Pitch discrimination is the ability to distinguish differences in pitch and it is important for playing musical instruments and listening to music. However, owing to the limited verbal abilities of young children, not much is known about developmental changes in pitch discrimination during childhood. Therefore, the present study examined pitch
discrimination abilities in preschool and early elementary school children using non-verbal responses. It was found that an ability to recognize the same pitch improved among preschoolers (4-5 years) and kindergarteners (5-6 years), while high-low pitch discrimination improved between first- and second-graders. In addition, musical experience improved pitch
discrimination performance, but only among second-graders. These results suggest that the development of pitch discrimination during childhood involves both gradual natural acquisition and continuous musical experiences.
Music performers often reflect on whether they can follow the composer.s images through the music score, realize their own images, and convey such images to listeners. These notions can be called expressive awareness in music performance. The purpose of this study is to develop psychological scales for expressive awareness in music performance for music performance learners such as music students. An expert in music education along with two psychologists conducted a questionnaire survey with 180 undergraduates (M＝20.04, SD＝ 2.17) who majored in music. Factor analysis indicated a three-factor structure of expressive awareness in music performance: .Conveying the messages to the audience,. .Matching the performer.s intention and method for expression,. and .Following the music score.. Each factor of expressive awareness demonstrated sufficient reliability (Cronbach.s α＞.70). This scale is thought to be useful to understand how music performers practice and learn to perform better.