Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Online ISSN : 1347-7439
Print ISSN : 0916-7250
Advance online publication
Showing 1-50 articles out of 56 articles from Advance online publication
  • Fumiaki MIZOBE, Motoi NOMURA, Kota KANAI, Yuhiro ISHIKAWA, Kazutaka YA ...
    Article ID: 18-0183
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: March 21, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Six Thoroughbred racehorses with palmar process fractures of the distal phalanx were evaluated with standing magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI). In all the cases, the fractures were detectable on T1-weighted images and fat-suppressed images. Furthermore, multi-planar reconstruction images were useful for assessing the articular involvement of the fractures. Follow-up sMRI was obtainable in 3 cases, which revealed that the area of high signal intensity on fat-suppressed images decreased over time as symptoms improved. Our findings support the use of sMRI for the detailed evaluation of distal phalanx fractures including their articular involvement and the healing process.

    Download PDF (867K)
  • Mun Keong KOK, Nanako YAMASHITA-KAWANISHI, James. K. CHAMBERS, Makoto ...
    Article ID: 18-0771
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: March 21, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The present paper describes Felis catus papillomavirus (FcaPV) type 5-associated cutaneous mass in a Domestic Shorthair cat. Histological examination revealed multicentric epidermal acanthosis with papillomavirus-associated cytopathic changes, which progressed to a tumor lobule with intact basement membrane. An association between FcaPV-5 and the cutaneous lesions was confirmed by detection of virus antigen and genes using immunohistochemistry, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), sequencing analysis, and in situ hybridization. Based on these findings, the lesions were diagnosed as FcaPV-5-associated viral plaques and Bowenoid in situ carcinoma (BISC). To date, this is the first reported case of FcaPV-5 infection in a cat in Japan, and the second case reported worldwide. For the first time this papillomavirus type is associated with BISC development.

    Download PDF (799K)
  • Tsutomu TAKEDA, Hiromi FUJITA, Masumi IWASAKI, Moe KASAI, Nanako TATOR ...
    Article ID: 18-0572
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: March 20, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    An assessment of acari (tick and mite) borne diseases was required to support development of risk management strategies in rural areas. To achieve this objective, blood samples were mainly collected from rural residents participating in hunting events. Out of 1,152 blood samples, 93 were positive against acari-borne pathogens from 12 prefectures in Japan. Urban areas had a lower rate of positive antibodies, whereas mountainous farming areas had a higher positive antibody prevalence. Residents of mountain areas were bitten by ticks or mites significantly more often than urban residents. Resident of mountain areas, including hunters, may necessary to be educated for prevention of akari-borne infectious diseases.

    Download PDF (391K)
  • Naris THENGCHAISRI, Chulabhorn MAHIDOL
    Article ID: 18-0448
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: March 15, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The sparing effects of tramadol and tramadol-lidocaine infusion on the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of sevoflurane in dogs as well as the entropy indices were investigated. Anesthesia was induced in eight young, healthy German shepherds weighing 27.6 ± 3.2 kg (mean ± SD) and maintained with sevoflurane. A standard tail-clamp technique was used to determine sevoflurane MAC during infusion with: sevoflurane alone to measure baseline MAC (MACB); tramadol (intravenous loading dose of 1.5 mg/kg and constant rate infusion [CRI] of 2.6 mg/kg/hr; MACT); and tramadol-lidocaine (tramadol CRI of 2.6 mg/kg/hr; and lidocaine intravenous loading dose of 1.0 mg/kg and CRI of 6 mg/kg/hr; MACTL). The state entropy (SE), response entropy (RE), and RE-SE difference were recorded 5 min prior to and during tail clamping. MACB was 2.4 ± 0.2%. Tramadol and tramadol-lidocaine CRI decreased MAC to 2.2 ± 0.3% and 1.7 ± 0.3%, respectively. The MAC-sparing effect of tramadol-lidocaine was greater than that of tramadol alone (8.2 ± 8.9% vs. 30.1 ± 10.7%; P<0.01). SE and RE in all subjects, and RE-SE difference in most subjects, were increased (all P<0.05) when they responded purposefully to noxious stimulation. A tramadol-lidocaine combination infusion can reduce anesthetic requirements to a higher degree than tramadol alone. Furthermore, MACentropy, MAC required to prevent increased entropy in response to a painful stimulation, and MAC of sevoflurane were similar in dogs.

    Download PDF (631K)
  • Asuna AOYAMA, Nozomi KURIHARA, Shoei SUGITA
    Article ID: 18-0738
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: March 15, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The spinal nerves supplying the wing membranes of Japanese little horseshoe bats, Rhinolophus cornutus were studied. The wing membrane was innervated by nerve branches of the radial, ulnar, and median nerves, showing that the membrane was formed from the skin of the forelimb rather than that of the thoracolumbar skin. The radial nerve was mainly composed of the ventral rami of C7–T1, the ulnar nerve by C8–T2, and the median nerve by C8–T1. These components of R. cornutus tended to be from a narrower range of spinal nerves and to position more caudally than those of humans. In addition, the ulnar nerve showed a distribution pattern different from that of other mammals.

    Download PDF (849K)
  • Kazunari SEKIYAMA, Yuuki USHIRO, Akira KURISAKI, Masayuki FUNABA, Osam ...
    Article ID: 19-0036
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: March 15, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Activin E, a secreted peptide encoded by the inhibin/activin βE subunit gene, is a member of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily, which is predominantly expressed in the liver. Recent reports have suggested that activin E plays a role in energy homeostasis as a hepatokine. Here, using transgenic mice overexpressing activin E under the control of the β-actin promoter, we demonstrate that activin E controls energy metabolism through brown/beige adipocytes. The glucose tolerance test and insulin tolerance test showed that the insulin sensitivity was improved in the transgenic mice. Furthermore, the mice had a high body temperature compared with wild-type mice. The transgenic brown adipose tissue and mesenteric white adipose tissue showed upregulation of uncoupling protein 1, which enables energy dissipation as heat by uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation from ATP production. Present results indicate that activin E activates energy expenditure through brown/beige adipocyte activation, suggesting that activin E has high potential for obesity therapy.

