Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Online ISSN : 1347-7439
Print ISSN : 0916-7250
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Showing 1-50 articles out of 74 articles from Advance online publication
  • Xiao-Xing CHI, Tao ZHANG, Xiao-Li CHU, Jing-Long ZHEN, Dong-Jie ZHANG
    Article ID: 17-0001
    [Advance publication] Released: June 22, 2018
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    The effect of genistein on Bcl-2 and Bax protein expression in the ovarian tissue of rats with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) was evaluated. Sixty rats were divided into six groups. Rats in the Dose group received genistein at a concentration of either 5 (L-gen), 10 (M-Gen) or 20 (H-Gen) mg per kg of body weight per day. The expression of Bcl-2 mRNA and Bax mRNA was determined by in situ hybridization. Bcl-2 and Bax protein concentration was quantified by ELISA. The results showed that the expression of Bcl-2 mRNA and Bcl-2 protein was significantly higher in the high genistein Dose group (H-Gen) when compared to the Model group (MG) (P<0.05). Genistein induced higher expression of the Bcl-2 gene at the transcriptional and translational level. Treatment with genistein resulted in an improvement of ovarian function with Bcl-2 expression being enhanced and Bax expression being suppressed. These alterations may be due to the structural and functional modifications that take place in these cells, and could be related to apoptotic changes that occur in rats with PCOS.

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  • Yasutomo HORI, Kensuke NAKAMURA, Nobuyuki KANNO, Makoto HITOMI, Yohei ...
    Article ID: 17-0557
    [Advance publication] Released: June 22, 2018
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    Alacepril is a relatively novel angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; however, the safety, tolerance, and efficacy of alacepril in terms of cough suppression in dogs with mitral valve disease (MVD) remain unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the safety, tolerance, and cough suppression efficacy of alacepril in dogs with MVD. This was a multi-center, prospective study. Forty-two dogs with echocardiographic or radiographic evidence of cardiac enlargement in addition to cough were enrolled. Dogs were treated with alacepril (1.0–3.0 mg/kg/day) for at least 4 weeks. One dog (2.4%) developed complications, including appetite loss, lethargy, and vomiting. Thirty-six dogs were re-evaluated after 4 weeks of treatment. Cough resolved or improved in 20 dogs (55.6%) after treatment. Based on the efficacy of alacepril, the dogs were divided into an effective group (n=20) and an ineffective group (n=16). After treatment, the left ventricular end-diastolic internal diameter corrected for body weight was significantly increased from baseline in the ineffective group but was significantly decreased in the effective group. Univariate binomial logistic regression analyses showed that high atrial natriuretic peptide level, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide level, and E wave velocity at baseline were significantly correlated with alacepril inefficacy. Alacepril as treatment for MVD is well tolerated in most dogs, and different conditions of cardiac loading may influence the effect of the drug. Alacepril is expected to improve the quality of life of dogs with early stage MVD.

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  • Seung-Hun LEE, Dongmi KWAK, Kyoo-Tae KIM
    Article ID: 18-0072
    [Advance publication] Released: June 22, 2018
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    This study reports two clinical cases of avian haemosporidian infection caused by a Haemoproteus sp., involving a snowy owl (Bubo scandiacus) and a goshawk (Accipiter gentilis), at a zoo. The snowy owl died after presenting with anorexia, depression and lethargy. A blood smear with Wright’s staining confirmed Haemoproteus infection. Necropsy of the snowy owl revealed hypertrophy of the internal organs, including the liver, gallbladder, kidney and adrenal glands. The goshawk showed anorexia, depression and a lowered head position, and was diagnosed with a Haemoproteus infection based on a blood smear. The goshawk was completely cured by treatment with a combination of atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride. Both cases showed decreased erythrocytes, hemoglobin and hematocrit values on complete blood count.

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  • Masanori KOBAYASHI, Tatsuya HORI, Eiichi KAWAKAMI
    Article ID: 18-0108
    [Advance publication] Released: June 22, 2018
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    Two dogs with low plasma testosterone (T) levels and poor semen quality were administered one tablet of 12.5 mg clomiphene citrate orally per day at 2-day intervals for 4 weeks. Plasma T levels, total sperm count, and sperm motility in both dogs temporarily increased between 3 and 6 weeks after the start of treatment. These results indicate that poor semen quality in dogs with low plasma T level can be improved by oral administration of clomiphene citrate.

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  • Yui KOBATAKE, Hiroki SAKAI, Hidetaka NISHIDA, Yosuke UEMATSU, Sadatosh ...
    Article ID: 17-0675
    [Advance publication] Released: June 21, 2018
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    An 8-year-old castrated male cat presented with acute ataxia and paresis in all four limbs. The cat also exhibited signs of autonomic nervous system impairment. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed swelling of the brachial plexuses bilaterally. Despite treatment, the cat died after 10 days of treatment. A postmortem examination revealed swollen radial nerves and cervical nerve roots in which infiltration of inflammatory cells was histologically confirmed. Additionally, lymphocytic infiltration was found around the blood vessels of the sciatic nerve bundle and the vagus nerve. Histological features were comparable to previously reported brachial plexus hypertrophic neuritis in a cat. Our case was unique in that the autonomic nerves were also involved in addition to the somatic nerves in all four limbs.

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  • Xiaohua LIU, Chan LUO, Kai DENG, Zhulian WU, Yingming WEI, Jianrong JI ...
    Article ID: 18-0043
    [Advance publication] Released: June 20, 2018
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    The present study was undertaken to examine the effects of cytoplasmic volume on nucleus reprogramming and developmental competence of buffalo handmade cloning (HMC) embryos. We found that both HMC embryos derived from ~150% cytoplasm or ~225% cytoplasm resulted in a higher blastocyst rate and total cell number of blastocyst in comparison with those from ~75% cytoplasm (25.4 ± 2.0%, 27.9 ± 1.6% vs. 17.9 ± 3.1%; 150 ± 10, 169 ± 12 vs. 85 ± 6, P<0.05). Meanwhile, the proportions of nuclear envelope breakdown (NEBD) and premature chromosome condensation (PCC) were also increased in the embryos derived from ~150% or ~225% enucleated cytoplasm compared to those from ~75% cytoplasm. Moreover, HMC embryos derived from ~225% cytoplasm showed a decrease of global DNA methylation from the 2-cell to the 4-cell stage in comparison with those of ~75% cytoplasm (P<0.05). Furthermore, the expression of embryonic genome activation (EGA) relative genes (eIF1A and U2AF) in HMC embryos derived from ~225% cytoplasm at the 8-cell stages was also found to be enhanced compared with that of the ~75% cytoplasm. Two of seven recipients were confirmed to be pregnant following transfer of blastocysts derived from ~225% cytoplasm, and one healthy cloned calf was delivered at the end of the gestation period, whereas no recipients were pregnant after the transfer of blastocysts derived from ~75% cytoplasm. These results indicate that the cytoplasmic volume of recipient oocytes affects donor nucleus reprogramming, and then further accounted for the developmental ability of the reconstructed embryos.

