Microbes and Environments
Online ISSN : 1347-4405
Print ISSN : 1342-6311
ISSN-L : 1342-6311
39 巻, 2 号
選択された号の論文の5件中1~5を表示しています
Regular Paper
  • Shihori Tsushima, Yuma Nishi, Ryo Suzuki, Masaru Tachibana, Robert A. ...
    原稿種別: Regular Paper
    2024 年 39 巻 2 号 論文ID: ME23102
    発行日: 2024年
    公開日: 2024/06/12
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    Mn(II)-oxidizing microorganisms are considered to play significant roles in the natural geochemical cycles of Mn and other heavy metals because the insoluble biogenic Mn oxides (BMOs) that are produced by these microorganisms adsorb other dissolved heavy metals and immobilize them as precipitates. In the present study, a new Mn(II)-oxidizing fungal strain belonging to the ascomycete genus Periconia, a well-studied plant-associating fungal genus with Mn(II)-oxidizing activity that has not yet been exami­ned in detail, was isolated from natural groundwater outflow sediment. This isolate, named strain TS-2, was confirmed to oxidize dissolved Mn(II) and produce insoluble BMOs that formed characteristic, separately-located nodules on their hyphae while leaving major areas of the hyphae free from encrustation. These BMO nodules also adsorbed and immobilized dissolved Cu(II), a model analyte of heavy metals, as evidenced by elemental mapping ana­lyses of fungal hyphae-BMO assemblages using a scanning electron microscope with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX). Analyses of functional genes within the whole genome of strain TS-2 further revealed the presence of multiple genes predicted to encode laccases/multicopper oxidases that were potentially responsible for Mn(II) oxidation by this strain. The formation of BMO nodules may have functioned to prevent the complete encrustation of fungal hyphae, thereby enabling the control of heavy metal concentrations in their local microenvironments while maintaining hyphal functionality. The present results will expand our knowledge of the physiological and morphological traits of Mn(II)-oxidizing Periconia, which may affect the natural cycle of heavy metals through their immobilization.

Regular Paper
  • Sarmishta Mukhopadhyay, Meesha Singh, Mahashweta Mitra Ghosh, Santanu ...
    原稿種別: Regular Paper
    2024 年 39 巻 2 号 論文ID: ME23105
    発行日: 2024年
    公開日: 2024/06/05
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    Shigella species are a group of highly transmissible Gram-negative pathogens. Increasing reports of infection with extensively drug-resistant varieties of this stomach bug has convinced the World Health Organization to prioritize Shigella for novel therapeutic interventions. We herein coupled the whole-genome sequencing of a natural isolate of Shigella flexneri with a pangenome ana­lysis to characterize pathogen genomics within this species, which will provide us with an insight into its existing genomic diversity and highlight the root causes behind the emergence of quick vaccine escape variants. The isolated novel strain of S. flexneri contained ~4,500 protein-coding genes, 57 of which imparted resistance to antibiotics. A comparative pan-genomic ana­lysis revealed genomic variability of ~64%, the shared conservation of core genes in central metabolic processes, and the enrichment of unique/accessory genes in virulence and defense mechanisms that contributed to much of the observed antimicrobial resistance (AMR). A pathway ana­lysis of the core genome mapped 22 genes to 2 antimicrobial resistance pathways, with the bulk coding for multidrug efflux pumps and two component regulatory systems that are considered to work synergistically towards the development of resistance phenotypes. The prospective evolvability of Shigella species as witnessed by the marked difference in genomic content, the strain-specific essentiality of unique/accessory genes, and the inclusion of a potent resistance mechanism within the core genome, strengthens the possibility of novel serotypes emerging in the near future and emphasizes the importance of tracking down genomic diversity in drug/vaccine design and AMR governance.

Short Communication
Regular Paper
  • Xinchao Meng, Meihan Ban, Zhaoyang Wu, Lilong Huang, Zicheng Wang, Yun ...
    原稿種別: Regular Paper
    2024 年 39 巻 2 号 論文ID: ME23101
    発行日: 2024年
    公開日: 2024/05/18
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    Microcystins (MCs) produced by Microcystis aeruginosa are harmful to animal and human health, and there is currently no effective method for their removal. Therefore, the development of biological approaches that inhibit cyanobacteria and remove MCs is needed. We identified strain MB1, confirmed as Morchella, using morphological and mole­cular evolution methods. To assess the impact of strain MB1 on M. aeruginosa, we conducted an experiment in which we inoculated M. aeruginosa with Morchella strain MB1. After their co-cultivation for 4‍ ‍d, the inoculation with 0.9696‍ ‍g MB1 completely inhibited and removed M. aeruginosa while concurrently removing up to 95% of the MC content. Moreover, within 3‍ ‍d of their co-cultivation, MB1 removed more than 50% of nitrogen and phosphorus from the M. aeruginosa solution. Therefore, the development of effective biological techniques for MC removal is paramount in safeguarding both the environment and human well-being. We herein successfully isolated MB1 from its natural habitat. This strain effectively inhibited and removed M. aeruginosa and also reduced the content of nitrogen and phosphorus in the M. aeruginosa solution. Most importantly, it exhibited a robust capability to eliminate MCs. The present results offer a new method and technical reference for mitigating harmful algal blooms.

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