    Download PDF (479K)
  • Romeu Moreira dos SANTOS, Filipe Santos FERNANDO, Maria de Fátima Silv ...
    Article ID: 18-0065
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: March 12, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    In this study, we evaluated antibody and cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses in the mucosal and systemic compartments and protection against challenge with a nephropathogenic Brazilian (BR-I) strain of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) in chickens submitted to a vaccination regime comprising a priming dose of heterologous live attenuated Massachusetts vaccine followed by a booster dose of an experimental homologous inactivated vaccine two weeks later. This immunization protocol elicited significant increases in serum and lachrymal levels of anti-IBV IgG antibodies and upregulated the expression of CMI response genes, such as those encoding CD8β chain and Granzyme homolog A in tracheal and kidney tissues at 3, 7, and 11 days post-infection in the vaccinated chickens. Additionally, vaccinated and challenged chickens showed reduced viral loads and microscopic lesion counts in tracheal and kidney tissues, and their antibody and CMI responses were negatively correlated with viral loads in the trachea and kidney. In conclusion, the combination of live attenuated vaccine containing the Massachusetts strain with a booster dose of an inactivated vaccine, containing a BR-I IBV strain, confers effective protection against infection with nephropathogenic homologous IBV strain because of the induction of consistent memory immune responses mediated by IgG antibodies and TCD8 cells in the mucosal and systemic compartments of chickens submitted to this vaccination regime.

    Download PDF (851K)
  • Ikuo KOBAYASHI, Masaru AKITA, Masaki TAKASU, Teruaki TOZAKI, Hironaga ...
    Article ID: 18-0565
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: March 12, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The Misaki horse is a Japanese native horse, known as the “feral horse of Cape Toi”. In this study, we acquired the genetic information to establish their studbook, and analyzed their genetic characteristics for conservation. We genotyped 32 microsatellites and a mitochondrial D-loop region in 77 Misaki horses (80.2% of the population). The average number of alleles, observed heterozygosity, and expected heterozygosity were 3.4, 0.509, and 0.497, respectively. A neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree of individuals was constructed. Moreover, the results suggested that Misaki horses experienced a bottleneck, but it was neither severe nor recent. In addition, three mitochondrial haplotypes were confirmed. Consequently, we clarified the genetic background of Misaki horses that have been resident at Cape Toi for a long time.

    Download PDF (389K)
  • Kazuki OKADA, Yumiko KAGAWA
    Article ID: 19-0037
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: March 12, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    A 9-year-old castrated male cat presented with sudden onset of paralysis in four limbs. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an intramedullary lesion at C3, and lesions in the vermis and right hemisphere of the cerebellum, which were hyperintense on T2-weighted imaging. The cat was euthanized, and postmortem examination was performed. Grossly, transverse sectioning of the spinal cord revealed areas of malacia within the gray matter extending from C2 to C3. Histologically, the ventral spinal artery, the spinal intramedullary arteries and the arterioles of arachnoid in the cerebellum contained fibrocartilaginous emboli confirmed by metachromatic staining with toluidine blue. To our knowledge, this is the first report of fibrocartilaginous embolism involving both the cerebellum and cervical spinal cord in a cat.

    Download PDF (706K)
  • Orhan CORUM, Duygu Durna CORUM, Feray ALTAN, Ayse ER, Gul CETIN, Kamil ...
    Article ID: 18-0609
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: March 11, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    This study aimed to investigate the pharmacokinetics of danofloxacin in red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans) following a single intravenous (IV) and intramuscular (IM) administrations of 6 mg/kg, using a two-way crossover study with 30-day washout period. Eight clinically healthy red-eared slider turtle weighing 410–600 g (mean 490 g) were used for the study. Danofloxacin concentrations were measured using the reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The plasma concentration-time data were evaluated by a non-compartmental method. After IV administration, the elimination half-life (t1/2ʎz), mean residence time (MRT0-∞), area under the concentration-time curve (AUC0-∞), volume of distribution at steady state and total body clearance in plasma were 24.17 hr, 30.64 hr, 143.31 hr*μg/ml, 1.29 l/kg and 0.04 l/hr/kg, respectively. Following IM administration, t1/2ʎz, MRT0-∞, AUC0-∞, peak concentration (Cmax), time to reach Cmax, and bioavailability in plasma were 32.00 hr, 41.15 hr, 198.23 hr*μg/ml, 8.75 µg/ml, 1.5 hr and 139.89%, respectively. Danofloxacin has clinically superior pharmacokinetic properties, including the complete IM absorption, slow elimination and wide volume of distribution in red-eared slider turtles. However, further pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics studies are necessary for the treatment of diseases caused by susceptible bacteria with known minimum inhibitory concentration values in red-eared slider turtles.

    Download PDF (299K)
  • Cristina CARNABUCI, Rosalba TOGNETTI, Tommaso VEZZOSI, Federica MARCHE ...
    Article ID: 18-0699
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: March 11, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    In canine electrocardiography, the reference interval of the ventricular mean electrical axis (MEA) is between +40° and +100°. MEA values in dogs can be influenced by the patient position as well as by the shape of the thorax. The aim of this study was to evaluate the MEA in healthy Doberman Pinschers, hypothesizing that some present a left shift of the MEA. In this retrospective study, 41 healthy, client-owned Doberman Pinschers were included. Echocardiography and standard six-lead ECG examination were performed in all dogs. The MEA was calculated using the isoelectric method. The morphology of the QRS complex and the Q/R ratio in lead II were also evaluated. The median MEA was +45° and ranged from –45° to +90°. MEA was deviated in 16/41 dogs (39%), all presenting a left axis deviation (range, –45° to +30°). Age was significantly associated with the MEA (P=0.008), showing a negative linear correlation. A deep Q wave in lead II was present in 26/41 (63%) dogs. The Q/R ratio was higher in dogs presenting left shift of the MEA (0.66; range, 0.28–1.35) in comparison to dogs with a MEA within reference range (0.44; range, 0.04–0.73; P<0.001). In conclusion, a significant number of healthy Doberman Pinschers present a left shift of the MEA compare to the reference range, and dogs with MEA deviation show a higher Q/R ratio in lead II. This data should be considered when electrocardiographic evaluation is performed in Doberman Pinschers.

    Download PDF (2243K)
  • Tomoki NAKAMURA, Yuji SUNDEN, Tomohiro IMAGAWA, Takeshi TSUKA, Kenichi ...
    Article ID: 18-0765
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: March 11, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    A captured Japanese wild boar (Sus scrofa leucomystax) fetus was dicephalic. The fetus had two heads, but one body from the cranial neck region. Computed tomography imaging revealed that the two crania merged at the occipital bone, and the vertebral bodies between the atlas and the seventh thoracic vertebra were deformed. The fetus was found to have two tongues and laryngopharynges, but its esophagus and trachea were not duplicated. Each head contained a cerebrum and cerebellum, but the brains merged at the obex of the medulla oblongata, and the cervical spinal cord had duplicated ventral clefts. The heart was composed of three atria and four ventricles. This is the first report of a dicephalus with cardiac malformation in a wild boar.

