Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Online ISSN : 1347-7439
Print ISSN : 0916-7250
ISSN-L : 0916-7250
Advance online publication
Showing 1-50 articles out of 66 articles from Advance online publication
  • Yui KOBAYASHI, Tatsuro NAKAMURA, Koji KOBAYASHI, Takahisa MURATA
    Article ID: 20-0238
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: June 05, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids including arachidonic acid (AA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), are converted to lipid mediators by oxidation. Unlike other mammals, cats cannot synthesize AA. Since their lipid metabolic features remain unknown, we qualitatively analyzed 118 types of urinary lipid metabolites in healthy neutered cats. Using LC-MS, we found 26 lipid metabolites in urines of all individuals. In detail, 20 AA-, 5 EPA- and 1 DHA-derived lipid mediators were detected. Focusing on oxidative pathway, 17 cyclooxygenase-metabolites and 5 metabolites produced by non-enzymatic pathway were detected. Of interest, few lipoxygenase- or cytochrome P450-metabolites were excreted. Thus, AA-derived cyclooxygenase-metabolites mainly composed the urinary lipid metabolites in cats.

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  • Noboru SASAKI, Noriyuki NAGATA, Keitaro MORISHITA, Tatsuyuki OSUGA, Ka ...
    Article ID: 20-0183
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: June 04, 2020
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    The feasibility of ultrasonographic measurement of thyroid gland area to common carotid artery (TG:CCA) was investigated. Twenty-one healthy, 12 hypothyroid and 18 non-thyroid illness (NTI) dogs were evaluated. The area of thyroid lobe and common carotid artery in right and left sides were measured using the same ultrasonographic images in transverse plane. The average of the right and left ratio was calculated as TG:CCA. The median TG:CCA of 21 healthy dogs was 1.53, and it did not correlate either body weight or age. The median TG:CCA of 12 hypothyroid dogs was 0.81, which was significantly lower than that of 18 NTI dogs (1.81, P<0.001). If the cut off value <1.12 was used, TG:CCA indicated hypothyroidism with a sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 83%, and accuracy of 90%. Our data indicated that TG:CCA was independent of both body weight, which may contribute to consistent measurement of thyroid size. The results of this study suggest that TG:CCA is a promising tool for diagnosing canine hypothyroidism.

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  • Bernardo Nascimento ANTUNES, Henrique Jonatha TAVARES, Marta Lizandra ...
    Article ID: 19-0409
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: June 02, 2020
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    A lamb presented with recurrent prolapse of the descending colon. On clinical examination, intussusception of the descending colon with the prolapse of a segment was verified. The external anal sphincter had a rupture, extending to the lacerated wound in the anus. The lamb underwent colopexy with the two-portal video-assisted incisional technique and was discharged 6 days after the surgical procedure with a satisfactory clinical outcome. There were no recurrences or complications for at least 9 months. Video-assisted colopexy is an alternative treatment for intussusception and recurrent colon prolapse in sheep, even in the presence of an external anal sphincter rupture.

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  • Marina OTSUKA, Yasunobu NISHI, Kenji TSUKANO, Masakazu TSUCHIYA, Jeffr ...
    Article ID: 19-0629
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: June 02, 2020
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    The objective of the present study was to elucidate sequential changes in mRNA abundance of serum amyloid A (SAA) isotypes in endotoxin (ETX) challenge model cattle. Ten healthy cattle were separated to 2 groups: control and ETX groups. Cattle in the ETX group were challenged by 2.5 µg/kg of O111:B4 lipopolysaccharide in 4 ml of autologous serum. Blood samples were withdrawn at pre, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hr after ETX challenge. Plasma ETX activity, serum SAA concentrations, mRNA abundance of interleukin (IL)-6, SAA2 and SAA4 in the liver and polymorphonuclear leukocytes were measured. The plasma ETX activity in the ETX group increased at 0.5 hr after the ETX challenge. The serum SAA value remained higher between 12 and 72 hr after the ETX challenge than that of the control group. Hepatic IL-6 mRNA abundance in the ETX group increased at 2 hr after the ETX challenge. Hepatic SAA2 and SAA4 mRNA abundance significantly increased from 4 hr after administration, and remained significantly higher than those pre-values up to 12 and 24 hr, respectively. The abundance ratio of hepatic SAA2 was much higher than that of SAA4. The major isotype was SAA2 in liver tissue, and it is indicating systemic inflammation in cattle.

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  • Satoki NAKANISHI, Youhei MANTANI, Tomohiro HARUTA, Toshifumi YOKOYAMA, ...
    Article ID: 20-0175
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: June 02, 2020
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    The comprehensive targets of innervation in the intestinal mucosa are unknown, partly because of the diversity of cell types and the complexity of the neural circuits. Herein, we investigated the comprehensive targets of neural connectivity and analyzed the precise characteristics of their contact structures in the mucosa of rat ileum. We examined target cells of neural connections and the characteristics of their contact structures by serial block-face scanning electron microscopy at four portions of the rat ileal mucosa: the apical and basal portions in the villi, and the lateral and basal portions around/in the crypts. Nerve fibers were in contact with several types of fibroblast-like cells (FBLCs), macrophage-like cells, eosinophils, lymphocyte-like cells, and other types of cells. The nerve fibers almost always ran more inside of lamina propria than subepithelial FBLC, and thus contacts with epithelial cells were very scarce. The contact structures of the nerve fibers were usually contained synaptic vesicle-like structures, and we classified them into patterns based on the number of nerve fiber contacting the target cells at one site, the maximum diameter of the contact structures, and the relationship between nerve fibers and nerve bundles. The contact structures for each type of cells occasionally dug into the cellular bodies of the target cells. We revealed the comprehensive targets of neural connectivity based on the characteristics of contact structures, and identified FBLCs, immunocompetent cells, and eosinophils as the candidate targets for innervation in the rat ileal mucosa.

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  • Dung Thi LE, Nanako YAMASHITA-KAWANISHI, Mari OKAMOTO, Son Vu NGUYEN, ...
    Article ID: 20-0094
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: June 01, 2020
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    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) belongs to the genus, Deltaretrovirus of the family, Retroviridae and it is the causative agent of enzootic bovine leukosis. The prevalence of BLV in three provinces in the Red River Delta Region in the North of Vietnam, Hanoi, Vinhphuc and Bacninh was studied from April 2017 to June 2018. A total of 275 blood samples collected from cattle were used for serum isolation and DNA extraction. Of these samples, 266 sera were subjected to ELISA test for detecting antibody against BLV gp51 protein and 152 DNA samples were used to detect the 444 bp fragment corresponding to a part of the gp51 region of the env by nested PCR. The results showed that 16.5% (n=44) and 21.1% (n=32) of samples were positive for BLV gp51 antibody and BLV proviral DNA, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of the partial (423 bp) and complete (913 bp) BLV env-gp51 gene indicated that Vietnamese strains were clustered into genotypes 1, 6 and 10 (G1, G6 and G10). Of those genotypes, G1 genotype was dominant; G6 strains were designated as G6e and G6f subgenotypes; the existence of genotype 10 was confirmed for the first time in Vietnam. The present study provides important information regarding the prevalence of BLV infection and genetic characteristics of BLV strains identified in Vietnam, contributing to promote the establishment of disease control and eradication strategies in Vietnam.