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  • Daneeya EKAPOPPHAN, Athicha SRISUTTHAKARN, Walasinee MOONARMART, Ruang ...
    Article ID: 18-0045
    [Advance publication] Released: June 20, 2018
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    This study aims to determine the microbiological profile and risk factors associated with antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in canine severe corneal ulcers. Thirty-two corneal and conjunctival swabs were collected from dogs with diagnosed severe corneal ulcers that presented to Prasu-Arthorn veterinary teaching hospital in Nakhon Pathom, Thailand from June 2015 to June 2016. Microorganisms were identified by means of genotypic and phenotypic approaches. Of 32 ulcers sampled, 26 (81.3%) yielded culturable microorganisms with 24 bacterial isolates and 7 fungal isolates. The most commonly isolated bacteria were Staphylococcus spp. (45.8%, 11/24) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (20.8%, 5/24). Out of 11 staphylococcal isolates identified, 10 carried the mecA gene providing methicillin resistance. The extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) encoding genes blaCTX-M and blaVEB-1were found in an Acinetobacter lwoffii isolate, and blaSHV was found in a P. aeruginosa isolate. Based on the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) breakpoint criteria, minimum inhibitory concentrations values showed that all bacteria, except for staphylococci, were susceptible to current ophthalmic antibiotics. More than 50% of staphylococci were resistant to all generations of fluoroquinolones and fusidic acid. Chloramphenicol was highly active against staphylococci (81.3% susceptible). The width (P=0.02) and the depth (P=0.04) of ulcers predicted greater risk of yielding resistant bacteria. The identification of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria prompts practitioners to be prudent when choosing ophthalmic antibiotics for severe corneal ulcers.

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  • Yasunori SHINOZUKA, Kazuhiro KAWAI, Reiichiro SATO, Akito HIGASHITANI, ...
    Article ID: 18-0280
    [Advance publication] Released: June 18, 2018
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    The change in milk composition in response to intramammary infusion of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was investigated. Four clinically healthy goats were infused with LPS (100 µg) by intramammary administration to the left udder. Clinical manifestations (rectal temperature and physical activity), selected blood parameters (pH and white blood cell count) and milk compositions (somatic cell count and pH) were evaluated at 0 hr (just before challenge) and at multiple time points over the first 24 hr post-challenge. After intramammary LPS challenge, the pH of milk from both udders increased. Thus, this study revealed that LPS-induced mastitis in goat can result in increased pH in milk from the unchallenged (contralateral) udder.

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  • Mariko MOCHIZUKI, Satoshi NOZAWA, Fumiko MINOWA, Kimihiro OKUBO, Hiroy ...
    Article ID: 17-0457
    [Advance publication] Released: June 13, 2018
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    This study investigates bromine (Br) concentration and its relationship with iodine concentration in serum samples of 86 horses. The mean serum Br concentration in horses pastured on green grass near the seashore was significantly higher (P<0.001) than that in horses pastured in a sand paddock. A significantly negative correlation (r=−0.479, P<0.01) between the serum Br and iodine concentrations was evident in the horses that pastured on green grass. The concentrations of several elements such as sodium and potassium were virtually constant in the serum. In addition, there were elements present below the detection limit of the analytical instruments used. In contrast, it was suggested that geological differences have a marked influence on serum Br concentrations in animals. Thus, we hypothesized that serum Br concentration in horses is a possible indicator reflecting geological differences.

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  • Manabu NEMOTO, Takashi YAMANAKA, Hiroshi BANNAI, Koji TSUJIMURA, Takan ...
    Article ID: 18-0103
    [Advance publication] Released: June 12, 2018
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    This study compared agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) protocols for diagnosing equine infectious anemia. Two commercial testing kits were used: one following the Japanese Act on Domestic Animal Infectious Diseases Control and one following the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) manual. From 651 samples tested, both protocols gave identical results for 647 samples (23 samples tested positive; 624 tested negative). Non-specific reactions were observed in 21 samples testing negative by the Japanese protocol, but none were observed with the OIE protocol. The kappa coefficient value was 0.962, indicating almost perfect agreement between the two protocols. This study found no difference in diagnostic agreement between the two protocols, but the OIE protocol produced non-specific reactions less frequently than the Japanese protocol.

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  • Hideya INOUE, Tomoyuki SUZUKI, Masashi HYODO, Masami MIYAKE
    Article ID: 17-0653
    [Advance publication] Released: June 11, 2018
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    In cases of food poisoning, it is important for food sanitation inspectors to determine the causative pathogen as early as possible and take necessary measures to minimize outbreaks. Interviews are usually conducted to obtain epidemiological information to aid in the rapid determination of the cause. However, the current method of determining the causative pathogen has the disadvantage of being reliant upon the experience and knowledge of food sanitation inspectors. Here, we analyzed 529 infectious food poisoning incidents reported in five municipalities in the Kinki region to develop a tool for evaluation using a multinomial logistic regression model, which can predict the causative pathogen based on the patients’ epidemiological information. This tool predicts the most probable cause of the incident by generating a list of pathogens with the highest probability. As a result of leave-one-out cross validation, the agreement ratio with the actual pathogen was 86.4%, and this ratio increased to 97.5% when the agreement was judged by including the true pathogen within the top three pathogens with the highest probability. In cases where the difference of probability between the first and second candidate pathogen was ≥50%, the agreement ratio increased to 94.2%. Using this tool, it is possible to accurately estimate the causative pathogen at an early stage based on patient information, and this will further help narrow the target of investigations to identify causative agent, thereby leading to a prompt identification, which can prevent the spread of food poisoning.

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  • Kei IWATA, Kazufumi KASUYA, Kou TAKAYAMA, Yusuke NAKAHARA, Yoshifumi K ...
    Article ID: 18-0061
    [Advance publication] Released: June 11, 2018
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    A 2-year-female arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus) developed anorexia, dehydration, and emaciation during the quarantine period for importation from Norway, and died 17 days later. At necropsy, a fistula was observed on the left gluteal region, and the left eye, left brain, and kidneys were discolored. Histologically, severe diffuse suppurative meningoencephalitis and renal abscesses were detected. Numerous Gram-positive cocci were detected in these lesions. Multidrug-susceptible Staphylococcus pseudintermedius were isolated from the lesions. These results suggest that S. pseudintermedius can cause severe multifocal suppurative meningoencephalitis and nephritis in foxes. This is the first report of multidrug-susceptible S. pseudintermedius meningoencephalitis and nephritis in a fox.

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  • Shunya NAKAYAMA, Hiroshi KOIE, Kiichi KANAYAMA, Yuko KATAKAI, Yasuyo I ...
    Article ID: 18-0124
    [Advance publication] Released: June 11, 2018
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    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has a tremendous impact on the quality of life of humans. While experimental animals are valuable to medical research as models of human diseases, cardiac systems differ widely across various animal species. Thus, we examined a CVD model in cynomolgus monkeys. Laboratory primates are precious resources, making it imperative that symptoms of diseases and disorders are detected as early as possible. Thus, in this study we comprehensively examined important indicators of CVD in cynomolgus monkeys, including arterial blood gas, complete blood count (CBC), biochemistry, and cardiac hormones. The control group included 20 healthy macaques showing non-abnormal findings in screening tests, whereas the CVD group included 20 macaques with valvular disease and cardiomyopathy. An increase of red blood cell distribution width was observed in the CBC, indicating chronic inflammation related to CVD. An increase of HCO3 was attributed to the correction of acidosis. Furthermore, development of the CVD model was supported by significant increases in natriuretic peptides. It is suggested that these results indicated a correlation between human CVD and the model in monkeys. Moreover, blood tests including arterial blood gas are non-invasive and can be performed more easily than other technical tests. CVD affected animals easily change their condition by anesthesia and surgical invasion. Pay attention to arterial blood gas and proper respond to their condition are important for research. This data may facilitate human research and aid in the management and veterinary care of nonhuman primates.