    Download PDF (567K)
  • Nahid RAHMAN, Chiho KEZUKA, Nobuyuki HIGASHIGUCHI, Naoya KOSAKA, Takes ...
    Article ID: 18-0751
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: March 05, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    This study represent cases with spontaneous neuritis of peripheral nerves in electric eels. Two electric eels were presented with abnormal swimming behavior and loss of appetite. Electric eels had extensive histopathologic lesions in the splenic and cardiac nerves. The lesions were characterized by swelling of neuronal cells, central chromatolysis and marked inflammatory cell infiltration consisting mainly of lymphocytes around the affected nerves. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of spontaneous neuritis of peripheral nerves in electric eels.

    Download PDF (1029K)
  • Fumiaki MIZOBE, Motoi NOMURA, Takanori UENO, Kazutaka YAMADA
    Article ID: 18-0530
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: March 04, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    This study focused on 8 Thoroughbred racehorses showing bone marrow oedema-type signal in the proximal sagittal groove of the proximal phalanx, with the aim of understanding its clinical significance. Standing magnetic resonance imaging played an important role in assessing osseous abnormalities that were not radiographically identifiable. Further, a histopathological result from one of the cases showed there was oedema surrounding adipose tissues with increase in density of trabecular scaffolding. This may indicate presence of osseous injury within the area of decreased elasticity due to subchondral bone modeling. This study suggests that detection of osseous abnormality based on bone marrow oedema-type signal, and application of appropriate care following injury would contribute to prevent deterioration of stress-related fractures of the proximal phalanx.

    Download PDF (594K)
  • Toshifumi YOKOYAMA, Yuuka MIURA, Anzu YAMAMOTO, Chinatsu HASEGAWA, Koh ...
    Article ID: 18-0621
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: March 04, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    C57BL/6J-XYPOS (B6J-XYPOS) mice, which have the Y chromosome derived from Mus musculus poschiavinus on a B6J genetic background, form ovotestes or ovaries. Previously, we replaced the genetic background of B6J-XYPOS mice with B6N and found that individuals with testes also appeared in addition to those with ovaries or ovotestes. To investigate the effect of the B6J genetic sequence on the testis differentiation, the genetic background of B6N-XYPOS mice was replaced with B6J again. The recovery of the B6J genetic background significantly decreased the incidence of testes; only ovaries developed. These results indicate that the testicular differentiation process tends to be perturbed especially in the B6J substrain. This shows the importance of substrain differences in mice usually treated as B6 collectively.

    Download PDF (629K)
  • Souta SUGIYAMA, Yasuhiro UNO, Tomoko AMANO, Takio KITAZAWA, Hiroki TER ...
    Article ID: 18-0692
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: March 04, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Knowledge on genetic polymorphisms of metabolising enzymes including Cytochrome P450 (CYP) is very limited in cats. We investigated polymorphisms in CYP3A131, one of the major CYP isoforms in the feline liver and small intestine. Eight non-synonymous variants and one synonymous variant of feline CYP3A131 were identified in 29 cats. A major non-synonymous type was not observed. Metabolic parameters (Km and Vmax) of dibenzylfluorescein hydroxylation were ranged within about 2 times for the identified non-synonymous variants by using a heterologous coexpression system of CYP3A131 and feline cytochrome P450 reductase in Escherichia coli. The results confirmed the polymorphic nature of CYP3A131 as a basis for effective application of medicines and prevention of adverse reactions in the treatment of domestic cats.

    Download PDF (234K)
  • Atsushi KATO, Shiori OGURO, Yukino KURIHARA, Hiroe KOJIMA, Yujin INAYO ...
    Article ID: 18-0722
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: March 04, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Genotyping of avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) was performed on trachea and kidney samples of six chickens obtained from a single farm in Japan. Using two primer sets targeting the spike (S) protein gene, the S1 and S2 regions of DNA fragments were amplified. Sequences of amplified S1 fragments extracted from both organs were identical among the six chickens, showing a JPI genotype. Sequences of amplified S2 fragments differed between trachea and kidney samples. The kidney profile showed a group IV genotype, whereas the trachea profile showed an unclassified group. This result showed that two different IBVs infected the six chickens. The first IBV infection induced poor protective immunity in this farm, permitting a second IBV infection to occur.

    Download PDF (838K)
  • Paola SCAPIN, Massimo ULBANO, Chiara RUGGIERO, Andrea BALDUZZI, Andrea ...
    Article ID: 18-0319
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: March 01, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    We report a successful surgical sterilization procedure for population control of 324 male and female free-ranging grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) in Genoa (Italy). We describe the clinical procedure from the trapping of the animals to their surgical sterilization and release in another part of the city. Live-trapped squirrels were transported to the veterinary clinic within 1–2 hr of capture and maintained in a hospitalization room reserved for them. The waiting period before surgery was kept below 12 hr. The developed procedure has resulted in a survival of 94% of trapped squirrels from surgery to animal release. Sterilized squirrels started to feed in a very short time (1.0–1.5 hr), and after 2–3 days, it was possible to release them in a new area. Amoxicillin was used as a long-acting postoperative antibiotic to reduce the period of captivity. The successful surgical procedure described here can provide an important additional tool for the management of introduced populations of squirrels. We showed that the surgical sterilization of some hundred squirrels is clinically possible and could be included in management strategies aimed at removing critical populations of these species. Moreover, the data allow dosages and operational times in order to provide economic viability assessment of future population control measures.

    Download PDF (447K)
  • Norikazu ISODA, Akihiro ASANO, Michiru ICHIJO, Hiroshi OHNO, Kazuhiko ...
    Article ID: 18-0671
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: March 01, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) is a chronic disease of cattle caused by infection with BVD virus (BVDV) and can result in economic losses within the livestock industry. In Japan, the test and culling policy is a basic control measure, and implementation of an adequate vaccination program is recommended as a national policy. In addition, optional control measures, including compulsory testing of introduced animals and bulk tank milk (BTM) testing as a mass screening method, are used in several provinces, but their efficacy has not been completely assessed. We evaluated these control measures using the scenario tree model of BVD in Japan, developed in the previous study. The model outputs indicated that compulsory testing of all introduced cattle, rather than only heifers and/or non-vaccinated cattle, was cost effective and reduced the risk of BVDV introduction due to animal movement and that BTM testing could effectively monitor most part of the cattle population. Vaccination coverage and BVDV prevalence among introduced cattle could also affect the cost effectiveness of compulsory testing of targeted cattle, particularly under low vaccination coverage or high BVDV prevalence. However, even with the implementation of a highly effective monitoring scheme for many years, BVD risk could not be eliminated; it instead converged at a very low level (0.02%). Disease models with a cost-effective output could be a powerful tool in developing a control scheme for chronic animal diseases, including BVD, with the consent of relevant stakeholders.