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  • Tadatoshi OHTAKI, Kanae OGATA, Hiroshi KAJIKAWA, Toshiaki SUMIYOSHI, S ...
    Article ID: 20-0117
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 27, 2020
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    A high-concentrate diet destroys gram-negative bacteria in the cattle rumen, leading to elevated ruminal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels. LPS causes liver inflammation through the hepatic portal vein but little is known about the effects of rumen-derived LPS on liver function and the reproductive organs. In this study, we determined the effect of increasing rumen fluid LPS levels on liver function and genital LPS levels. Cows were assigned to control (CON; n=5) and high-concentrate diet (HC; n=7) groups. We observed that the ruminal LPS and haptoglobin (Hp) levels were significantly higher and albumin levels were lower in the HC group than in the CON group. In the HC group, The Hp levels and aspartate transaminase (AST) activity were significantly higher and the total cholesterol levels were significantly lower after high-concentrate diet feeding than before feeding. No differences were observed in LPS levels in the peripheral veins, hepatic veins, hepatic portal vein, uterine perfusate, and follicular fluids between the groups. In all samples, the LPS level in the hepatic portal vein blood positively correlated with the AST activity and serum amyloid A level. In conclusion, our results indicate that high-concentrate diets do not have a direct effect on the reproductive organs upon a moderate ruminal LPS level increase. However, an increased ruminal LPS influx into the liver might affect negatively liver function.

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  • Sou WADA, Hironari KOYAMA, Kazuto YAMASHITA
    Article ID: 20-0043
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 26, 2020
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    To evaluate the sedative and physiological effects of alfaxalone intramuscular (IM) administration, 12 healthy cynomolgus monkeys were administered single IM doses of alfaxalone at 0.625 mg/kg (ALFX0.625), 1.25 mg/kg (ALFX1.25), 2.5 mg/kg (ALFX2.5), 5 mg/kg (ALFX5), 7.5 mg/kg (ALFX7.5), or 10 mg/kg (ALFX10); saline was used as the control (CONT). The sedative effects were subjectively evaluated using a composite measure scoring system in six animals. Changes in respiratory rate, pulse rate, non-invasive blood pressure, percutaneous oxygen-hemoglobin saturation (SpO2), and rectal temperature were observed after IM treatments in the other six animals. All animals were allowed to lay down following the ALFX5, ALFX7.5, and ALFX10 treatments, whereas lateral recumbency was achieved in only two animals after ALFX2.5 treatment and none after the CONT, ALFX 0.625, and ALFX1.25 treatments. The median time (interquartile range) to lateral recumbency was 6.5 min (5.3–7.8), 4.0 min (4.0–4.0), and 3.0 min (3.0–3.8), and the duration of immobilization was 27.5 min (19.0–33.8), 56.0 min (42.3–60.8), and 74.5 min (62.8–78.0) after the ALFX5, ALFX7.5, and ALFX10 treatments, respectively. Endotracheal intubation was achieved in all six animals after the ALFX7.5 and ALFX10 treatments. Dose-dependent decreases in respiratory rate, non-invasive blood pressure, SpO2, and rectal temperature were observed, and the quality of recovery was smooth in all animals after the ALFX5, ALFX7.5, and ALFX10 treatments. Thus, alfaxalone IM induced a dose-dependent sedative effect in cynomolgus monkeys, but at higher doses, hypotension, hypoxemia, and hypothermia could be induced.

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  • Masakazu SHIMADA, Nichika MIZOKAMI, Tom ICHINOHE, Nobuo KANNO, Shuji S ...
    Article ID: 19-0613
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 25, 2020
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    The object of this study is to evaluate the long-term outcome of hind limb weight-bearing function and progression of stifle osteoarthritis (OA) after tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO). Groups were classified by the degree of cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) damage and presence or absence of medial meniscus damage as macroscopically evaluated during surgery. Weight-bearing function was assessed via the peak vertical force (PVF), and OA progression was assessed via the radiographic OA score (OAS) preoperatively and 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36 months postoperatively. In all stifles, PVF was significantly higher within 6 months postoperatively than preoperatively, and this high ratio was maintained for 36 months. The OAS was significantly higher 24 months postoperatively than preoperatively in stifles with a partial CrCL tear, and significantly increased at each timepoint after 3 months postoperatively in stifles with complete CrCL rupture. The OAS remained consistently lower in stifles with a partial CrCL tear and no treatment of the medial meniscus than in stifles with complete rupture. Thus, after TPLO, the weight-bearing function improved in the early postoperative period and was maintained for as long as 36 months. Although OA progressed over time after TPLO, the progression was more gradual in stifles with partial tears than in those with complete rupture. Canine patients would benefit from earlier surgical intervention through development of technology that enables early detection of ligament degeneration.

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  • Younghye RO, Woojae CHOI, Junho PARK, Eunhui CHOE, Danil KIM
    Article ID: 20-0048
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 25, 2020
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    This study was performed to confirm the alterations of blood and urine parameters in artificially induced hypocalcemic cows. For a 2 х 2 cross-over design, four non-pregnant, non-lactating Holstein Friesian cows (622.5 ± 63.49 kg) were utilized. Cows in the treatment and control group were infused with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (Na2EDTA) solution and normal saline through an intravenous catheter for 3 hr, respectively. Laboratory analyses included complete blood cell count, plasma chemistry, blood gas analysis and urine chemistry. During the hypocalcemic period, abnormal signs were not observed clinically, hematologically nor biochemically either in groups. But, plasma calcium and magnesium concentrations continued to decrease throughout Na2EDTA infusion, and significant group differences (P<0.05 or P<0.001) were detected until 5 hr after the initiation of infusion. Urinary excretions of these minerals were significantly reduced compared to the control group by 6 hr (Ca, P<0.05; Mg, P<0.001). Moreover, there is a significant group difference in the change in plasma pH at 1 hr after Na2EDTA infusion (P<0.05) and maintained a decreased level until 6 hr. Consequently, the blood pH was diminished simultaneously with hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia induction in cows infused with Na2EDTA. This phenomenon may be one of the mechanisms to recover normocalcemia including maximizing the effect of parathyroid hormone, however, further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanism to alter the blood pH in hypocalcemia.

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  • SUPRIYONO, Ryusei KUWATA, Shun TORII, Hiroshi SHIMODA, Keita ISHIJIMA, ...
    Article ID: 20-0261
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 25, 2020
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    Mosquitoes transmit many kinds of arboviruses (arthropod-borne viruses), and numerous arboviral diseases have become serious problems in Indonesia. In this study, we conducted surveillance of mosquito-borne viruses at several sites in Indonesia during 2016–2018 for risk assessment of arbovirus infection and analysis of virus biodiversity in mosquito populations. We collected 10,015 mosquitoes comprising at least 11 species from 4 genera. Major collected mosquito species were Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes albopictus, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Aedes aegypti, and Armigeres subalbatus. The collected mosquitoes were divided into 285 pools and used for virus isolation using two mammalian cell lines, Vero and BHK-21, and one mosquito cell line, C6/36. Seventy-two pools showed clear cytopathic effects only in C6/36 cells. Using RT-PCR and next-generation sequencing approaches, these isolates were identified as insect flaviviruses (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus), Banna virus (family Reoviridae, genus Seadornavirus), new permutotetravirus (designed as Bogor virus) (family Permutotetraviridae, genus Alphapermutotetravirus), and alphamesoniviruses 2 and 3 (family Mesoniviridae, genus Alphamesonivirus). We believed that this large surveillance of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne viruses provides basic information for the prevention and control of emerging and re-emerging arboviral diseases.

