TRPA1 is a Ca2+-permeable cation channel that is activated by painful low temperatures (<17°C), irritating chemicals, reactive metabolites and mediators of inflammation. In the bladder TRPA1 is predominantly expressed in sensory afferent nerve endings, where it mediates sensory transduction. The contractile effect of its activation on detrusor smooth muscle (DSM) is explained by the release from sensory afferents of inflammatory factors – tachykinins and prostaglandins, which cause smooth muscle cell contraction. Diabetes is a systemic disease, with common complications being diabetic cystopathies and urinary incontinence. However, data on how diabetes affects bladder contractility associated with TRPA1 activation are not available. In this study, by using a rat model with streptozotocin-induced type I diabetes, contractility measurements of DSM strips in response to TRPA1-activating and modulating pharmacological agents and assessment of TRPA1 mRNA expression in bladder-innervating dorsal root ganglia, we have shown that diabetes enhances the TRPA1-dependent mechanism involved in bladder DSM contractility. This is not due to changes in TRPA1 expression, but mainly due to the general inflammatory reaction caused by diabetes. The latter leads to an increase in cyclooxygenase-2-dependent prostaglandin synthesis through the mechanisms associated with substance P activity. This results in the enhanced functional coupling between the tachykinin and prostanoid systems, and the concomitant increase of their impact on DSM contractility in response to TRPA1 activation.
Our aims were to determine 1) if resveratrol’s vasorelaxant action is greater in the distal (resistance) versus proximal (conductance) portion of the rat tail artery, and 2) if it can be blocked by agents known to block different potassium (K) channels in arterial smooth muscle. We found that its half-maximally effective concentration values were essentially identical (25 ± 3 versus 27 ± 3 μM) for relaxing adrenergically-precontracted rings prepared from distal versus proximal tissues. This does not confirm a previous report of greater relaxation in resistance versus conductance arteries. We also found that its relaxation could not be blocked by any of seven different K channel blockers. However, we uncovered a novel unanticipated action not yet reported. In half our arterial ring preparations, resveratrol transiently enhanced adrenergically-induced precontractions beginning well before its sustained relaxant effect became apparent. This action provides the first reasonable explanation for previously unexplained increases in arterial pressures observed during acute intravenous administration of resveratrol to animal models of traumatic ischemic tissue injury, in which hypotension is often present and in need of correction. Also unanticipated, this same transient enhancement of adrenergic contraction was notably inhibited by some of the same K channel blockers (particularly tetraethylammonium and glibenclamide) that failed to influence its relaxant effect. Although we do not rule out smooth muscle as a possible site for such a paradoxical finding, we suspect resveratrol could also be acting on K-selective mechano-sensitive ion channels located in the endothelium where they may participate in release of contracting factors.
April 26, 2016 Due to the maintenance of online payment system, article purchase with credit card will be unavailable as following schedule. If you may encounter the maintenance difficulties, please try again after the maintenance is completed. Thanks for your kind cooperation. Details
May 01, 2015 Please note the "spoofing mail" that pretends to be J-STAGE.