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  • Pavel ŠIROKÝ, Fredric L. FRYE, Nela DVOŘÁKOVÁ, Martin HOSTOVSKÝ, Hynek ...
    Article ID: 18-0126
    [Advance publication] Released: June 11, 2018
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    An adult female of Williams’ mud turtle, Pelusios williamsi long-term captive, that was allegedly caught wild in Kenya was found to have developed papilloma-like skin lesions. Excised tumors were examined histologically after routine processing with hematoxylin and eosin (H & E) stained slides, examined for the presence of viral particles by electron microscopy employing negative staining, and examined for the presence of viral DNA by PCR. Microscopic features in pre-treatment biopsies were fully diagnostic and consistent with multifocal squamous cell papilloma. Viral-type inclusion bodies were not identified. Turtle was found to be infected by reptilian herpesvirus. Association with herpesvirus and vast multiplicity of tumors thwarted surgical solution. An autogenous vaccine was prepared using 5 g of excised fresh tissue, aseptically ground, treated with diluted formalin, centrifuged to obtain a supernatant, and subsequently exposed to UV light. Autogenous vaccine induced substantial areas of necrosis of the papillomatous lesions noted by the loss of cytological architecture, nuclear loss, and by edema. The outer edges of the healing biopsies appeared to be regenerating. Therefore, our vaccine application could be considered as effective. It is difficult to treat and eliminate herpesvirus infection because of its cryptic presence and sudden onset of disease. Successful application of autogenous vaccine could be a potentially promising strategy, which deserves further testing.

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  • Boondarika NAMBOOPPHA, Kornravee PHOTICHAI, Kanreuthai WONGSAWAN, Phon ...
    Article ID: 17-0112
    [Advance publication] Released: June 06, 2018
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    Chicken heterophils generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) molecules to defend against invading pathogens. The present study examined effects of quercetin on chicken heterophils. Heterophils were stimulated with PBS, 50 μM quercetin (QH), PMA or Escherichia coli (EC) and the resulting intracellular ROS molecules were determined. Flow cytometry results showed that cells stimulated with QH, PMA and EC had a higher ROS production. Increases in intracellular ROS molecules were identified in all treatment groups by fluorescence microscopy. Determination of the ability of quercetin to manipulate mRNA expression of ROS subunits was assessed using real-time RT-PCR. Quercetin and other stimulants up-regulated the majority of genes involved in ROS production: CYBB (NOX2), NCF1 (p47phox), NCF2 (p67phox), NOX1 and RAC2. The antioxidant property of QH was explored by measuring mRNA expression of CAT and SOD1. The data indicate increased levels of CAT with all treatments; however, only QH attenuated the expression ofthe SOD1 gene. To further investigate the effects of ROS-driven inflammation or cell death, IL6, CASP8, and MCL1 genes were preferentially tested. The inflammatory gene (IL6) was profoundly down-regulated in the QH- and PMA-treated groups while EC induced a strikingly high IL6 expression level. Investigation of the known apoptotic (CASP8) and anti-apoptotic (MCL1) genes found down-regulation of CASP8 in the QH- and PMA-treated groups which were contradicted to the MCL1 gene. In conclusion, quercetin can enhance ROS production by regulating the expression of genes involved in ROS production as well as in subsequent processes.

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  • Seijirow GOYA, Nobuyuki KANNO, Kenji TESHIMA, Takanori ANNDO, Takahiro ...
    Article ID: 17-0509
    [Advance publication] Released: June 06, 2018
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    A 4-year-old, 5.9-kg female Japanese Spitz presented with syncope and exercise intolerance. Echocardiography revealed an ostium primum atrial septal defect (ASD), a cleft mitral valve, mitral valve regurgitation (MR), and tricuspid regurgitation (TR) (velocity: 3.6 m/sec, pressure gradient: 52 mmHg), leading to a diagnosis of partial atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD) with moderate pulmonary hypertension (PH). Open-heart surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass was performed through right atriotomy. The cleft of the mitral valve was sutured with polypropylene and the AVSD was closed using an autologous pericardial patch fixed with glutaraldehyde. No postoperative pulmonary hypertensive crisis occurred. Shunting flow through the ASD, TR, and PH had completely disappeared 2 months postoperatively; however, moderate MR persisted. The dog is still alive 5 years postoperatively without clinical signs.

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  • Ryoko YAMADA, Le Hong Thuy TIEN, Sakura ARAI, Mari TOHYA, Kasumi ISHID ...
    Article ID: 18-0083
    [Advance publication] Released: June 06, 2018
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    Streptococcus parasuis has recently been removed taxonomically from Streptococcus suis, a zoonotic pathogen. S. parasuis has been detected in healthy pigs and in diseased pigs, which suggests that S. parasuis is involved in the normal microbiota of pigs and has potential pathogenicity. However, the pathogenicity of S. parasuis in pigs is unclear because of the lack of appropriate detection methods that discriminate S. parasuis from S. suis. In this study, we developed a PCR method that is specific for S. parasuis. The detection limit of the PCR was 350 CFU per reaction. Bacteria isolated from the saliva of eight pigs were collected and examined by PCR. Sixty-four isolates positive for PCR were obtained from the samples of all pigs. Thirteen of the 64 isolates were genetically confirmed as S. parasuis, and biologically and biochemically had nearly the same features of known S. parasuis strains, which suggested that strains positive for PCR were S. parasuis. Among the 64 isolates, 28 isolates were serotypes 20, 22, or 26 in the S. suis serotyping scheme. The remaining 36 isolates were untypeable, which suggested the presence of novel serotypes or a capsule-negative form. Therefore, the PCR method described in this study is a useful tool for identifying S. parasuis, and can be used in etiological studies on this bacterium.

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  • Marta DEC, Anna NOWACZEK, Renata URBAN-CHMIEL, Dagmara STĘPIEŃ-PYŚNIAK ...
    Article ID: 18-0092
    [Advance publication] Released: June 06, 2018
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    Campylobacteriosis is currently the most frequent zoonosis in humans and the main source of infection is contaminated poultry meat. As chickens are a natural host for Campylobacter species, one strategy to prevent infection in humans is to eliminate these bacteria on poultry farms. A study was conducted to evaluate the probiotic potential of 46 Lactobacillus isolates from chickens faeces or cloacae. All lactobacilli were able to produce active compounds on solid media with antagonistic properties against C. jejuni and C. coli, with L. salivarius and L. reuteri exhibiting particularly strong antagonism. The cell-free culture supernatants had a much weaker inhibitory effect on the growth of Campylobacter, and the neutralization of organic acids caused them to completely lose their inhibitory properties. The ability to produce H2O2 was exhibited by 93% of isolates; most of isolates had a hydrophobic surface, showed excellent survival at pH 2.0 or 1.5, and displayed tolerance to bile; 50% isolates displayed the ability to biofilm formation. Determination of MICs of various antibiotics showed that as much as 80.4% of Lactobacillus isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent. Seven ultimately selected isolates that met all the basic criteria for probiotics may have potential application in reducing Camylobacter spp. in chickens and thus prevent infections in both birds and humans.

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  • Nanako YAMASHITA-KAWANISHI, Ryoma SAWANOBORI, Kosuke MATSUMIYA, Akiko ...
    Article ID: 18-0089
    [Advance publication] Released: June 05, 2018
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    Association of felis catus papillomaviruses (FcaPVs) with feline squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) has been reported worldwide, while there is limited information about FcaPVs in Asia. In this study, 21 feline SCC biopsy samples from cats in Japan were analyzed by PCR with PV consensus primers and type-specific primers for FcaPV type 2 (FcaPV-2), FcaPV-3 and FcaPV-4 designed in this study. Sequence analysis revealed that one sample was FcaPV-3, and two were FcaPV-4. In both FcaPV-4 positive samples, 334th tryptophan in L1 ORF was deleted compared with the reference sequence. Moreover, immunohistochemistry showed that p16 protein was positive in both FcaPV-4 detected samples. This study would contribute to the molecular epidemiological and pathological understanding of FcaPV in Japan.