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  • Megumi ITOH, Yuuki HIRANO, Kazuhiro YAMAKAWA, Ichiro YASUTOMI, Keiko K ...
    Article ID: 19-0695
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 22, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is typically used for the early detection of mycoplasma in bovine milk; it requires 3 days to obtain results because of the necessary enrichment process. A more rapid, simple, and accurate detection method is required to directly detect the Mycoplasma bovis (M. bovis) gene in milk. In this study, we assess the utility of combining the following two methods to achieve this goal: the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), which is more sensitive than PCR, and the procedure for ultra rapid extraction (PURE), which adsorbs and filters components that inhibit DNA amplification/detection. LAMP was examined using DNA extracts obtained by four methods. This showed that PURE had the highest sensitivity and specificity and that the combination of PURE and LAMP was able to detect M. bovis in milk. We then showed that the detection limit of M. bovis was 102 colony-forming units per milliliter of milk using the PURE–LAMP. Finally, the respective sensitivities of the PURE–LAMP and PCR were 57% and 86% for bulk tank milk, 89% and 74% for mature milk, 85% and 92% for colostrum/transitional milk, and 97% and 95% for mastitis milk. The specificity was 100% for all milk samples in both LAMP and PCR. We conclude that PCR was suitable for detecting mycoplasma in bulk tank milk and that the PURE–LAMP could detect mycoplasma within 2 hr and was also effective for mature and mastitis milk.

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  • Hiroshi ISEKI, Kenji KAWASHIMA, Michihiro TAKAGI, Tomoyuki SHIBAHARA, ...
    Article ID: 20-0122
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 22, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the cross-protective immunity between type 1 and type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) isolates in growing pigs. Japanese type 1 PRRSV, first isolated from a pig with respiratory disorders in a farm in 2009, exhibits unique genetic characteristics. The pathogenicity of a Japanese standard strain of type 2 PRRSV, EDRD1, in pigs immunized by the type 1 PRRSV isolate, Jpn EU 4-37 was determined by evaluating clinical signs, viremia, antibody response, and pathological lesions. Similarly, we evaluated the pathogenicity of Jpn EU 4-37 in pigs immunized by EDRD1 and compared the cross-protective immunity between these isolates. The EDRD1 challenge after Jpn EU 4-37 inoculation reduced viral clearance and shedding in pigs, compared to those treated with the EDRD1 single infection. On the other hand, the pathogenicity of Jpn EU 4-37 after EDRD1 infection did not differ significantly compared to non-immunized pigs treated with Jpn EU 4-37. Therefore, exposure to Jpn EU 4-37 could not induce enough immunity to reduce the viremia against subsequent infection by type 2 PRRSV. However, the immunity induced by Jpn EU 4-37 infection may play a role in reducing viremia caused by type 2 PRRSV. Moreover, the immunity induced by the EDRD1 and other genetically related viruses, which are broadly distributed in Japan, may not contribute to cross-protection against Jpn EU 4-37 as an emerging virus.

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  • Michihito TAGAWA, Genya SHIMBO, Ken-Ichi WATANABE, Noriyuki HORIUCHI, ...
    Article ID: 20-0157
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 22, 2020
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    A 12-year-old female domestic short-haired cat was presented due to weight loss, anorexia, and tachypnea. Complete blood count revealed severe anemia, leukocytosis with massive undifferentiated blast cells, and thrombocytopenia. Bone marrow aspiration showed acute myeloid leukemia, subclassified as monoblastic leukemia (M5a) based on the outcomes of the cytochemistry examinations. The SNAP feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) test using whole blood was negative. In addition, FeLV/FIV proviral polymerase chain reaction test using bone marrow aspirate was also negative. Although the cat was treated with doxorubicin, cytosine arabinoside, and prednisolone, anemia did not improve without blood transfusion. The owner declined further treatment after 2 months, and the cat died a few days later.

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  • Kazuya TAKEHANA, Ryohei KITANI, Kaoru HATATE, Rurika ONOMI, Norio YAMA ...
    Article ID: 19-0666
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 21, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The anthropometric and blood data of an unsuccessfully hand-reared Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) calf were retrospectively compared with the data for calves raised by their real mothers or allomothers, to identify potential reasons for poor outcomes in the hand-reared case. The hand-reared calf grew normally in terms of body weight and withers height. However, blood biochemical data suggested reduced bone metabolism, low immune status, and malnutrition during its life. Blood bone markers were measured to determine whether a skeletal disorder was present in the Asian elephant calf, which was not clear from the anthropometric data. Monitoring these parameters in hand-reared Asian elephant calves, with the aim of keeping them within the normal range, may increase the success rate of hand-rearing of Asian elephant calves.

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  • Kraisiri KHIDKHAN, Hazuki MIZUKAWA, Yoshinori IKENAKA, Shouta M. M. NA ...
    Article ID: 20-0140
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 21, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The knowledge of cytochrome P450 (CYP) expression involved in chemical exposure are necessary in clinical applications for the medication and prediction of adverse effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mRNA expression of CYP1–CYP3 families in cats exposed to BDE-209 for one year. All selected CYP isoforms showed no significant difference in mRNA expressions between control and exposure groups, however, CYP3A12 and CYP3A131 revealed tend to be two times higher in the exposure group compared to control group. The present results indicate that the chronic exposure of BDE209 could not alter CYP expression in the liver of cats. This result considered caused by the deficiency of CYP2B subfamily which is major metabolism enzyme of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in cat.

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  • Seiya MAEHARA, Yoshiki ITOH, Wataru KURIMOTO, Yasunari KITAMURA, Yosuk ...
    Article ID: 20-0169
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 21, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of pupil diameter on canine visual evoked potentials with pattern stimulation (P-VEP). Atropine eye drop (1.0%) was applied to both eyes as a cycloplegic drug, and tafluprost eye drop (0.015%) was applied to one eye that was selected randomly for miosis (miosis group). The other eye did not receive tafluprost (mydriasis group). P-VEP was recorded at three pattern sizes. The P100 implicit time at a small pattern size in the mydriasis group was significantly prolonged compared to the miosis group. We hypothesized that the prolonged P100 implicit time under mydriatic conditions was due to increased spherical aberrations and concluded that mydriatic conditions affected P100 implicit time in canine P-VEP recordings.