    Download PDF (410K)
  • Kenji TSUKANO, Toshio SHIMAMORI, Tatsuya FUKUDA, Yasunobu NISHI, Marin ...
    Article ID: 19-0002
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: March 01, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    This study aimed to assess the usefulness of serum iron (Fe) concentration as a marker of inflammation caused by the dehorning operation. Five young Holstein cows aged 205.0 ± 10.7 days and weighing 207.2 ± 24.1 kg underwent the dehorning operation. Blood samples were withdrawn before dehorning (pre) and at time periods of t=0.5, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, and 48 hr. The serum amyloid A (SAA) concentration was significantly high at t=48 hr (P<0.01). The serum Fe concentration significantly decreased, reaching 90.0 ± 36.4 μg/dl at t=24 hr (P<0.001). Therefore, serum Fe concentration showed significant and negative correlation with SAA concentration (r2=0.500, P<0.01). In conclusion, serum Fe concentration is a useful marker of inflammation in young cows that have undergone the dehorning operation.

    Download PDF (406K)
  • Yoshiko SUGITA-KONISHI, Naoki KOBAYASHI, Kazuto TAKASAKI, Takumi KANNO ...
    Article ID: 18-0372
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: February 28, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Game meat potentially harbors a number of parasitic and bacterial pathogens that cause foodborne disease. It is thus important to monitor the prevalence of such pathogens in game meats before retail and consumption to ensure consumer safety. In particular, Sarcocystis spp. and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) have been reported to be causative agents of food poisoning associated with deer meat consumption. To examine the prevalence of these microbiological agents on-site at a slaughterhouse, the rapid, simple and sensitive detection method known as the “DNA strip” has been developed, a novel tool combining loop-mediated isothermal amplification and a lateral flow strip. This assay has achieved higher sensitivity and faster than conventional PCR and is suitable for on-site inspection.

    Download PDF (2059K)
  • Nattakan MEEKHANON, Sarawan KAEWMONGKOL, Pichai JIRAWATTANAPONG, Tanya ...
    Article ID: 18-0678
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: February 27, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    In this study, 22 bacterial isolates from swine necropsy specimens, which were biochemically identified as Streptococcus suis and other Streptococcus species, were re-examined using species-specific PCR for authentic S. suis and 16S rRNA gene sequencing for the verification of the former judge. Identification of S. suis on the basis of biochemical characteristics showed high false-positive (70.6%) and false-negative (60%) rates. The authentic S. suis showed various capsular polysaccharide synthesis gene types, including type 2 that often isolated from human cases. Five of 22 isolates did not even belong to the genus Streptococcus. These results suggested that the misidentification of the causative pathogen in routine veterinary diagnosis could be a substantial obstacle for the control of emerging infectious diseases.

    Download PDF (3228K)
  • Akira SHIOZAKI, Masao AMANO, Mercedes FERNÁNDEZ, Natalia FRAIJA-FERNÁN ...
    Article ID: 18-0636
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: February 25, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Synthesium elongatum (Brachycladiidae) is an intestinal digenean described from the finless porpoise (Neophocaena asiaeorientalis) in Japan. Few records of this species exist and there is a remarkable morphological similarity between S. elongatum and S. tursionis, such that a synonymy between the species has been suggested previously. However, no morphological and/or molecular analysis has been carried out to clarify the taxonomic status of S. elongatum. In this study, we collected specimens of Synthesium sp. from N. asiaeorientalis in western Japan. The specimens possess lobed testes within the third quarter of the body, a round ovary, and vitellaria extending to level of uterine field, which are diagnostic characters for both S. elongatum and S. tursionis. They were morphologically identified to S. elongatum or S. tursionis due to the fact that the available morphometric data for both species overlap remarkably. A molecular analysis of the mitochondrial ND3 gene showed that the pairwise nucleotide distances between these specimens and S. tursionis were small, and phylogenetic analysis showed that these specimens and S. tursionis are in the same clade. Therefore, it was indicated that S. elongatum and S. tursionis are the same species and, consequently, S. elongatum is a synonym of S. tursionis.

    Download PDF (1883K)
  • Kazuaki SATO, Kazutaka KANAI, Maiko OZAKI, Takaaki KAGAWA, Mizuki KITA ...
    Article ID: 18-0723
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: February 25, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    We investigated the effects of tyrosol (Tyr) on anterior chamber paracentesis (ACP)–induced anterior uveitis in beagle dogs, as determined by protein and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) concentrations in the aqueous humor (AH). Tyr at a dose of 100 or 200 mg/kg or 2.2 mg/kg of carprofen as a positive control was administered orally twice daily from 2.5 days before paracentesis. The initial ACP was performed in one eye of individual dogs and 0.5 ml AH was aspirated. The secondary AH was collected 60 min later. Pretreatment with 200 mg/kg of Tyr and carprofen significantly decreased aqueous protein and PGE2 concentrations compared to the control group. Overall, these findings suggested that Tyr was useful for the management of canine anterior uveitis.

    Download PDF (303K)
  • Hideto YUASA, Youhei MANTANI, Kazuki MIYAMOTO, Miho NISHIDA, Masaya AR ...
    Article ID: 18-0734
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: February 25, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The effect of bacterial colonies expanded into the intervillous spaces on the localization of several lymphocyte lineages was immunohistochemically investigated in two types of mucosa: ordinary mucosa of rat ileum, which consists of mucosa without any mucosal lymphatic tissue; and follicle-associated mucosa (FAM), which accompanies the parafollicular area under the muscularis mucosae in the rat ileal Peyer’s patch. The results showed that bacterial colonies in the intervillous spaces induced increased populations of CD8+ cells in the epithelium of the intestinal villus in ordinary mucosa (IV) and intestinal villus in FAM (IV-FAM). Bacterial colonies in the intervillous spaces were also associated with increased numbers of IgA+ cells, which were mainly localized in the lamina propria of basal portions of IV and IV-FAM, and with expanded localization of IgA+ cells into the villous apex in both IV and IV-FAM. Moreover, IgA+ cells around the intestinal crypts adjacent to IV or IV-FAM were also increased in response to bacterial colonies. In the IV-FAM, but not IV, L-selectin+ cells, which were found to be immunopositive for TCRαβ or CD19, were drastically increased in the lamina propria from the crypt to middle portion of IV-FAM and in the lumen of central lymph vessel of IV-FAM in response to the bacterial colonies in the intervillous spaces. These findings revealed that the expansion of bacterial colonies into the intervillous spaces accompanies the change of histological localization of the lymphocyte lineage in both the ordinary mucosa and FAM.