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  • Tomoha ODAGIRI, Hiroho ISHIDA, Jun-You LI, Maiko ENDO, Tomoya KOBAYASH ...
    Article ID: 18-0157
    [Advance publication] Released: June 05, 2018
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    Influenza (flu) D virus, a possible causative agent of bovine respiratory disease, is genetically classified into three clusters: D/OK-, D/660-, and D/Japan-lineages. To evaluate antigenic heterogeneity among these clusters, we compared antibody titers to each lineage virus using bovine sera collected over time following virus infection. Antibody titers to D/Japan-lineage virus rose rapidly in the acute phase of infection, and were 4 times higher than those to the other clustered viruses. In the later phase of infection, titers to D/Japan-lineage virus were equivalent to those to D/OK-lineage virus, and still higher than those to D/660-lineage virus. These results suggest the existence of common and lineage-specific antigenic epitopes in the hemagglutinin-esterase-fusion protein of flu D viruses.

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  • Kenji TSUKANO, Shinya SARASHINA, Kazuyuki SUZUKI
    Article ID: 18-0109
    [Advance publication] Released: June 04, 2018
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    The aim of present study was to identify risk factors among laboratory findings for mortality in calves with diarrhea. A retrospective analysis was conducted utilizing medical records of 221 diarrheic calves (10.4 ± 3.7 days old) with no concurrent severe disorders that were treated with intravenous fluid therapy from the initial examination. Thirty-eight of the diarrheic calves (17.2%) died within 35 days from the initial examination. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that hypoglycemia (OR 3.09; 95% CI 1.22–7.87; P=0.02) and failure of respiratory compensation (OR 2.63; 95% CI 1.05–6.62; P=0.04) were the major risk factors associated with a negative outcome in diarrheic calves. According to the Kaplan-Meyer analysis, diarrheic calves with hypoglycemia and/or failure of respiratory compensation had a significantly shorter survival than calves without these factors.

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  • Airi NAKAYAMA, Hasuka OKAWA, Meihua ZHENG, Shaoxia PU, Gen WATANABE, R ...
    Article ID: 17-0668
    [Advance publication] Released: May 31, 2018
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    Two inbred strains of Sprague-Dawley rats, known as the Hatano high- and low-avoidance animals (HAA and LAA respectively), have been selectively bred for high versus low rates of avoidance responses in a shuttle-box avoidance task. To investigate differences in the sexual behavior of Hatano rats, male HAA, LAA and SD rats were tested from 12 to 15 weeks of age. LAA rats exhibited more rapid and frequent sexual behavior than HAA or SD rats, and such differences increased with repeated sexual experience. Plasma testosterone levels tended to be lower in LAA rats than in HAA or SD rats, suggesting that active sexual behavior in LAA rats is not related to these levels. Strain differences in mating behavior between HAA and LAA rats may be caused by emotional responses to novelty.

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  • Yupadee HENGJAN, Vidi SAPUTRA, MIRSAGERI, Didik PRAMONO, SUPRATIKNO, C ...
    Article ID: 17-0665
    [Advance publication] Released: May 30, 2018
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    Flying foxes are important in the maintenance of forests and diversity. However, knowledge of their behavioral ecology, especially of movement and foraging patterns, which are essential for conservation and management of their populations, are not well known. Therefore, movement behavior of two individuals of Pteropus vampyrus were examined using an Argos telemetry system, and foraging pattern of Pteropus spp. was directly observed, at West Java province, Indonesia in October 2017. The maximum distance between the location at which bats were released and their furthest roost, recorded via satellite telemetry, was approximately 100 km. This reflects the long-distance flight ability of P. vampyrus. Daytime roosting sites and nighttime foraging places consisted of several types of habitats, such as intact forests, agricultural lands, and residential areas. This evidence indicated that there was habitat overlap between humans and bats in West Java province. According to direct observation of the behaviors of flying foxes at two locations within residental areas, various activities such as wing spreading, excretion, fighting, aggressive calls, movement, hanging relax, and hanging alert were found. The number of bat-visits to the trees varied among night hours, and had a positive correlation with the number of fruit dropping. The data obtained in this study have improved our understanding of nighttime behavior and habitat utilization of P. vampyrus, that can be used to support landscape management, species conservation, and disease prevention in regions of Southeast Asia.

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  • Silviu Ionut BORȘ, Iulian IBĂNESCU, Șteofil CREANGĂ, Alina BORȘ
    Article ID: 17-0690
    [Advance publication] Released: May 30, 2018
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    The treatment of cystic ovarian disease (COD) in dairy cows is still controversial, and some researchers recommend using gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) regardless of the type of cysts. The aim of this study was to comparatively evaluate the reproductive performance of cows diagnosed with follicular or luteal cystic structures, after treatment with either buserelin acetate (GnRH agonist) or dinoprost (prostaglandin F2-alpha or PGF). The diagnosis was established by ultrasonographic examinations performed twice a month starting 40–45 days after calving, until the cows were diagnosed pregnant after artificial insemination. Both types of cysts were treated either with 21 µg buserelin acetate or 25 mg dinoprost, resulting in four subject groups. After treatment, the estrus rate in cows with follicular cysts treated with dinoprost (55.1%) was significantly lower (P<0.05) than in cows treated with buserelin acetate (77.5%) or in cows diagnosed with luteal cysts (77.2% for dinoprost and 72.4% for buserelin acetate). The conception rate was higher (P<0.05) in cows with follicular cysts treated with buserelin acetate (67.7%) than in those treated with dinoprost (60%) or in those with luteal cysts (56.9% for dinoprost and 47.5% for buserelin acetate). These results show that it is preferable to differentiate between the two types of ovarian cysts before treatment. Luteal cysts can be treated with either PGF or GnRH analogues, with better results when PGF is used. Contrastingly, follicular cysts are better treated with GnRH analogues. When differentiation is not possible, GnRH analogues are recommended over PGF.

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  • Xiaochuan LIU, Yuwei YANG, Ping JIANG, Xiaohui LI, Yanliang GE, Yang C ...
    Article ID: 17-0705
    [Advance publication] Released: May 30, 2018
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    QSOX1 (quiescin-sulfhydryl oxidase 1) is involved in various processes, including apoptosis and the development of breast diseases. Here, we investigated the effect of QSOX1 on the meat quality of Simmental cattle by analyzing the correlation between QSOX1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), I2 204 C>T and I2 378 C>T, and certain meat quality traits. The effects of QSOX1 on triglyceride synthesis and cell apoptosis were further validated by gene silencing or overexpression in bovine fetal fibroblasts and mammary epithelial cells. The results showed that I2 204 C>T and I2 378 C>T had significant correlations with loin thickness, hind hoof weight, fat coverage, liver weight, heart weight, marbling and back fat thickness (P<0.05). QSOX1 overexpression also increased triglyceride production and suppressed apoptosis. In summary, QSOX1 is an important factor for meat quality, lipid metabolism, and cell apoptosis, indicating that QSOX1 could be used as a biomarker to assist in breeding cattle with superior meat.