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  • Rumika YOSHIDA, Go KITAHARA, Takeshi OSAWA
    Article ID: 20-0165
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 20, 2020
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    This study aimed to describe the duration of inflammation after intrauterine infusion of polyvinylpyrrolidone-iodine (povidone-iodine, PVP-I), determine the effect of PVP-I infusion on the subsequent fertility, and evaluate the histopathology of the endometrium in dairy cows. In Experiment 1, 120 lactating clinically healthy Holstein-Friesian cows at 5 weeks postpartum (W5) were equally divided into three groups: intrauterine infusion of 2% PVP-I (PVP), saline (SAL), and no treatment (NTX). Endometrial cytology was performed daily from D0 (W5) to D7 to determine the percentage of polymorphonuclear cells (PMN%) in 44 of the 120 cows. All cows received timed artificial insemination at D17. In Experiment 2, 25 cows were randomly classified into sacrifice at 24 hr or 48 hr after 2% PVP-I infusion (PVP24 and PVP48), and 24, 48, 72, or 96 hr after SAL infusion (SAL24; SAL48; SAL72; SAL96), or no treatment (NTX). Histopathology was performed on the uterus of each cow. In Experiment 1, PMN% was greater in PVP (P<0.05) than in SAL and NTX, on D1, but decreased to a level similar to that of the other groups by D2. Conception rate was higher (P<0.05) in PVP cows compared to SAL and NTX cows. In Experiment 2, stratified columnar epithelium in the uterus disappeared in PVP24 and SAL24. The epithelium was regenerated in PVP48, SAL72, and SAL96, but not in SAL48. In conclusion, the results of the study suggest that PVP-I induces transient uterine inflammation, improves fertility, and promotes regeneration of endometrial epithelial cells.

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  • Takashi IKEDA, Makoto ASANO, Naotoshi KUNINAGA, Masatsugu SUZUKI
    Article ID: 20-0083
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 19, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Although the first cases of classical swine fever were reported in 2018, no studies have explored this impact on wild boar populations in Japan. Comparing the relative abundance indices and age ratios in the wild boar population before and after the outbreak, we investigated the impact of classical swine fever virus on wild boar population dynamics in August 2017–December 2019. Relative abundance indices declined from 2017 to 2019 drastically, while there were no significant differences in age ratios throughout the study period. Consequently, wildlife managers should consider that wild boars continue to contract classical swine fever virus, and they should intensively implement countermeasures in agricultural lands and in pig farms, in addition to wild boar population management.

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  • Michihito TAGAWA, Genya SHIMBO, Mizuki TOMIHARI, Masashi YANAGAWA, Ken ...
    Article ID: 20-0068
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 18, 2020
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    A 1-year-old male mixed breed dog presented for the evaluation of progressive hindlimb paresis. Neurological examination indicated a spinal cord lesion between the 3rd thoracic and 3rd lumbar vertebrae. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed an intramedullary spinal cord lesion located at the level of the 1st and 2nd lumbar vertebrae. Following cytoreductive surgery of the mass, palliative radiation therapy was administered. A diagnosis of nephroblastoma was made based on histological examination. After radiation therapy, the disappearance of the spinal lesion was confirmed by MRI. The dog was improved from gait abnormality and alive at 16 months postoperatively, with slight signs of neurological dysfunction.

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  • Hanako MORITA, Masahiko YASUDA, Masafumi YAMAMOTO, Ritsuki UCHIDA, Mai ...
    Article ID: 20-0180
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 18, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    To investigate the prevalence of murine astrovirus (MuAstV) in mice in laboratory animal facilities in Japan, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test targeting the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) gene was performed on the cecum contents of 1,212 mice (1,183 immunocompetent mice and 29 immunodeficient mice) from 226 facilities. The results showed that 118 (52.2%) of the 226 facilities were positive for MuAstV. Out of the 1,212 mice, 424 (35.0%) were positive. No gross lesions were observed in any of the mice examined. A phylogenetic analysis for 15 selected strains revealed that 13 strains formed one cluster, while two were genetically distant from that cluster. These results suggest that multiple strains are prevalent in laboratory mice in Japan.

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  • Yusei FUJIOKA, Kosuke OTANI, Muneyoshi OKADA, Hideyuki YAMAWAKI
    Article ID: 20-0208
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 18, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Extracellular vesicles (EV) consist of a lipid-bilayered membrane and are typically classified as small EV (sEV or exosome) or large EV (or microvesicle). sEV mediate cell-to-cell communication and play a key role in various disease states. We recently reported that plasma sEV in normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), an animal model of human essential hypertension, regulate systemic blood pressure (BP). An abnormal vascular reactivity is involved in the onset and progression of hypertension. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that plasma sEV may affect the reactivity of isolated blood vessels. sEV were isolated from plasma in male WKY and SHR (WsEV and SsEV, respectively) by precipitation with polyethylene-glycol and ultracentrifugation. The particle distribution and concentration of sEV were measured by a tunable resistive pulse sensing method. Isolated mesenteric arteries from normal male Wistar rats were cultured for 24 hr with WsEV, SsEV, or vehicle. There was no difference in particle distribution and total concentration between WsEV and SsEV. Both SsEV and WsEV had no significant effect on the KCl-induced maximal contraction, while SsEV specifically attenuated contraction induced by noradrenaline compared with WsEV- and vehicle-treatment. In summary, it was for the first time revealed that SsEV attenuate the agonist-induced contractility of isolated blood vessels, which might be at least partly responsible for the BP regulation by SsEV.

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  • Kozo TAKASE, Yuko HARAGUCHI, Akira SUZUKI, Takeshi OBI
    Article ID: 19-0273
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 15, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The Izumi Plain in Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan, is a major wintering ground for wild cranes. Between October 2009 and March 2016, a total of 204 Hooded Cranes Grus monacha and White-naped Cranes G. vipio were found dead or in a weak condition in the plane. Of these, 56 cranes had bone fractures. The rate of incidence of fracture was considered to be higher in White-naped than in Hooded Cranes. Tibia fractures were the most common. The leg and wing fracture numbers were almost equal. Forty six percent of the fracture cases were believed to be caused by collisions with the power line.

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  • Jimin YOO, Jaeeun KO, Hakyoung YOON, Kidong EOM, Jaehwan KIM
    Article ID: 19-0518
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 15, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    A seven-month-old cat was referred for evaluation of exercise intolerance and open-mouth breathing. Based on ultrasonographic examination, caudal vena cava (CVC) aneurysm associated with right congestive heart failure resulting from congenital heart disease was diagnosed. Conservative treatment for alleviating pulmonary hypertension mildly improved the clinical signs and decreased the heart size and CVC aneurysm diameter. However, the improvements were transient and four months after initiating therapy, the cat developed dyspnea and uncontrollable seizures and was euthanized.

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  • Eloiza May S. GALON, Rochelle Haidee D. YBAÑEZ, Paul Franck ADJOU MOUM ...
    Article ID: 19-0636
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 15, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Tick-borne diseases (TBD) cause enormous losses for farmers. Backyard raising comprises majority of the livestock population in the Philippines, but TBD information in backyard livestock is scarce. In this study, 48 cattle and 114 water buffalo samples from Quezon province, Philippines were molecularly screened for tick-borne pathogens. Anaplasmamarginale (16.67%) and hemoplasma (20.99%) were detected in the samples. A. marginale infection (P=0.0001) was significantly higher in cattle, while hemoplasma infection (P=0.011) was significantly higher in water buffaloes. A. marginale isolates from this study were highly similar to previous isolates from the Philippines while Mycoplasma wenyonii and Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos were the identified hemoplasma species. Our findings reveal additional information on the TBD situation of Philippine backyard livestock.

