This study examines the establishment of the National Survey of After School Care-Requiring Child conducted by the Ministry of Health and Welfare in 1944, which focused on the perspectives of women’s labour and child protection.
Although studies have revealed that social work to support children after school began to be implemented in various regions around 1943, the circumstances of this process remain unclear. Therefore, the government’s objectives for after school care-requiring child in the contexts of women’s labour and child protection during this period are clarified in this study.
The National Survey of After School Care-Requiring Child (1944) was conducted in response to the results of the National Survey of Reform-Requiring Elementary School Child by the Ministry of Health and Welfare in 1942. This was made clear by Mori Kenzo, who was involved in these surveys and focused on the issue of after school care for elementary school children from the perspectives of women’s labour and child protection.
One might conclude that the National Survey of After School Care-Requiring Child (1944) was the first to be conducted by the government as a foundation for social work to support children after school from all families, not only poor families, whose parents were absent from home due to work mobilization, based on the view that children are human resources.
Collaboration between schools and community organizations such as non-profit organizations is expected to guarantee learning for children with social difficulties. However, the asymmetrical relationship between them has been noted. Strengthening this collaboration may transform community organizations into schools. Furthermore, children with social difficulties may be excluded from the community organization’s support, which is supposed to include them. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to clarify the process of establishing collaboration between schools and community-based educational spaces without assuming power relations and to examine the kind of support to guarantee learning for immigrant children through such collaboration, from the perspectives of both teachers and the community organization’s staff.
The results revealed three conditions are imperative to realize collaboration without assuming power relations: an open discussion in the early stages of collaboration, a recognition that learning in schools is incomplete and a key person to promote collaboration. Establishing such leads to comprehensive learning support and employing the advantages of community organizations’ characteristics. Significantly, the interpretation of guaranteeing learning for immigrant children has been transformed beyond the scope of traditional school education through collaboration without assuming power relations. Furthermore, it is suggested that the direction of collaboration between schools and community organizations is also expected to influence the emphasis on guaranteeing learning.
The focus of this study was a midwife who owns and operates Nakashima Maternity Home, the only midwifery clinic in Tajima-machi, a district of Minamiaizu Town in Fukushima Prefecture, which is located in a mountainous area that receives heavy snowfall. The purpose of the study was to examine the process through which a midwife develops her private practice and acquires knowledge as she assists in childbirth for a living. In this study, the midwife had developed her private practice in an area that receives heavy snowfall. She lived in the local community and was thus, highly knowledgeable about the region. The people in the community were well aware of her dedication. In the process of conducting activities related to labour and delivery there were learning experiences in which the midwives projected their way of life onto pregnant women with whom they worked and the place where they worked.
The purpose of this study was to examine the historical function of public halls by analysing the construction plan of a large-scale social education facility with a hall in Kawasaki City during a period of high growth as well as the impact of the facility plan on community residents who were primarily involved in cultural activities.
An analysis of the documents revealed that as the community residents’ cultural events and workplace circle activities increased, there was a shortage of facilities for meetings and activities. Consequently, when the Kawasaki City administration became aware of the situation, they proceeded with the construction plan of the facilities. A multipurpose hall was seen to address the needs of many groups.
The results also found that during periods of high growth, community residents communicated their requests for such a hall by employing petitions and expressing their opinions at public hearings. The hall plan led to the birth of a new group of residents who started the workplace circle. The facility was expected to be a place of activity for the people involved in cultural events. In addition, the community residents’ experience during the planning stage of the Kawasaki Industrial Cultural Center was an opportunity to construct similar public halls in Kawasaki City.