    Download PDF (3600K)
  • Kazuya TAKEHANA, Rurika ONOMI, Kaoru HATATE, Norio YAMAGISHI
    Article ID: 18-0688
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: February 21, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (ALP) isoenzyme activity was measured in 51 serum samples from four captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) using a conventional method with wheat germ lectin precipitation and a commercial agarose gel electrophoresis (AGE) kit; the isoenzymes were designated as bone-specific ALP (BAP) and ALP isoenzyme 3 (ALP3), respectively. This study examined the suitability of the AGE kit for analyzing blood biochemistry in Asian elephants. The serum ALP3 and BAP activities were strongly positively correlated and met the evaluation criteria for agreement using Bland-Altman analysis. The results indicate that the AGE kit can be used to examine the blood biochemistry in Asian elephants instead of the conventional method.

    Download PDF (4347K)
  • Md. Emtiaj ALAM, Jun IWATA, Kana FUJIKI, Yasunori TSUJIMOTO, Ryoji KAN ...
    Article ID: 18-0335
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: February 19, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Feline embryo development was examined for 7 days after fertilization using commercially available human media supplemented with 0.3% bovine serum albumin (BSA) or 5% fetal bovine serum (FBS). Cumulus-oocyte complexes were categorized as Grades 1, 2, and 3 according to morphology. Only-One Medium (OM) was used for in vitro culture (IVC) in OM + BSA, OM + FBS, and OM + BSA/FBS, with BSA supplementation for the first 2 days and FBS for the subsequent 5 days. Embryos cultured in Early Culture Medium (1–2 days) and Blastocyst Medium (3–7 days) were defined as EB + BSA and EB + BSA/FBS. The developmental rate until the blastocyst stage of Grade 1 and 2 oocytes cultured in OM + BSA/FBS was higher than for the other groups and was significantly higher than for the OM + BSA and EB + BSA groups (P<0.01). Grade 3 oocytes cultured in OM + BSA/FBS also showed the greatest proportion of blastocyst formation. However, FBS supplementation throughout the IVC period reduced blastocyst number. The percentage of 2 pronuclei after fertilization as well as blastocyst cell number were significantly higher in Grade 1 and 2 than Grade 3 oocytes when cultured in OM + BSA/FBS (P<0.05). These results indicate that commercially available OM supplemented with BSA for the first 2 days of culture and FBS for the subsequent 5 days is suitable for feline embryo development until the blastocyst stage.

    Download PDF (363K)
  • Risako TAJIKI-NISHINO, Yuko WATANABE, Tomoki FUKUYAMA
    Article ID: 18-0641
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: February 15, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The aim of this study is to identify the combined effect of multiple chemicals to the development of allergy. In this study, the effect of prenatal exposure to an organochlorine agent methoxychlor (MXC) and/or an organophosphate agent parathion (PARA) on trimellitic anhydride-induced allergic airway inflammation was examined in mice. Eosinophil infiltration in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was significantly enhanced by MXC+PARA exposure compared to that of the control, MXC, and PARA groups. In the hilar lymph node, only slight increases in B-cell infiltration, as well as IL-6 and IL-9 secretions were observed in MXC+PARA group, and no effect was observed in the individual treatment groups. Our findings imply that prenatal exposure to some combinations of multiple chemicals may exacerbate the allergic inflammatory responses including eosinophils and cytokine production.

    Download PDF (402K)
  • Iori KOIZUMI, Hirotaka KONDO
    Article ID: 18-0567
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: February 14, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Four-toed hedgehogs presented bloody stool and loss of appetite. Integumental masses were observed in two of the four cases. Intraabdominal masses were observed on radiographs and ultrasonography in the remaining two cases. The masses were surgically removed from all four cases. All samples were histologically and immunohistochemically consistent with histiocytic sarcoma (HS). At the time of surgery, 3 of 4 cases had grossly recognized metastatic/disseminated lesions. Survival time was 48 days, 64 days, and 113 days, respectively, and the remaining case is currently alive (at Day 207). The present report describes the clinical management and outcome of hedgehogs that were diagnosed with HS.

    Download PDF (1517K)
  • Yasutomo HORI, Yasuhiro HEISHIMA, Yohei YAMASHITA, Masayuki IGUCHI, Ke ...
    Article ID: 18-0187
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: February 12, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    We investigated the clinical characteristics of healthy cats in accordance with the target organ damage (TOD) risk category, on the basis of systolic blood pressure (SBP). This prospective multi-center study included 137 healthy cats. Indirect blood pressure was measured using an oscillometric technique. The median SBP in all cats was 147 mmHg (interquartile range: 134‒158). On the basis of the TOD risk category, 57.7, 19.7, 21.9, and 0.7% of the cats were classified into categories I–IV, respectively. Age, sex, and body weight did not affect the SBP. This study provides basic information on the distribution of TOD risk categories in clinically healthy cats.

    Download PDF (431K)
  • Kazuhiro MAEDA, Mai INOUE, Miho TANAKA, Yukihide MOMOZAWA
    Article ID: 18-0485
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: February 12, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Patellar luxation (PL) is one of the most common orthopedic disorders in dogs and a genetic factor is considered to play an important role in the development of PL. Genomic analysis has attempted to identify the genetic markers associated with the development of PL but only suggestive markers have been identified. Carefully selecting breeds with higher incidence rates of congenital PL as well as affected dogs with more severe symptoms are required, but such information remains limited to date. This study aimed to assess the genetic contribution to the development of PL in puppies. Using data on PL from 2,048 puppies of the nine common breeds in Japan, the association of PL grades between the limbs, breed, and sex as well as the concordance of PL between littermates were examined. A significant correlation was found between right and left limbs in PL grades in all the puppies (Spearman rank correlation coefficient (rs)=0.91, P<0.001) and for each breed (rs=0.81–0.93, P<0.001). In total, 20.3% of the puppies were affected. The inter-breed difference in PL prevalence was 2.1–38.1%, and Toy Poodles showed the highest prevalence rates. Littermates of the affected puppies with PL grade ≥2 had a 16.2-fold higher risk (P<0.001). Thus, these results suggest that PL in puppies is primarily influenced by genetics, especially in Toy Poodles. These data highlight the necessity of using a breeding scheme to decrease the prevalence of PL.

    Download PDF (403K)
  • Kenji TSUKANO, Kazuyuki SUZUKI
    Article ID: 18-0645
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: February 12, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Since few studies have been published investigating plasma amino acid abnormalities in calves with illnesses, the aim of this study was to examine plasma amino acid abnormalities in calves with diarrhea. Forty-three Holstein calves aged 10.9 ± 5.6 days old were used for this study. Thirty-one of the 43 calves exhibited clinical signs of diarrhea without severe acidemia. The other 12 healthy calves were used as the control. Concentrations of plasma essential amino acids, non-essential amino acids, branched-chain amino acids, glucogenic amino acids, and ketogenic amino acids in diarrheic calves with hypoaminoacidemia were significantly lower than those in healthy calves. No significant differences were observed between diarrheic calves with normoaminoacidemia and healthy calves when looking at these parameters.