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  • Shu HADATE, Naoki TAKAHASHI, Kiyokazu KAMETANI, Tomohito IWASAKI, Yasu ...
    Article ID: 20-0120
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 15, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The lateral cytoplasmic processes of tenocytes extend to form three-dimensional network surrounding collagen fibers. It is unknown whether connections between two cytoplasmic processes involve overlapping of the processes or merely surface contact. In this study, the two-dimensional and three-dimensional structure of tenocytes in the Achilles tendons of the newly hatched chicks were studied using transmission electron microscopy and serial blocked face-scanning electron microscopy. Observation of the two-dimensional structures revealed various forms of cellular connections, including connections between the cytoplasmic processes of adjacent tenocytes and between the cytoplasmic process of tenocytes and fibroblasts. Three-dimensional observation showed spike-like cytoplasmic processes extending from one tenocyte that interlocked with cytoplasmic processes from other tenocytes. Cytoplasmic processes from each tenocyte within the chick tendons interlocked to ensure a tight cell-to-cell connection around growing collagen fibers. A cellular network formed by these cytoplasmic processes surrounds each collagen fiber. Cell-cell junctions, which were suggested to be gap junctions, observed at sites of cytoplasmic process overlap most likely represent the major route for communication between tenocytes associated with fibroblasts, enabling vital signals important for maintaining the cell and tendon integrity to be transmitted.

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  • Mikako SHINOHARA, Masaharu KIYOSUE, Takumi TOCHIO, Seiji KIMURA, Yasuh ...
    Article ID: 19-0640
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 09, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    1-kestose is a structural component of fructo-oligosaccharides and is composed of 2 fructose residues bound to sucrose through β2-1 bonds. In the present study, the influence of the ingestion of 1-kestose on the intestinal microbiota was investigated in cats. Six healthy cats were administered 1 g/day of 1-kestose for 8 weeks followed by a 2-week wash-out period. Fecal samples were collected from cats after 0, 4, 8, and 10 weeks. The intestinal microbiota was examined by a 16S rRNA gene metagenomic analysis and real-time PCR. Short-chain fatty acids were measured by GC/MS. The results suggested that the intestinal bacterial community structure in feline assigned to this study was divided into 2 types: one group mainly composed of the genus Lactobacillus (GA) and the other mainly composed of the genus Blautia with very few bacteria of Lactobacillus (GB). Furthermore, the number of Bifidobacterium slightly increased after the administration of 1-kestose (at 4 and 8 weeks) (P<0.1). The administration of 1-kestose also increased the abundance of Megasphaera, the butyric acid-producing bacteria, at 4 and 8 weeks (P<0.1). Furthermore, an increase in butyric acid levels was observed after the administration of 1-kestose for 4 weeks (P<0.1). These results suggest that 1-kestose activated butyrate-producing bacteria as well as bifidobacteria and propose its potential as a new generation prebiotic.

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  • Kanako ISHIHARA, Chihiro SUNAGAWA, Takashi HANEISHI, Naoko MIYAGUCHI, ...
    Article ID: 19-0692
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 07, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    To evaluate the effect of antimicrobial susceptibility on outcomes, we compared the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and the family Enterobacteriaceae from cured and uncured mastitis cases; milk shipment for uncured cases could not be resumed within 3 weeks after initial clinical examination. A higher MIC50 of ampicillin and a higher MIC90 of cefazolin for Enterobacteriaceae isolates were observed for cured rather than uncured cases with differences in ≥2 tubes. Endotoxins are generally released from Enterobacteriaceae upon antimicrobial treatment; their amounts are presumed to be greater in mastitis cases resulting from β-lactam antibiotic-susceptible rather than -resistant microbes. For staphylococcal and streptococcal isolates, the MIC50 and MIC90 of β-lactam antibiotics were similar for cured and uncured cases.

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  • Yasu-taka AZUMA, Kazuhiro NISHIYAMA
    Article ID: 20-0137
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 07, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Interleukin (IL)-19 is a cytokine of the IL-10 family. There are many reports on the involvement of IL-19 in several human diseases. There also are many reports elucidating the role of IL-19 using mouse disease models. Most reports use C57BL/6 mice, whereas few reports use BALB/c mice, in terms of the mouse disease model that the researchers used in the present study. To date, research on the role of IL-19 is diversified, yet some basic mechanisms are still unclear. In this study, we administered lipopolysaccharide (LPS), polyI:C, and CpG to BALB/c mice, measured more than 20 cytokines in the blood and compared them with that of the wild-type and IL-19-deficient (IL-19 KO) mice. LPS is associated with bacterial infection, polyI:C is associated with viral infection, and CpG is associated with both bacterial and viral infections. Among the cytokines measured, the results of experiments using LPS revealed that the production of some cytokines was suppressed in IL-19 KO mice. Interestingly, the experiments using polyI:C revealed that production of some cytokines was enhanced in IL-19 KO mice. However, the experiments using CpG have shown that the production of only one cytokine was enhanced in IL-19 KO mice. These results revealed that cytokine production in the blood was regulated by IL-19, and the type of regulation was dependent on the administered stimulant.

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  • Yu FURUSAWA, Masashi TAKAHASHI, Tomoko IWANAGA, Akira YABUKI, Rui KANO ...
    Article ID: 19-0455
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 04, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    A 3-years-old male golden retriever was presented for decreased activity (lethargy), anorexia, and titubation. Superficial lymph nodes were enlarged, and arrhythmia and tachycardia were auscultated. Fungal hyphae-like structures were detected in the biopsy samples from an enlarged lymph node and spleen. Nucleotide sequence of the internal transcribed spacer region of the fungi amplified by PCR was highly homologous to that of Inonotus pachyphloeus. The dog was treated with antifungal agents such as itraconazole, fluconazole, and voriconazole. Clinical signs resolved for 325 days but the dog died suddenly, possibly because of arrhythmia. Postmortem examination revealed the presence of a disseminated fungal infection. This report describes the case of canine systemic Inonotus sp. infection treated by an antifungal agent.

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  • Takumi KURIHARA, Akihiro HIRATA, Tsuyoshi YAMAGUCHI, Harue OKADA, Miho ...
    Article ID: 19-0406
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 01, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Cormorant fishing is a traditional Japanese fishing method using captive Japanese cormorants (Phalacrocorax capillatus). Between June and July 2017, an avian pox outbreak was reported in captive cormorant populations throughout several distant cities in Japan. We examined the lesions obtained from two such affected cormorants, which were raised in distant cities. The affected cormorants were grossly characterized by the development of cutaneous nodules around the base of the beak. Histopathologically, these nodules consisted of marked epidermal hyperplasia with ballooning degeneration of spinous cells and eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusions (Bollinger bodies). The lesions displayed 4b core protein (P4b) of Avipoxvirus (APV) and DNA polymerase genes, which were detected by PCR. Moreover, the nucleotide sequences detected from both cormorants were found to be identical. No identical sequence was found in any international database. These findings suggest that both examined cormorants were infected with an identical APV, which has never been previously reported. According to the phylogenetic analysis, the detected sequences were observed to cluster in subclade A3, which consists mainly of the sequences detected from several marine birds, including other cormorant species. This observation suggests that the viruses might be maintained in Japanese cormorants in nature.