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  • Kaori TOSAKI, Hirokazu KOJIMA, Shunsuke AKAMA, Yoshihiro OOTAKE, Kyoic ...
    Article ID: 17-0616
    [Advance publication] Released: May 25, 2018
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    An underweight 10-month-old Holstein heifer presented with anorexia and ananastasia and was euthanized. Postmortem examination revealed extensive ulceration in the esophagus, tongue, and omasum. Histopathological examination revealed severe necrotic esophagitis, glossitis, and omasitis. Many Gram-negative bacilli were detected throughout the necrotic area in the digestive tract; these were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa on the basis of isolation tests, molecular examinations, and immunohistochemistry. Gram-negative long filamentous organisms in the superficial layers of the necrotic lesions reacted positively with antibodies against Fusobacteriumnecrophorum subsp. necrophorum. Thus, the necrotic lesions were confirmed to be associated with P. aeruginosa and Fusobacterium spp. This is the first detection of P. aeruginosa in bovine esophageal and glossal ulcers associated with Fusobacterium spp.

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  • Mai INOUE, Nigel C. L. KWAN, Katsuaki SUGIURA
    Article ID: 17-0384
    [Advance publication] Released: May 24, 2018
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    The life expectancy provides valuable information about population health. The life expectancies were evaluated in 12,039 dogs which were buried or cremated during January 2012 to March 2015. The data of dogs were collected at the eight animal cemeteries in Tokyo. The overall life expectancy of dogs was 13.7 (95% confidence interval (CI): 13.7–13.8) years. The probability of death was high in the first year of life, lowest in the fourth year, and increased exponentially after four years of age like Gompertz curve in semilog graph. The life expectancy of companion dogs in Tokyo has increased 1.67fold from 8.6 years to 13.7 years over the past three decades. Canine crossbreed life expectancy (15.1 years, 95% CI 14.9–15.3) was significantly greater than pure breed life expectancy (13.6 years, 95% CI 13.5–13.7, P<0.001). The life expectancy for male and for female dogs were 13.6 (95% CI: 13.5–13.7) and 13.5 (95% CI: 13.4–13.6) years, respectively, with no significant difference (P=0.099). In terms of the median age of death and life expectancy for major breeds, Shiba had the highest median age of death (15.8 years), life expectancy (15.5 years) and French Bulldog had the lowest median age of death (10.2 years), life expectancy (10.2 years). When considering life expectancy alone, these results suggest that the health of companion dogs in Japan has significantly improved over the past 30 years.

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  • Takafumi OSUMI, Ikki MITSUI, Akihiko MORITA, Keita IYORI, Koji NISHIFU ...
    Article ID: 18-0128
    [Advance publication] Released: May 23, 2018
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    Localized scleroderma (LS) is a sclerotic skin disorder rarely reported in the veterinary literature. We herein report the first case of a linear LS-like skin lesion in a cat. A 1-year-old castrated male Himalayan cat was presented with a 1-month history of an alopecic, indurated, serpiginous, branched skin lesion on the dorsal cervical to scapular area. The cat had no history of trauma, although a topical spot-on endectocide had been applied near the lesion. Histopathological examination revealed a focal area of hyperplastic dermal collagen with the absence of pilosebaceous units. The cutaneous lesion remained unchanged during a 2-year follow-up period. Clinical and histopathological similarities of this skin lesion with those of the linear form of LS in humans were considered.

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  • Nguyen V. SON, James K. CHAMBERS, Takanori SHIGA, Takuya E. KISHIMOTO, ...
    Article ID: 18-0186
    [Advance publication] Released: May 23, 2018
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    A 12-year-old intact male Welsh Corgi was presented with enlargement of the right scrotum. Both testicles were surgically removed and histopathologically examined. On gross examination, white nodules were found in the epididymis and ductus deferens. Histopathologically, the nodules developed continuously from the tunica vaginalis testis of the right scrotum and consisted of spindle-shaped neoplastic cells that invaded the surrounding tissue. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells were diffusely positive for vimentin, cytokeratin and Wilms tumor-1 (WT-1). Based on these findings, the tumor was diagnosed as sarcomatoid mesothelioma. The dog presented with respiratory distress 122 days after surgery and clinical examination found multiple metastatic lesions in the lung, abdominal lymph nodes and peritoneum. The dog died 144 days after surgery due to disease progression.

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  • Ling GUO, Jing GUO, HuaShan LIU, Jing ZHANG, Xiabing CHEN, Yinsheng QI ...
    Article ID: 18-0085
    [Advance publication] Released: May 22, 2018
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    The bacterium Haemophilus parasuis (H. parasuis) is the primary cause of Glässer’s disease. Currently, there are no effective vaccines that can confer protection against all H. parasuis serovars. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effect of tea polyphenols on growth, expression of virulence-related factors, and biofilm formation of H. parasuis, as well as to evaluate their protective effects against H. parasuis challenge. Our findings demonstrated that tea polyphenols can inhibit H. parasuis growth in a dose-dependent manner and attenuate the biofilm formation of H. parasuis. In addition, tea polyphenols exerted inhibitory effects on the expression of H. parasuis virulence-related factors. Moreover, tea polyphenols could confer protection against a lethal dose of H. parasuis and can reduce pathological tissue damage induced by H. parasuis. In summary, our findings demonstrated the promising use of tea polyphenols as a novel treatment for H. parasuis infection in pigs.

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  • Dalia JUODŽENTĖ, Birutė KARVELIENĖ, Vita RIŠKEVIČIENĖ
    Article ID: 18-0066
    [Advance publication] Released: May 21, 2018
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    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of the dog’s long-term separation from its owner in the novel environment on the occurrence of psychogenic and oxidative stress. Group I dogs (n=9) were brought to the veterinary clinic and stayed in a kennel room for 12 hr before the surgery, and group II dogs (n=9) – for 10 min before the surgery. Physiological parameters (heart rate (HR) (beats/min) and respiratory rate (fR) (breaths/min)) were measured and blood sampling was done 12 hr before the surgery (T0) for group I dogs and 10 min before the surgery (T1) for both groups dogs. Oxidative stress index (OSI) was determined using spectrophotometer and Rel Assay Diagnostics kits by measuring TAS ant TOS in blood plasma. The cortisol level was measured using AIA-360 Automated Immunoassay Analyzer and ST AIA-pack Cortisol assays. Group I dogs’ HR and fR were elevated at T0 and T1, and group II dogs’ – at T1 compared to physiological range. OSI and cortisol levels in group I dogs was higher at T1 compared to T0 (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in cortisol level between group I at T0 and group II at T1 (P>0.05). It might be concluded that dogs‘ longer stay in the novel environment without the owner induced significant changes in OSI and cortisol level, which could lead to slow wound healing and the occurrence of systemic diseases.

