adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL). Liver and heart biopsy confirmed hemosiderosis. ATLL progressed, and the patient died from multiorgan damage. Welder’s lung may have been involved in hemosiderosis and systemic iron overload. Abnormal iron metabolism or immune reactions may have influenced the clinical course, but these were not validated. Detailed analyses of family medical and lifestyle histories, and genetic examination should be performed in cases of systemic iron overload.