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  • Eriko MURATA, Satoi KOZAKI, Tomoaki MURAKAMI, Kaori SHIMIZU, Ayaka OKA ...
    Article ID: 19-0473
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 01, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Serum amyloid A (SAA) is both an amyloidogenic protein of amyloid A amyloidosis and an acute phase protein in most animal species. Although SAA isoforms, such as SAA1, 2, 3, and 4, have been identified in cattle, their biological functions are not completely understood. Previous studies using mice indicated that SAA3 mRNA expression increased by stimulation with Escherichia coli and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in colonic epithelial cells, and subsequently the SAA3 protein enhanced the expression of mucin2 (MUC2) mRNA, which is the major component of the colonic mucus layer. These results suggest that SAA3 plays a role in host innate immunity against bacterial infection in the intestine. In this study, a novel anti-bovine SAA3 monoclonal antibody was produced and SAA3 expression levels in bovine epithelia were examined in vitro and in vivo using real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC). SAA3 mRNA expression, but not that of SAA1, was enhanced by LPS stimulus in bovine small intestinal and mammary glandular epithelial cells in vitro. Moreover, in bovine epithelia (small intestine, mammary gland, lung, and uterus) obtained from four Holstein dairy cows from a slaughterhouse, SAA3 mRNA expression was higher than that of SAA1. Furthermore, using IHC, SAA3 protein expression was observed in bovine epithelia, whereas SAA1 protein was not. These results suggest that in cattle, SAA3 plays an immunological role against bacterial infection in epithelial tissues, including the small intestine, mammary gland, lung, and uterus.

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  • Wen-Ta LI, Ming-Shiuh LEE, Yi-Chia TSENG, Ning-Ya YANG
    Article ID: 20-0166
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 01, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Reptile-associated nidoviruses (serpentoviruses) have been reported to cause proliferative interstitial pneumonia in pythons and other reptile species. A captive, younger than 2 years old, intact female ball python (Python regius) showed increased oral mucus, wheezing, and audible breathing with weight loss. Gross and microscopic examination revealed large amounts of mucus in the esophagus and proliferative interstitial pneumonia. Serpentovirus genes were detected from the lung tissues by polymerase chain reaction. The current serpentoviruses was phylogenetically grouped with the serpentovirus previously identified in the US. No case of serpentovirus infection has been reported in Asia. The present report provides information of complete genome sequence and global distribution of serpentovirus.

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  • Ekkapol AKARAPHUTIPORN, Takafumi SUNAGA, Eugene C. BWALYA, Ryosuke ECH ...
    Article ID: 20-0118
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: April 30, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    This study investigated the effects of culture time on phenotype stability of canine articular chondrocytes (CACs) in non-passaged long-term monolayer culture. Third passage (P3) CACs isolated from four cartilage samples were seeded at three different initial seeding densities (0.2 х 104, 1.0 х 104 and 5.0 х 104 cells/cm2) and maintained in monolayer condition up to 8 weeks without undergoing subculture after confluence. The characteristic changes of chondrocytes during the culture period were evaluated based on the cell morphology, cell proliferation, glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) content, DNA quantification, mRNA expression and ultrastructure of chondrocytes. Chondrocytes maintained under post-confluence condition exhibited a capability to grow and proliferate up to 4 weeks. Alcian blue staining and Dimethylmethylene blue (DMMB) assay revealed that the extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis was increased in a time-dependent manner from 2 to 8 weeks. The chondrocyte mRNA expression profile was dramatically affected by prolonged culture time, with a significant downregulation of collagen type I, whereas the expression of collagen type II, aggrecan, Sox9 and matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP-13) were significantly upregulated. In addition, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) result indicated dilation of rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) in these long-term monolayer cultured chondrocytes. These findings demonstrate that the chondrocytes phenotype could be partially redifferentiated through the spontaneous redifferentiation process in long-term cultures using standard culture medium without the addition of chondrogenic supplements or tissue-culture scaffolds.

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  • Jun KAMBE, Yu SASAKI, Ryo INOUE, Shozo TOMONAGA, Teruo KINJO, Gen WATA ...
    Article ID: 20-0190
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: April 29, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The prevention of diseases through health control is essential at zoos. Recently, the gut microbiota, which is an ecosystem consisting of the bacteria living in the digestive tract, has been found to be one of the key systems that mediates animal health. However, there is little basic knowledge about gut microbiota in zoo animals, particularly the relationship between mothers and infants during lactation. Here, we investigated the formation of the gut microbiota during infancy in an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) in Okinawa Zoo and compared the composition between infant and mother. In addition, we analyzed the components of breast milk and examined the correlation with the infant gut microbiota. Analysis revealed that the gut microbiota of the infant contained high amount of Lactobacillales and its diversity was relatively low compared to that of the mother. We found several milk components, such as lactose, threonine and estradiol-17β, which showed a positive correlation with the change of Lactobacillales during the lactation period. In conclusion, the present study sheds light on the mechanism of gut microbiota formation during infancy in an Asian elephant and provides important insights into the health control of Asian elephants in zoos.

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  • Yuichi UENO, Makio YANAGISAWA, Sayuri KINO, Satoru SHIGENO, Makoto OSA ...
    Article ID: 20-0015
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: April 27, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Although the presence of Brucella spp. in the western Pacific has been suggested by epidemiological studies on cetaceans, it has not been confirmed by bacterial isolation. Here, for the first time, we report that a marine Brucella strain was isolated in the western Pacific from a bottlenose dolphin with osteomyelitis. The isolate from the lesion was confirmed to be B. ceti of sequence type 27 by multilocus sequence typing and Bruce-ladder PCR. Infrequent-restriction-site PCR and omp2 gene sequencing revealed that molecular characteristics of this isolate were similar to those of Brucella DNA previously detected from minke whales in the western North Pacific. These results suggest that genetically related Brucella strains circulate in cetacean species in this region.

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  • Aritada YOSHIMURA, Takahiro OHMORI, Shusaku YAMADA, Takae KAWAGUCHI, M ...
    Article ID: 19-0694
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: April 24, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The pancreas is believed to be vulnerable to hypoperfusion. In dogs with acute pancreatitis, pancreatic ischemia due to heart failure can worsen the condition. However, changes in pancreatic blood flow associated with decreased cardiac function have not been previously studied in dogs. Therefore, we aimed to identify and compare changes in pancreatic versus renal blood flow as a result of cardiac dysfunction. Seven dogs were subjected to rapid ventricular pacing to create heart failure models. Noninvasive blood pressure measurement, echocardiography, contrast-enhanced ultrasonography for pancreatic blood flow measurement, and para-aminohippuric acid clearance for renal blood flow measurement were performed before starting and at 2 and 4 weeks after starting the pacing. Left ventricular cardiac output and mean blood pressure decreased at 2 and 4 weeks after starting the pacing, and pancreatic blood flow decreased at 2 and 4 weeks after starting the pacing. However, renal blood flow did not change at 2 weeks but decreased 4 weeks after starting the pacing. Overall, this study demonstrated that reduced pancreatic blood flow due to cardiac dysfunction occurs, similar to renal blood flow. This suggests that decreased pancreatic blood flow is not unusual and may frequently occur in dogs with heart failure. The results of this study support the speculation that heart failure can exacerbate acute pancreatitis. Additionally, this study provides useful basic information for designing further studies to study this association.