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  • Yusuke MURAHATA, Yoshiaki HIKASA, Sho HAYASHI, Koki SHIGEMATSU, Natsuk ...
    Article ID: 18-0122
    [Advance publication] Released: May 21, 2018
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    Remifentanil is an ultra-short-acting μ-opioid receptor agonist. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of sevoflurane and other MAC derivatives, including the MAC for blocking adrenergic responses (MAC-BAR) and the MAC at which tracheal extubation is occurred (MAC-extubation), with or without remifentanil infusion. Six healthy adult beagle dogs were randomly anesthetized three times for determining the MAC-BAR (SEVMAC-BAR), MAC (SEVMAC), and MAC- extubation (SEVMAC-extubation) of sevoflurane under infusion of saline and remifentanil at rates of 0.15, 0.30, 0.60, 1.20 and 2.40 μg/kg/min. The ratio of the SEVMAC-BAR and SEVMAC and that of the SEVMAC-extubation and SEVMAC were not significantly different at baseline and during treatment. The MAC-BAR95 and MAC95 decreased in a dose-dependent manner until reaching 1.20 μg/kg/min, and the MAC-extubation5 decreased in a dose-dependent manner until reaching 0.60 μg/kg/min. The percentage reduction of SEVMAC-BAR, SEVMAC, and SEVMAC-extubation increased in a dose-dependent manner during remifentanil infusion. The heart rate significantly decreased in the MAC-BAR and MAC groups, and the systolic and mean arterial pressures increased after remifentanil infusion compared with the baseline values. Remifentanil infusion caused reduction of the SEVMAC-BAR, SEVMAC and SEVMAC-extubation in a dose-dependent manner, and ceiling effects were observed in the dogs. Higher doses of remifentanil and sevoflurane were necessary for blocking the sympathetic response to the supramaximal stimulus to prevent movement and extubation in dogs.

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  • Tomomi KURUMISAWA, Rui KANO, Yuta NAKAMURA, Maki HIBANA, Takaaki ITO, ...
    Article ID: 17-0710
    [Advance publication] Released: May 18, 2018
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    Prototheca zopfii is associated with bovine mastitis, which causes a reduction in milk production and secretion of thin, watery milk with white flakes. However, the source of infection and an infection route of mastitis have not been clarified. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of P. zopfii genotype 2 in fecal samples from Japanese dairies with or without a history of protothecal mastitis in 2017. P. zopfii genotype 2 was detected in 23 of 60 (38%) fecal samples in only the herd with a history of protothecal mastitis. These results suggest that occurrence of bovine protothecal mastitis is related to persistent infection in intestine and the source of infection is feces.

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  • Toru KANNO, Ryoko ISHIHARA, Shinichi HATAMA, Ikuo UCHIDA
    Article ID: 18-0050
    [Advance publication] Released: May 18, 2018
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    A long-term animal experiment involving inoculation with bovine coronavirus (BCoV) was conducted to verify its persistent infection in cattle. Three colostrum-deprived Holstein calves were housed separately in individual rooms of a high-containment facility and inoculated with the BCoV strain Kumamoto/1/07. Until the end of the experiment (1,085, 700 and 280 days, respectively), viral RNAs were detected sporadically by RT-PCR and nested PCR from plasma, nasal discharge, and feces. Seroconversion and titer changes were validated by hemagglutination inhibition tests and neutralization tests. Among the samples, nasal discharge showed a higher viral positivity than feces, which seemed to be associated with positive detection in the plasma. These data demonstrate the existence of persistent infection of BCoV in the respiratory tissues of cattle.

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  • Keiko SHIMIZU, Keiko MOURI
    Article ID: 17-0507
    [Advance publication] Released: May 17, 2018
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    A simple, non-alcoholic extraction method for measuring estrogen and progesterone metabolites in excreta using enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) was developed in Japanese macaques. The obtained detection limits of EIAs using estrone conjugates (E1C), pregnanediol glucuronide (PdG), and estriol glucuronide (E3G) polyclonal antibodies with cross-reactivity to urinary and fecal steroid metabolites were 6.6 pg/ml, 2.1 ng/ml, and 0.35 ng/ml, respectively. These assays allowed the determination of E1C, PdG, and E3G from the excreta with good reproducibility and accuracy. Thereafter, urine and fecal samples of two menstrual cycles and six pregnancies from eight female Japanese macaques were assayed. A typical increase in urinary and fecal E1C in follicular phase and PdG in luteal phase were shown during non-conceptive menstrual cycles. Urinary E3G levels also showed a preovulatory increase; however, fecal E3G levels were very low throughout the non-conceptive menstrual cycles. Levels of E1C and PdG in the urine and feces of pregnant females were gradually increased until parturition, while fecal E3G levels were low and reached detectable levels after the mid-pregnancy period. Although the extraction rate of estrogen and progestogen metabolites by our method was lower compared to those of the previous extraction method using an alcohol-containing buffer, our method was simple, and the correlation coefficients for the relationship between two methods were found to be statistically significant. The results presented here are of great practical value for a non-invasive method of monitoring ovarian function and pregnancy in Japanese macaques.

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  • Keisuke OGUMA, Megumi OHNO, Mayuko YOSHIDA, Hiroshi SENTSUI
    Article ID: 17-0704
    [Advance publication] Released: May 17, 2018
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    Feline coronavirus (FCoV) is classified into two biotypes based on its pathogenicity in cats: a feline enteric coronavirus of low pathogenicity and a highly virulent feline infectious peritonitis virus. It has been suspected that FCoV alters its biotype via mutations in the viral genome. The S and 3c genes of FCoV have been considered the candidates for viral pathogenicity conversion. In the present study, FCoVs were analyzed for the frequency and location of mutations in the S and 3c genes from faecal samples of cats in an animal shelter and the faeces, effusions, and tissues of cats that were referred to veterinary hospitals. Our results indicated that approximately 95% FCoVs in faeces did not carry mutations in the two genes. However, 80% FCoVs in effusion samples exhibited mutations in the S and 3c genes with remainder displaying a mutation in the S or 3c gene. It was also suggested that mutational analysis of the 3c gene could be useful for studying the horizontal transmission of FCoVs in multi-cat environments.

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  • Fuminori TANIHARA, Maki HIRATA, Nguyen Thi NHIEN, Takayuki HIRANO, Tos ...
    Article ID: 18-0131
    [Advance publication] Released: May 16, 2018
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    The value of laboratory and genetically-modified pigs is becoming increasingly clear; however, their in vitro development remains inefficient. Trans-ferulic acid (trans-FA) is an aromatic compound that is abundant in plant cell walls, and which exhibits antioxidant effects in vitro. Trans-FA is known to improve sperm viability and motility; however, its effects on porcine oocytes are unknown. Our aim was to investigate the effects of trans-FA supplementation during in vitro maturation on the meiotic and developmental competence of porcine oocytes. Oocytes were matured either without (control) or with trans-FA (10, 100, and 1,000 µM), fertilized, and cultured in vitro for 7 days. The maturation rate of oocytes cultured with 10 µM trans-FA (81.6%) was significantly higher than that of controls (65.0%; P<0.05). The fertilization rate of oocytes matured with 10 µM trans-FA (57.4%) was also significantly higher than that of controls (32.7%) and oocytes cultured with other concentrations (33.1% and 22.7% for 100 and 1,000 µM, respectively; P<0.05). Moreover, the blastocyst formation rate of oocytes matured with 10 µM trans-FA (6.9%) was significantly higher than that of controls (2.3%; P<0.05). Our results suggest that in vitro maturation with 10 µM trans-FA is beneficial for the in vitro production of porcine embryos and has the potential to improve production system.

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  • Ayami MAETANI, Masayuki OHTANI, Kaoru HATATE, Kotaro MATSUMOTO, Norio ...
    Article ID: 17-0614
    [Advance publication] Released: May 14, 2018
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    The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of 28 days of dietary difructose anhydride (DFA) III supplementation on calcium (Ca) metabolism in late-lactation dairy cows. Twenty-four multiparous pregnant Holstein cows were divided into two groups. The DFA group was fed total mixed ration (TMR) supplemented with 40 g of DFA III, and the control group was fed TMR only. The replenishment of bone Ca reserves was evaluated by measuring bone mineral density (BMD) and blood biochemical bone markers. Serum Ca concentrations, urinary Ca-to-creatinine (Cre) (Ca/Cre) ratios, and milk Ca concentrations were also analyzed. The BMD of the 4th caudal vertebra in the DFA group was higher than in the control group on day 28. With respect to bone markers, the ratios of undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) to osteocalcin (OC) in the DFA group were significantly lower than those in the control group on days 21 and 28. Milk Ca concentrations in the DFA group were also higher than those in the control group on days 14, 21, and 28, whereas serum Ca concentrations and urinary Ca/Cre ratios were unchanged in both groups. These results suggest that dietary supplementation with DFA III increased BMD and decreased serum ucOC/OC ratios in late-lactation dairy cows; this indicates that the replenishment of bone Ca reserves may be enhanced by dietary DFA III supplementation.