    Download PDF (238K)
  • Teppei KANDA, Ayumu KAJIYAMA, Waka MORIMITSU, Yukiko NISHINO, Yutaro O ...
    Article ID: 18-0660
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: February 08, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Medetomidine, an α2-adrenoceptor agonist, was reported to decrease tear flow in some species. However, there are no reports about the effect of medetomidine on tear flow in pigs. The purpose of this study was to elucidate it. The study was performed in 10 clinically normal female Landrace pigs aged 3 months. Tear flow was measured by the Schirmer tear test (STT) I before (baseline) and 15 and 30 min after intramuscular administration of 80 µg/kg medetomidine. Compared to the STT I value at baseline, the value decreased significantly at 30 min after administration in both the left and right eyes. In pigs treated with medetomidine, an artificial tear solution or ophthalmic gel should be applied to protect the ocular surface.

    Download PDF (262K)
  • Katsuhiko WARITA, Ryo AOKI, Naoki KITAMURA, Izumi SHIBUYA, Yoshinao Z. ...
    Article ID: 18-0766
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: February 08, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    This study evaluated the expression of genes involved in the concentration of Ca2+ in precursor osteoblast-like cell, MC3T3-E1 subjected to stretching stimuli. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (Trpv4) gene expression, the factor that is activated by stretch stimulation and enables inflow of Ca2+ from the extracellular space, was not affected as a result of stretch stimulation; conversely, the expression of sodium–calcium exchanger 1 (Ncx1) gene involved in outflow of intracellular Ca2+ increased, depending on stimulation intensity. Localization of Ca2+ correlated with the positioning of the endoplasmic reticulum, and intracellular Ca2+ decreased in inverse proportion to the intensity of the stretching force. These results suggest that stretch stimulation activates intracellular Ca2+ elimination rather than Ca2+ uptake before osteoblast differentiation.

    Download PDF (977K)
  • Akira SUGIYAMA, Ayaka MITSUI, Muneyoshi OKADA, Hideyuki YAMAWAKI
    Article ID: 18-0674
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: February 07, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The basement membrane surrounding cardiomyocytes is mainly composed of α1 and α2 chain of type IV collagen. Arresten and canstatin are fragments of non-collagenous C-terminal domain of α1 and α2 chain, respectively. We previously reported that the expression of canstatin was decreased in infarcted area 2 weeks after myocardial infarction in rats. In the present study, we investigated the regulatory mechanism for expression of arresten and canstatin. Myocardial infarction model rats were produced by ligating left anterior descending artery. Western blotting and immunohistochemical staining were performed to determine the protein expression and distribution. Arresten and canstatin were highly expressed in the heart. One day and three days after myocardial infarction, the expression of arresten and canstatin in infarcted area was lower than that in non-infarcted area. The expression of cathepsin S, which is known to degrade arresten and canstatin, was increased in the infarcted area. A knockdown of cathepsin S gene using small interference RNA suppressed the decline of arresten and canstatin in the infarcted area 3 days after myocardial infarction. This study for the first time revealed that arresten and canstatin are immediately degraded by cathepsin S in the infarcted area after myocardial infarction. These findings present a novel fundamental insight into the pathogenesis of myocardial infarction through the turnover of basement membrane-derived endogenous factors.

    Download PDF (1376K)
  • Cyril P. STEPHEN, Walter H. JOHNSON, Stephen J. LEBLANC, Robert A. FOS ...
    Article ID: 18-0617
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: February 05, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Postpartum uterine disease due to poor uterine involution continues to be a significant factor that contributes to poor reproductive efficiency in dairy cattle. Therapy that increases the frequency, duration and strength of uterine contractions in the postpartum period might enhance uterine involution, resulting in improved reproductive performance. The objective of this clinical trial was to study the effect of two uterine ecbolic therapies, oxytocin and prostaglandinF2α on uterine involution, postpartum endometritis, and reproductive performance. A randomized double-blinded clinical trial was conducted in 118 dairy cows from two research herds that had normal parturition and expulsion of the fetal membranes. Within 24 hr after calving, cows were randomly assigned to receive intramuscular injections twice a day of 50 IU of oxytocin, or 25 mg of dinoprost (PGF2α) or saline (control) for 7 days. Cows were monitored from day 3 to day 63 ± 3 days postpartum by transrectal palpation of the uterus, vaginoscopy, Metricheck® examination and by endometrial cytology. Blood samples were collected for measurement of progesterone in weeks 3 (21 ± 3 days), 5 (35 ± 3 days), 7 (49 ± 3 days), and 9 (63 ± 3 days) postpartum. Herd breeding records were obtained to determine reproductive performance in all cows. Neither oxytocin nor prostaglandin F2α therapy during the first week postpartum had any significant effect on the rate of uterine involution, prevalence of endometritis or reproductive performance, compared to untreated controls. Ecbolic drugs, as used here, are not recommended for use in clinical practice to improve involution or reproductive tract health in normal cows.

    Download PDF (616K)
  • Kazuya MATSUDA, Wakako NAKAJIMA, Tetsuya TOGASHI, Yuto SANO
    Article ID: 18-0691
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: February 05, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    A solitary firm nodule was found in the lung of a sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis). Histologically, it was a biphasic lesion composed of epithelial and stromal cell elements and exhibited a leaf-like growth pattern. The epithelial cells were immunohistochemically positive for pancytokeratin, cytokeratin 7, napsin A, and thyroid transcription factor-1, and the stromal cells were positive for vimentin and partially positive for desmin and α-smooth muscle actin. These observations were consistent with pulmonary adenofibroma, which is an extremely rare lesion in humans. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of pulmonary adenofibroma in an animal.

    Download PDF (989K)
  • Miyuki KOMURA, Mayuko SUZUKI, Natthanan SANGSRIRATANAKUL, Mariko ITO, ...
    Article ID: 18-0754
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: February 04, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The inhibitory activities of grapefruit seed extract (GSE) on avian influenza virus (AIV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV), infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), Salmonella Infantis (SI) and Escherichia coli (EC) were evaluated. Original GSE contained 0.24% benzalkonium chloride (BZC), however, 0.0025% BZC solution could not inactivate bacteria. The activity of diluted GSE (×100, ×500 and ×1,000 with redistilled water) against selected viruses and bacteria was evaluated in this study. The GSE solutions were incubated with the pathogens over a period of time after which the remaining viruses were titrated and the bacterial colonies were counted. In the presence of organic material—5% fetal bovine serum (FBS), the test solutions were sprayed at 1 cm and 30 cm distances to test the efficacy of GSE in a spray form. Furthermore, the efficacy of GSE against bacteria on clothes was tested using non-woven cloth. GSE×100 reduced the viral titer of both AIV and NDV even in 5% FBS condition. IBDV showed high resistance to GSE. GSE×1,000 inactivated both SI and EC within 5 sec, even in the presence of 5% FBS. The disinfectant was able to maintain its efficacy in the spray form at 30 cm distance. GSE was also effective against SI and EC inoculated on fabric. GSE is a potential novel disinfectant against viruses and bacteria, effective even within a short contact time.