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  • Jun SUZUKI, Seiki KOBAYASHI, Naoko YOSHIDA, Yoshiyuki AZUMA, Namiko KO ...
    Article ID: 20-0004
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: April 24, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    A commensal ciliate was isolated from the stool of a tortoise (Astrochelys radiata). The ciliate was classified as Nyctotherus teleacus, according to its basic morphological features. Electron microscopic observations using cultured N. teleacus (NictoT1 strain) revealed many spherical hydrogenosomes and methanogen-suspected bacteria, together with a characteristic triangular macronucleus containing many spherical chromosomes in the cytoplasm of NictoT1. The results of phylogenetic analysis showed that NictoT1 was included in the cluster of Nyctotheroides spp. (family Nyctotheridae). Nyctotheroides spp. commonly infest amphibians, which are taxonomically closely related to reptiles, including the tortoises evaluated in the present study.

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  • Jinxin LIN, Zhaolong LI, Zhihua FENG, Zhou FANG, Jianghua CHEN, Wengzh ...
    Article ID: 20-0176
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: April 24, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The prevalence of an emerging variant of the pseudorabies virus (PRV) has been causing serious losses to farmers in China. Moreover, the commercially available PRV vaccine often fails to provide thorough protection. Therefore, in this study, we generated a PRV-∆gC\gE∆TK strain with defects in gC, gE, and TK of PRV. Compared to the parental PRV strain and the single gene deletion strains (PRV-∆gC, PRV-∆gE, and PRV-∆TK), PRV-∆gC\gE∆TK grew slowly, and exhibited fewer and smaller plaques on swine testis (ST) cells. Furthermore, animal experiment results showed that mice that were immunized intramuscularly with PRV-∆gC\gE∆TK, survived throughout the experiment with no observed clinical symptoms, and were completely protected against PRV challenge. Additionally, deletion of the gC, gE, and TK genes significantly alleviated viral damage in the brain. Furthermore, one-day-old weaned piglets immunized intramuscularly with PRV-∆gC\gE∆TK elicited higher levels of gB antibodies against both the emerging PRV variant and the parental PRV, exhibited full protection against challenge with both variants, and showed neutralization capacity against PRV. These data suggest that PRV-∆gC\gE∆TK is a promising vaccine candidate for the control of pseudorabies.

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  • Miki KOH, Syunya NOGUCHI, Mami ARAKI, Hirotada OTSUKA, Makoto YOKOSUKA ...
    Article ID: 20-0092
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: April 22, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) is a principal regulator of hematopoiesis as well as angiogenesis. However, the functions of VEGF-A and its receptors (VEGFRs) in the differentiation of mast cells (MCs) in the skin remain unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the expression patterns of two VEGFRs (Flk1 and Flt1) in the skin MCs during development and maturation in rats. From the 17th days of embryonic development (E17) to 1 day after birth (Day 1), most of skin MCs were immature cells containing predominant alcian blue (AB)+ rather than safranin O (SO)+ granules (AB>SO MCs). AB>SO MC proportions gradually decreased, while mature AB<SO MC proportions increased from Day 7 to 28. Flk1+ MC proportions increased from E20 and reached to approximately 90% from Day 1 to 21, thereafter decreased to about 10% at Day 60 and 90. Flk1+ MC proportions changed almost in parallel with the numbers of MCs and Ki67+ MC proportions from E17 to Day 90. The proportions of MCs with both nuclear and cytoplasmic Flt1-immunoreactivity were markedly increased at Day 28, when the proportions of nuclear Flk1+, Ki67+, and AB>SO MCs had significantly decreased, and AB<SO MC proportions significantly increased. Considering that the main function of Flt1 is suppression of Flk1 effects, our results indicated that cross-talk between Flk1 and Flt1 regulates the proliferation and maturation of the skin MCs during late embryonic and neonatal development in rats.

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  • Tomoyo HORIO, Aisa OZAWA, Junichi KAMIIE, Motoharu SAKAUE
    Article ID: 19-0551
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: April 21, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The regulation of glial cells, especially astrocytes and microglia, is important to prevent the exacerbation of a brain injury because over-reactive glial cells promote neuronal death. Acetylcholine (ACh), a neurotransmitter synthesized and hydrolyzed by choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE), respectively, in the central nervous system, has the potential to regulate glial cells' states, i.e., non-reactive and reactive states. However, the expression levels of these ACh-related enzymes in areas containing reactive glial cells are unclear. Herein we immunohistochemically investigated the distributions of AChE and ChAT with reactive glial cells in the cryo-injured brain of mice as a traumatic brain injury model. Immunohistochemistry revealed AChE- and ChAT-immunopositive signals in injured areas at 7 days post-injury. The signals were observed in and around GFAP- or CD68-immunopositive cells, and the numbers of cells doubly positive for GFAP/AChE, GFAP/ChAT, CD68/AChE, and CD68/ChAT were significantly increased in injured areas compared to sham-operated areas. Enzyme histochemistry for AChE showed intensely positive signals in injured areas. These results suggest that reactive astrocytes and microglia express and secrete AChE and ChAT in brain-injury areas. These glial cells may adjust the ACh concentration around themselves through the regulation of the expression of ACh-related enzymes in order to control their reactive states.

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  • Hitomi ODA, Akihiro MORI, Toshinori SAKO
    Article ID: 19-0309
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: April 20, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Insulin degludec (IDeg) is a long-acting basal insulin recently developed for use in humans. This study aimed to investigate the effects of IDeg on glycemic control in diabetic cats. Changes in body weight, IDeg dosage, and glycated albumin (GA) were evaluated at 0, 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months following initiation of IDeg. A significant decrease in GA was observed and a mean GA level below 25% was achieved between 3 and 12 months. Furthermore, a significant increase in body weight was observed between 3 and 12 months. The mean IDeg dose was 0.75 ± 0.68 IU/kg/day at 12 months. Taken together, long-term glycemic control was successfully achieved in diabetic cats using IDeg.