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  • Kuniko YOSHIMURA, Aya MATSUU, Kai SASAKI, Yasuyuki MOMOI
    Article ID: 17-0499
    [Advance publication] Released: May 11, 2018
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    Sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) is a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-dependent histone deacetylase with a large number of protein substrates. It has attracted a lot of attention in association with extending lifespan. The objective of this study was to enable the evaluation of SIRT1 expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from dogs by flow cytometry. Three transcript variants were amplified from PBMCs by reverse transcription PCR and the nucleotide sequences were analyzed. On the basis deduced amino acid sequence, a monoclonal antibody against human SIRT1, 1F3, was selected to detect canine SIRT1. Canine SIRT1 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells was successfully detected by western blotting using this antibody. Intracellular canine SIRT1 was also detected in permeabilized 293T cells transfected with a canine SIRT1 expression plasmid by flow cytometry using this antibody. SIRT1 was detected in all leukocyte subsets including lymphocytes, granulocytes and monocytes. The expression level was markedly different among individual dogs. These results indicated that the method applied in this study is useful for evaluating canine SIRT1 levels in PBMCs from dogs.

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  • Jen-Shuai CHANG, Yih-Jing LEE, David A. WILKIE, Chung-Tien LIN
    Article ID: 17-0623
    [Advance publication] Released: May 11, 2018
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    The object is to determine the neuroprotective and antioxidative effects of submicron and blended Lycium barbarum (LB) on retinal degeneration as evaluated by ERG, retinal histopathology and assays of antioxidant (total GSH) and peroxidant (MDA) in the retina. A rat model of light-induced retinal degeneration was used to assess the protective effect of different forms of Lycium barbarum (LB) on retinal degeneration. Rats were divided into four experimental groups, normal control, light-induced untreated, submicron LB and blended LB treated. The rats of submicron and blended groups were treated with 250 mg/kg LB orally once daily for 54 days, followed by induction of retinal degeneration. Retinal function was assessed by electroretinography (ERG). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of the retina lysates was measured for the levels of antioxidants, reduced glutathione and glutathione disulfide, and peroxidants, malondialdehyde, in the retina. The ERG results showed a protective effect in LB treated groups with a greater effect observed in submicron LB treated group than the blended LB treated group. There were higher levels of GSH plus GSSG and lower MDA in submicron LB treated group than other groups. In conclusion, LB provided protective and antioxidative effects on the rat retina with light-induced retinal degeneration. Submicron LB protected degenerative retina better than blended LB. LB is effective against oxidative stress in the degenerative retina.

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  • Ryoko KOIZUMI, Yasushi KIYOKAWA, Kaori MIKAMI, Akiko ISHII, Kazuyuki D ...
    Article ID: 18-0052
    [Advance publication] Released: May 11, 2018
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    Wild animals typically exhibit defensive behaviors in response to a wider range and/or a weaker intensity of stimuli compared with domestic animals. However, little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying “wariness” in wild animals. Wild rats are one of the most accessible wild animals for experimental research. Laboratory rats are a domesticated form of wild rat, belonging to the same species, and are therefore considered suitable control animals for wild rats. Based on these factors, we analyzed structural differences in the brain between wild and laboratory rats to elucidate the neural mechanisms underlying wariness. We examined wild rats trapped in Tokyo, and weight-matched laboratory rats. We then prepared brain sections and compared the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA), the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), the main olfactory bulb, and the accessory olfactory bulb. The results revealed that wild rats exhibited larger BLA, BNST and caudal part of the accessory olfactory bulb compared with laboratory rats. These results suggest that the BLA, BNST, and vomeronasal system potentially contribute to wariness in wild rats.

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  • Takumi YAMAMOTO, Hiroyuki MANABE, Naoaki MISAWA, Wataru YAMAZAKI, Masa ...
    Article ID: 18-0097
    [Advance publication] Released: May 09, 2018
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    Digital Dermatitis is a localized infectious dermatitis caused by Treponema-like spirochetes. Antibiotics, such as lincomycin, are currently used for treatment, but their use imposes a withdrawal period. This study investigated the therapeutic effect of topical application of the natural component allyl isothiocyanate, in combination with maintenance hoof trimming, on bovine Digital Dermatitis. Study cows were divided into two groups, the Trimming Group and Non-Trimming Group. The day when allyl isothiocyanate was applied, along with hoof trimming, was set as Day 0. Lesion scores, pain, and the presence of Treponema-like spirochetes on the surface of hooves and in biopsy samples of the tissues were evaluated until Day 6. Both groups showed improvement of lesion scores and improved elimination of Treponema-like spirochetes from within the tissues. The presence of Treponema-like spirochetes on the surface of lesions was significantly higher in the Non-Trimming Group by Day 6. These results suggest that allyl isothiocyanate has therapeutic effects on Digital Dermatitis, when combined with hoof trimming, and may prevent a relapse of dermatitis and a re-infection of Treponema-like spirochetes.

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  • SeongJin YUN, Seonmi KANG, Kangmoon SEO
    Article ID: 17-0114
    [Advance publication] Released: May 04, 2018
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    A 5-year-old castrated male poodle presented with blindness. Ophthalmic examinations including slit-lamp biomicroscopy, tonometry, ultrasonography, and electroretinography, were performed. The anterior lens capsule of the right eye (OD) was totally pigmented, with persistent pupillary membranes (PPMs). Ultrasonography of the same eye showed severe lens atrophy and retinal detachment. Electroretinography revealed flat a- and b-waves in OD, but normal amplitudes in the left eye (OS). No ocular defects were detected in OS except mature cataract. In this case, it was determined that hypermature cataract with PPMs, caused both lens-induced-uveitis and total anterior lens capsule pigmentation. This condition needs to be differentiated from absent pupil. Notably, PPMs with total anterior lens capsular pigmentation are extremely rare in dogs.

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  • Kenji KOYAMA, Akihisa KANGAWA, Natsuko FUKUMOTO, Ken-ichi WATANABE, No ...
    Article ID: 18-0143
    [Advance publication] Released: May 04, 2018
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    Five calves that had shown neurological symptoms within 9 days after birth were histopathologically diagnosed as encephalomalacia. Two calves showed bilateral laminar cerebrocortical necrosis and neuronal necrosis in the corpus striatum and hippocampus. Since the distributional pattern of the lesions was consistent with that of global ischemia in other species, the lesions were probably hypoxic/ischemic encephalopathy consistent with the history of dystocia and perinatal asphyxia. One calf also showed bilateral laminar cerebrocortical necrosis. However, the lesions were chronic ones, because the calf had survived for long time and necropsied at postnatal day 118. Additionally, the lesions did not involve the corpus striatum and hippocampus. The other two calves showed multifocal necrosis with vascular lesions characterized by fibrin thrombi, perivascular edema and perivascular hyaline droplets in the cerebral cortex, corpus striatum, thalamus, brain stem and cerebellum. Considering the age of onsets and histopathological appearance, it was possible that latter three calves were also hypoxic/ischemic encephalopathy, however, exact cause of them was not revealed. In all calves, degenerated/necrotic neurons showed positive reactions for Fluoro-Jade C and degenerated axons showed immunoreactivity for Alzheimer precursor protein A4. Therefore, these markers were applicable to examination of brain injury in neonatal calves.