    Download PDF (362K)
  • Kaho TESHIMA, Haruna HIRANO, Kazutada USHIYAMA, Kazumoto SHIBUYA, Shin ...
    Article ID: 18-0421
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: February 01, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Six atypical Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serovar 15 strains were isolated from pneumonic lesions of naturally infected dead pigs from the same farm in Japan. Genetic analyses of apx genes revealed that the atypical isolates contained the toxin-associated genes apxIBD,apxIIICA, apxIIIBD, and apxIVA, but not apxIICA. Coinciding with the result of the atypical gene profile, analyses of toxin protein production revealed that these atypical isolates expressed only ApxIII but not ApxII. A mouse pathogenicity test showed that the atypical isolate tested seemed to be less virulent than the typical isolates. This is the first report describing the emergence of atypical A. pleuropneumoniae serovar 15, which does not produce ApxII due to the absence of apxIICA genes, in Japan.

    Download PDF (431K)
  • Dong-Young KIM, Ho Young SUK, Seul-Ki PARK, Sun-Young KANG, Seong-Kyu ...
    Article ID: 18-0564
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: February 01, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The nutria (Myocastor coypus) was introduced to South Korea in 1987 for breeding of individuals for fur and meat industry, and was accidentally released into the wild. Here, we report the development of microsatellites for the nutria collected from South Korea using Illumina MiSeq genome sequencing to identify the genetic variability and demographic history of these introduced populations. A total of 626,282 microsatellite sequences were identified, and nine polymorphic loci were characterized. We used four novel loci developed and three previously known loci to investigate the genetic diversity of twelve South Korean populations. A low level of diversity was found, and no signature of genetic structuring was revealed among populations, indicating that Korean nutria individuals originated from a single population or a highly inbred reared herd.

    Download PDF (542K)
  • Kazuya TAKEHANA, Teruo KINJYO, Manabu NEMOTO, Keita MATSUNO
    Article ID: 18-0683
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: January 30, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus type 1 (EEHV1) is the most important causative agent of an acute fatal hemorrhagic disease in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). We employed loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) to develop a rapid and simple detection method for EEHV1 in blood. When used to test 21 clinical samples collected in Japan, the EEHV1 assay correctly identified one positive and 20 negative clinical samples. It was observed that when samples were spiked with synthetic DNA plasmids including EEHV1 polymerase gene, the detection limit of the LAMP assay was 101.2 copies/μl and 100-fold higher than that of conventional PCR. These advantages of the LAMP assay for EEHV1 detection may facilitate better veterinary practices for treating elephants suffering from the acute disease.

    Download PDF (320K)
  • Youhei MANTANI, Tomohiro HARUTA, Miho NISHIDA, Toshifumi YOKOYAMA, Nob ...
    Article ID: 18-0654
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: January 29, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Serial block-face scanning electron microscopy (SBF-SEM) is useful for three-dimensional observation of tissues or cells at high-resolution. In this study, SBF-SEM was used to three-dimensionally analyze the characteristics of fibroblast-like cells (FBLCs) in the rat ileal lamina propria (LP). The results revealed that FBLCs in LP could be divided into four types, tentatively named FBLC type I-IV, based on the external cellular appearance, abundance or shape of each organelle, detailed distribution in the LP and relationship with surrounding cells. FBLC-I and -II localized around the intestinal crypt (InC), FBLC-III localized from the lateral portion of InC to the apical portion of the intestinal villus (InV), and FBLC-IV localized in the InV. FBLC-I, -II and -III, but not FBLC-IV, localized beneath the epithelium. FBLC-II possessed thin lamellar-shaped endoplasmic reticula, whereas FBLC-I possessed expanded endoplasmic reticula that occasionally showed a spherical shape. FBLC-III and -IV possessed a cytoplasmic region with high-electron density and no organelles immediately beneath the cellular membrane; this region was found at the epithelial sides in FBLC-III and scattered in FBLC-IV. FBLC-IV were in constant close proximity to villous myocytes throughout the InV and also in contact with FBLC-III especially in the apical portion of the InV. FBLC-I, -II and -IV, but not -III, were constantly found to be in contact with various immunocompetent cells in the LP. Three-dimensional analysis using SBF-SEM indicates that four types of FBLC localized in the rat ileal LP.

    Download PDF (3051K)
  • Shuxin ZHOU, An ZHANG, Weihua CHU
    Article ID: 18-0523
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: January 28, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    In the present study, we evaluated the antibacterial and anti-quorum sensing qualities of phillyrin. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of phillyrin with regard to Pseudomonas aeruginosa is 0.5 mg/ml. The production of virulence factors—such as rhamnolipid (>78.69%), pyocyanin (>85.94%), and elastase (>89.95%)—that affect the pathogenicity of the P. aeruginosa strain PAO1 apparently declined in the presence of 0.25 mg/ml phillyrin. Biofilm formation decreased by 84.48%. In a Caenorhabditis elegans–Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection model, diseased worms lived longer (63.33%) in a phillyrin-containing medium than in a drug-free medium, and the drug did not directly kill the pathogen. Therefore, the present work suggests that phillyrin has potential as an antimicrobial agent for the control of infectious pathogens.

    Download PDF (382K)
  • Reza RAJABI-TOUSTANI, Quzi Sharmin AKTER, Essam A. ALMADALY, Yoichiro ...
    Article ID: 18-0560
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: January 01, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    This study aimed to improve the staining of frozen-thawed Japanese Black bull sperm acrosomes with fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated peanut agglutinin (FITC-PNA). Spermatozoa were washed, fixed with 1–3% paraformaldehyde (PFA) in suspension for 10, 20, and 30 min, permeabilized with 0–2% Triton X-100 for 5 min, stained with FITC-PNA, and mounted with different antifade agents (0.22 M 1,4-diazabicyclo [2,2,2] octane (DABCO), SlowFade®, and ProLong®) in suspension (In-suspension) or on a smear (On-smear). The spermatozoa were categorized into seven pattern types either immediately or after storage for 24 hr. Experiment 1 showed that 1) the In-suspension method was better than the On-smear method; 2) if spermatozoa were stained using the In-suspension method and examined immediately, the best antifade agent was SlowFade®; 3) if samples were to be stored after staining using the On-smear method, DABCO should be avoided; 4) if spermatozoa were stained using the In-suspension method, storage of the stained samples was not recommended; and 5) if samples were to be stored after staining using the In-suspension method, ProLong® might be the best antifade agent. The results of experiment 2 showed that the concentration of Triton X-100 could be reduced to 0.1 from 1%. The results of experiment 3 showed that the paraformaldehyde concentration used for a 30 min fixation could be reduced from 3 to 2%. It is expected that the improved staining protocol will be useful to determine bull sperm acrosomal integrity.

