Journal of Smooth Muscle Research
Online ISSN : 1884-8796
Print ISSN : 0916-8737
ISSN-L : 0916-8737
Current issue
Displaying 1-2 of 2 articles from this issue
  • Egan L. Choi, Negar Taheri, Yuebo Zhang, Kenjiro Matsumoto, Yujiro Hay ...
    2024 Volume 60 Pages 1-9
    Published: 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: March 09, 2024

    Macrophages are the originators of inflammatory compounds, phagocytic purifiers in their local environment, and wound healing protectors in oxidative environments. They are molded by the tissue milieu they inhabit, with gastrointestinal (GI) muscularis macrophages (MMs) being a prime example. MMs are located in the muscular layer of the GI tract and contribute to muscle repair and maintenance of GI motility. MMs are often in close proximity to the enteric nervous system, specifically near the enteric neurons and interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs). Consequently, the anti-inflammatory function of MMs corresponds to the development and maintenance of neural networks in the GI tract. The capacity of MMs to shift from anti-inflammatory to proinflammatory states may contribute to the inflammatory aspects of various GI diseases and disorders such as diabetic gastroparesis or postoperative ileus, functional disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome, and organic diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease. We reviewed the current knowledge of MMs and their influence on neighboring cells due to their important role in the GI tract.

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  • Ouafa Amrani, Ahmed Karim, Mohamed Marghich, Leila Beyi, Saliha Boukna ...
    2024 Volume 60 Pages 10-22
    Published: 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: May 21, 2024

    Functional bowel disorders (FBD) have a major potential to degrade the standards of public life. Juniperus oxycedrus L. (J. oxycedrus) (Cupressaceae) has been described as a plant used in traditional medicine as an antidiarrheal medication. The present study is the first to obtain information on the antispasmodic and antidiarrheic effects of J. oxycedrus aqueous extract through in vitro and in vivo studies. An aqueous extract of J. oxycedrus (AEJO) was extracted by decoctioning air-dried aerial sections of the plant. Antispasmodic activity was tested in an isolated jejunum segment of rats exposed to cumulative doses of drogue extract. The antidiarrheic activity was tested using diarrhea caused by castor oil, a transit study of the small intestine, and castor oil-induced enteropooling assays in mice. In the jejunum of rats, the AEJO (0.1, 0.3 and 1 mg/ml) diminished the maximum tone induced by low K+ (25 mM), while it exhibited a weak inhibitory effect on high K+ (75 mM) with an IC50=0.49 ± 0.01 mg/ml and IC50=2.65 ± 0.16 mg/ml, respectively. In the contractions induced by CCh (10−6 M), AEJO diminished the maximum tone, similar to that induced by low K+ (25 mM). with an IC50=0.45 ± 0.02 mg/ml. The inhibitory effect of AEJO on low K+ induced contractions was significantly diminished in the presence of glibenclamide (GB) (0.3 µM) and 4-aminopyrimidine (4-AP) (100 µM), with IC50 values of 1.84 ± 0.09 mg/ml. and 1.63 ± 0.16 mg/ml, respectively). The demonstrated inhibitory effect was similar to that produced by a non-competitive antagonist acting on cholinergic receptors and calcium channels. In castor oil-induced diarrhea in mice, AEJO (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) caused an extension of the latency time, a reduced defecation frequency, and a decrease in the amount of wet feces compared to the untreated group (distilled water). Moreover, it showed a significant anti-motility effect and reduced the amount of fluid accumulated in the intestinal lumen at all tested doses. These findings support the conventional use of Juniperus oxycedrus L. as a remedy for gastrointestinal diseases.

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