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  • Doaa SALMAN, Wilawan PUMIDONMING, Eiji OOHASHI, Makoto IGARASHI
    Article ID: 17-0713
    [Advance publication] Released: May 02, 2018
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    The present study investigated the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and other intestinal parasites in cats in the Tokachi subprefecture in Japan. A total of 365 household cats were included in the study, and 353 serum and 351 fecal samples were collected and analyzed. T. gondii IgG antibodies were detected in the sera of 16.14% of cats based on Latex agglutination test and ELISA. For ELISA, T. gondii RH strain tachyzoites lysate and T. gondii SAG2 recombinant protein were used as antigens. Low seropositivity was detected in cats younger than one year and older than 11 years; outdoor and hunter cats showed significantly high seropositivities. Neutering either in male or female cats, but not gender, had a considerable effect on seroprevalence. Toxoplasma gondii oocysts were detected in one fecal sample. The overall parasitic infestation in cats was 12.5%. Other detected parasites included Toxocara species, which showed the highest prevalence of 7.7%, followed by Isospora spp. (2%), Taenia spp. (1.7%), and Ancylostoma spp. (0.9%). Spirometra spp. was detected in only one sample. Outdoor cats comprised 50% of all 44 parasite-infested cats. Although T. gondii oocysts were detected in only one sample, the relatively high seroprevalence of T. gondii indicated that it can pose significant risks to the environment. Our findings highlighted the potential of outdoor cats as a source of T. gondii and other parasites.

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  • Jumpei TOMIYASU, Daisuke KONDOH, Yojiro YANAGAWA, Yoshikazu SATO, Hide ...
    Article ID: 17-0689
    [Advance publication] Released: May 01, 2018
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    Brown bears communicate with other individuals using marking behavior. Bipedal back rubbing has been identified as a common marking posture. Oily substances are secreted via enlarged sebaceous glands in the back skin of male bears during the breeding season. However, whether apocrine gland secretions are associated with seasonal changes remains unknown. The present study aimed to identify histological and histochemical changes in the secretory status and the glycocomposition of the apocrine glands in the back skin of male bears in response to changes in seasons and/or reproductive status. The apocrine glands of intact males during the breeding season were significantly larger and more active than those of castrated males during the breeding season and those of intact males during the non-breeding season. Lectin histochemical analyses revealed a more intense reaction to Vicia villosa agglutinin (VVA) in the cytoplasm, mainly Golgi zones of apocrine cells during the breeding season among castrated, compared with intact males. Positive staining for VVA was quite intense and weak in intact males during the non-breeding and breeding seasons, respectively. Ultrastructural analysis revealed VVA positivity in the Golgi zone, especially around secretory granules in apocrine cells. Changes in lectin binding might reflect a change in the secretory system in the apocrine cells. The present histological and histochemical findings of changes in the secretory status and glycocomposition of the apocrine glands according to the season and reproductive status suggest that these glands are important for chemical communication.

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  • Zhiguo MIAO, Panpeng WEI, Muhammad Akram KHAN, Jinzhou ZHANG, Liping G ...
    Article ID: 18-0074
    [Advance publication] Released: May 01, 2018
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    Meat is a rich source of protein, fatty acids and carbohydrates for human needs. In addition to necessary nutrients, high fat contents in pork increase the tenderness and juiciness of the meat, featuring diverse application in various dishes. This study investigated the transcriptomic profiles of intramuscular adipose tissues in Jinhua and Landrace pigs by employing advanced RNA sequencing. Results showed significant interesting to note that there were significant differences in the expression of genes. 1,632 genes showed significant differential expression, 837 genes were up-regulated and 195 genes were down-regulated. Variations in genes responsible for cell aggregation, extracellular matrix formation, cellular lipid catabolic process, and fatty acid binding strongly supported that both pig breeds feature variable fat and muscle metabolism. Certain differentially expressed genes are included in the pathway of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway, Ras signaling pathway and insulin pathway. Results from real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction also validated the differential expression of 17 mRNAs between meats of the two pig breeds. Overall, these findings reveal significant differences in fat and protein metabolism of intramuscular adipose tissues of two pig breeds at the transcriptomic level and suggest diversification at the genetic level between breeds of the same species.

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  • Ai-Ping HSU, Chun-Hsien TSENG, Yi-Ta LU, Yu-Hua SHIH, Chung-Hsi CHOU, ...
    Article ID: 17-0539
    [Advance publication] Released: April 30, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    In 2013, the first case of Taiwan ferret badger rabies virus (RABV-TWFB) infection was reported in Formosan ferret badgers, and two genetic groups of the virus were distinguished through phylogenetic analysis. To detect RABV-TWFB using a sensitive nucleic acid-based method, a quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction targeting the conserved region of both genetic groups of RABV-TWFB was developed. This method had a limit of detection (LOD) of 40 RNA copies/reaction and detected viral RNA in brain and ear tissue specimens of infected and dead Formosan ferret badgers and mice with 100% sensitivity and specificity. The mean viral RNA load detected in the ear tissue specimens of ferret badgers ranged from 3.89 × 108 to 9.73 × 108 RNA copies/g-organ, which was 111-fold to 2,220-fold lower than the concentration detected in the brain specimens, but 2,000-fold to 5,000-fold higher than the LOD of the assay. This highly sensitive technique does not require facilities or instruments complying with strict biosafety criteria. Furthermore, it is efficient, safe, and labor-saving as only ear specimens need be sampled. Therefore, it is a promising technique for epidemiological screening of Taiwan ferret badger rabies.

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  • Yoshimoto TANAKA, Kan FUJINO, Gerald Andrew LARKINS, Atsushi OSAWA, Yu ...
    Article ID: 17-0695
    [Advance publication] Released: April 30, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Zoonosis becomes a popular word. Highly pathogenic influenza virus (HPI), Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) recently occurred at around Africa, Meddle-East and South-East Asia area, whose virus is classified as airborne. Sterilization capability was investigated by using chemical reactor of PACT device. Test on airborne infection was carried out by Feline Calicivirus Vaccine (FCV) strain F9, which is also surrogated human norovirus. It was found that PACT device could sterilize instantly FCV when passing through the plasma space of PACT device. Sterilization rate may be more than 99.99% (below the detection limit). This result may be available to sterilize various virus including human norovirus and airborne-infectious microorganisms.

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  • Kyunglee LEE, Hye Kwon KIM, Sung-Kyun PARK, Hawsun SOHN, Yuna CHO, You ...
    Article ID: 17-0590
    [Advance publication] Released: April 25, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Although several Edwardsiella tarda infections have been reported, its pathogenic role in marine mammals has not been investigated at the genome level. We investigated the genome of E. tarda strain KC-Pc-HB1, isolated from the false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens) found bycaught in South Korea. The obtained genome was similar to that of human pathogenic E. tarda strains, but distinct from other Edwardsiella species. Although type III and VI secretion systems, which are essential for the virulence of other Edwardsiella species, were absent, several virulence-related genes involved in the pathogenesis of E. tarda were found in the genome. These results provide important insights into the E. tarda infecting marine mammals and give valuable information on potential virulence factors in this pathogen.

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