    Download PDF (1042K)
  • Madeh SADAN, El-Sayed EL-SHAFAEY, Sabry EL-KHODERY
    Article ID: 18-0471
    Published: 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: December 20, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The present study was designed to describe the clinical presentation of abdominal hernias and to evaluate the efficacy of polypropylene mesh in repair of such affection in camels. Twenty-six dromedary camels were included in this study on the basis of clinical and ultrasonographic evidence of abdominal hernia. Factors associated with prevalence and clinical findings of hernia were presented and hernioplasty using polypropylene mesh was evaluated as a surgical intervention. Out of 26 studied camels, abdominal hernia was prevalent in Wadeh camels than other breeds (17 vs 9, P<0.01). Camels <6 years of age exhibited more hernias than other age groups (18 vs 8, P<0.01). Moreover, females showed a significantly higher prevalence (19 vs 7, P<0.01) of abdominal hernia compared to males (26.9%, n=7). The sensitivity (96.8%) and specificity (93.1%) of ultrasonography for diagnosing hernia were higher in comparison to clinical examination (88.3%). At 3 weeks postoperatively, the clinical index score of 26 operated camels was significantly reduced in comparison with pretreated (22 vs 4, P<0.005). However, only 2 cases had recurrence of the hernia and 2 camels had slight swelling in situ. By the 6th month post treatment, all treated camels were completely recovered. In conclusion, the polypropylene mesh is a viable and consistent alternative effective treatment for abdominal hernias in camels. In addition, the clinical index scores and ultrasonography provide a precise paradigm for diagnosis and preoperative planning for abdominal hernias in dromedary camels.

    Download PDF (482K)
  • Yi-Ming CHEN, Chi-Chang HUANG, Chien-Yu HSIAO, Sindy HU, I-Lin WANG, H ...
    Article ID: 18-0165
    Published: 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: June 29, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Ludwigia octovalvis extract (LOE) is a widely used traditional Chinese herbal medicine. To date, few studies have demonstrated the effect of LOE supplementation on exercise performance, physical fatigue and biochemical profile. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the potential beneficial effects of LOE extract on fatigue and ergogenic functions following physiological challenge. Male ICR mice from 3 groups (n=8 per group) were orally administered LOE for 4 weeks at 0 (vehicle), 61.5 (LOE-1X) or 307.5 (LOE-5X) mg/kg/day. LOE supplementation was able to dose-dependently increase endurance swimming time (P<0.0001) and decrease levels of serum lactate (P=0.0022), ammonia (P<0.0001), creatine kinase (P<0.0001), blood urea nitrogen (P<0.0001) and glucose utilization (P<0.0001) after acute exercise challenge. The glycogen in gastrocnemius muscle also increased with LOE treatment in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.0001). Biochemically, AST, ALT, LDH, CK, BUN, creatinine and UA levels were decreased with LOE treatment. Our study shows that 4-week supplementation with LOE increases muscle glycogen content storage to enhance exercise performance and anti-fatigue effects.

    Download PDF (2125K)
  • Dafei LIU, Fei LIU, Dongchun GUO, Xiaoliang HU, Zhijie LI, Zhigang LI, ...
    Article ID: 17-0442
    Published: 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: January 23, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    To rapidly distinguish Canine distemper virus (CDV), canine parvovirus (CPV), and canine kobuvirus (CaKoV) in practice, a one–step multiplex PCR/RT–PCR assay was developed, with detection limits of 102.1 TCID50 for CDV, 101.9 TCID50 for CPV and 103 copies for CaKoV. This method did not amplify nonspecific DNA or RNA from other canine viruses. Therefore, the assay provides a sensitive tool for the rapid clinical detection and epidemiological surveillance of CDV, CPV and CaKoV in dogs.

    Download PDF (294K)
  • Mario DOLERA, Luca MALFASSI, Simone PAVESI, Sara FINESSO, Giovanni MAZ ...
    Article ID: 16-0077
    Published: 2017
    [Advance publication] Released: November 15, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Atlanto-axial (AA) instability due to ligament insufficiency is a common cause of cervical spinal cord compression in toy breeds. However, in some dogs a difference in size between the atlas and the axis leads to joint incongruence that exacerbates AA subluxation and makes surgical treatment challenging. Twelve dogs with AA instability with incongruence were enrolled in a single institution prospective observational study. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the AA joint were compared to a retrospectively reviewed control group. A novel surgical approach consisting of a dorsal internal fixation technique was performed in six dogs. For affected dogs, the mean normalised difference between the dorso-ventral atlas canal and the dorso-ventral axis canal was 29.67% (median of 35.07%, standard deviation 25.64%), while in normal dogs a mean difference of 4.67% (median of 3.95%, standard deviation 5.21%) was observed. On MRI, 12/12 affected dogs had spinal cord compression, which was classified as reducible (3/12), partially reducible (6/12) and non-reducible (3/12). In surgically operated dogs, follow-up CT showed a partial or complete reduction of the previous spinal cord compression with a consistent amelioration or resolution of the presenting complaints. The proposed surgical technique was safe and effective in dogs with partially or completely reducible spinal cord compression.

    Download PDF (527K)
  • Mohamed ABDO, Khaled SHOGHY, Yoshinao Z. HOSAKA, Tomohiro IMAGAWA, Saf ...
    Article ID: 14-0225e
    Published: 2014
    [Advance publication] Released: August 20, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    This article released online on July 30, 2014 as advance publication has been retracted by the Editorial Board of Journal of Veterinary Medical Science due to a violation of the journal’s “Information for Authors”.
    Download PDF (121K)
  • Mohamed ABDO, Khaled SHOGHY, Yoshinao Z. HOSAKA, Tomohiro IMAGAWA, Saf ...
    Article ID: 14-0225
    Published: 2014
    [Advance publication] Released: July 30, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    This article has been retracted by the Editorial Board of Journal of Veterinary Medical Science due to a violation of the journal's “Information for Authors”.
    Download PDF (903K)
feedback
Top