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  • Giang Thi Huong TRAN, Serageldeen SULTAN, Nabila OSMAN, Mohamed Ismail ...
    Article ID: 19-0623
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: April 20, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Although intensive vaccination programs have been implemented, Newcastle disease (ND) outbreaks, accompanied by severe economic losses, are still reported in Egypt. The genetic characterization of ND virus (NDV) strains isolated from ND-vaccinated chicken flocks provides essential information for improving ND control strategies. Therefore, here, 38 NDV strains were isolated and identified from outbreaks among vaccinated flocks of broiler chickens located in the provinces of Qena, Luxor, and Aswan of Upper Egypt during 2011–2013. The investigated broiler chicken flocks (aged 28 to 40 days) had high mortality rates of up to 80%. All NDV isolates were genetically analyzed using next-generation DNA sequencing. From these isolates, 10 representative NDV strains were selected for further genetic analyses. Phylogenetic analysis of full-length coding genes revealed that the Egyptian NDV isolates belonged to a single sub-genotype, VII.1.1. These isolates were phylogenetically distant from the vaccine strains, including La Sota or Clone 30 (genotype II), which have been commonly used to vaccinate chicken flocks. Amino acid substitution K78R was observed in the neutralizing epitopes of the F proteins; whereas several mutations were found in the neutralizing epitopes of the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase proteins, notably, E347K. Overall, our results suggested that the occurrence of neutralizing epitope variants may be one of potential reasons for ND outbreaks. Further studies are needed to determine the protective effect of current vaccines against circulating virulent NDV strains.

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  • Akiyoshi TANI, Hirotaka TOMIYASU, Aki OHMI, Koichi OHNO, Hajime TSUJIM ...
    Article ID: 19-0439
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: April 17, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Non-neoplastic bone marrow disorders such as non-regenerative immune-mediated anemia, pure red cell aplasia, and myelodysplastic syndrome are major causes of non-regenerative anemia in dogs. However, there has been no study on the clinical and clinicopathological features of canine non-neoplastic bone marrow disorders in Japan. Hence, we first investigated the breed disposition of non-neoplastic bone marrow disorders that induce anemia as a retrospective study and found that Miniature Dachshund (MD) was a predisposed breed. Based on this finding, we investigated the clinical and clinicopathological features of non-neoplastic bone marrow disorders in MDs as a preliminary retrospective study, and we compared them between immunosuppressive treatment-responsive and -resistant MDs. We found that treatment-resistant MDs showed thrombocytosis and increased frequencies of dysplastic features in the peripheral blood. These results indicate that bone marrow disorders in treatment-resistant MDs might manifest distinct features compared with those in treatment-sensitive MDs, and sensitivity to immunosuppressive treatments could be predicted based on thrombocytosis and dysplastic features in the peripheral blood. Further studies that examine aberrations in the genome are needed to elucidate the pathophysiology of bone marrow disorders in MDs.

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  • Nobuhide KIDO, Sohei TANAKA, Tomoko OMIYA, Yuko KAMITE, Kohei SAWADA, ...
    Article ID: 19-0637
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: April 17, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Fatal accidents in captive elephants occasionally occur because humans are unable to gauge elephants' emotions solely by their behavior. The intellectual capacity of elephants makes them capable of understanding circumstantial changes and associated emotions, allowing them to react accordingly. Physiological markers, such as heart rate variability, may be effective in determining an elephant's emotional state. In this study, a wearable heart rate monitor was used to determine the emotional state of a female Indian captive elephant (Elephas maximus indicus). The average heart rate was higher when the elephant underwent painful treatment than when it underwent non-painful treatment. In addition, the heart rate increased both before and after the treatment, which included radiography and blood collection.

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  • Daisuke ITO, Naoko SHIOZAWA, Naoki SEKIGUCHI, Chieko ISHIKAWA, Nick D. ...
    Article ID: 19-0079
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: April 16, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    A 30-month-old Maine Coon presented with progressive proprioceptive ataxia, paraparesis, thoracolumbar pain, and decreased appetite. An extradural mass was detected within the left side of the 13th thoracic vertebral canal that compressed the spinal cord on magnetic resonance (MR) and was considered to be mineralized on computed tomography (CT) images. The resected mass was diagnosed as a vertebral vascular hamartoma. Clinical signs improved, but recurrence was diagnosed by MR and CT imaging at 7 months after surgery. Repeated excisional surgery yielded the same diagnosis and the clinical signs abated. Fifteen months after the second surgery, there was apparent vertebral deformation, but there was no further change on CT images by 29 months.

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  • Kosei SAKAI, Shingo HATOYA, Masaru FURUYA, Shunsuke SHIMAMURA, Tomoyo ...
    Article ID: 20-0109
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: April 16, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Human patients with inflammatory bowel disease may have poor prognosis with hypozincemia. However, there are limited data on zinc concentrations in the blood of dogs with lymphocytic-plasmacytic enteritis (LPE). The purpose of this study was to investigate the serum zinc concentration in dogs with LPE and its influence on disease severity and prognosis. Thirty-five dogs with LPE were recruited. Serum zinc concentration was measured using atomic absorption spectrometry. Hypozincemia was observed in 18/35 (51%) dogs with LPE. Serum zinc concentration was inversely correlated with histological and clinical severities. Overall survivals were significantly shorter in dogs with hypozincemia than in those without it. These findings suggest that serum zinc concentration is a useful biomarker for LPE severity and prognosis in dogs.

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  • Seiya MAEHARA, Naoya MATSUMOTO, Naoaki TAKIYAMA, Yoshiki ITOH, Yasunar ...
    Article ID: 19-0639
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: April 14, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    A twenty-year-old male Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus) presented at the Rakuno Gakuen University Animal Medical Center with a 10-year history of bilateral blindness and cataracts. Surgical treatment of bilateral cataracts by extracapsular lensextraction using phacoemulsification and aspiration (PEA) was performed under general anesthesia. An anterior capsulectomy was performed using micro iris scissors and micro anterior lens capsule forceps. The cataract was removed with PEA using the two-handed technique. After surgery, systemic corticosteroids, anti-inflammatory drugs and antibiotics were administered. After cataract removal, the bear had recovered vision, and good quality vision has been maintained to date (15 months). PEA can be a safe and effective treatment for cataracts that impair vision in bears.

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  • Yoshitsugu OCHIAI, Yuko YOSHIKAWA, Takashi TAKANO, Makoto MORI, Ryo HO ...
    Article ID: 19-0360
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: April 09, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    A Japanese resident bird, Phalacrocorax carbo hanedae (Japanese name: Kawa-u), was threatened with extinction due to deterioration of its habitat in the 1970s, but the population has since recovered thanks to environmental protection measures. This study analyzed the genetic diversity of 18 Kawa-u individuals living in the basins of the Abe and Warashina rivers in Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan. We obtained seven haplotypes of mitochondrial D-loop sequences and compared them with 49 European P. carbo D-loop haplotypes. We identified four new haplotypes but no clear genetic evidence distinguishing the Kawa-u as a distinct subspecies of P. carbo. Our results suggest the need for further surveillance of the P. carbo genetic lineage, regardless of the geographical distribution.

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  • Harumichi ITOH, Shimpei NISHIKAWA, Kenji TANI, Hiroshi SUNAHARA, Munek ...
    Article ID: 19-0373
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: April 09, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are promising cell sources for regenerative medicine due to the simplicity of their harvest and culture; however, their biological properties are not completely understood. Moreover, recent murine and human studies identified several functional subpopulations of ADSCs varying in differentiation potential; however, there is a lack of research on canine ADSCs. Cystine transporter (xCT) is a stem cell marker in gastric and colon cancers that interacts with CD44 to enhance cystine uptake from the cell surface and subsequently accelerates intercellular glutathione levels. In this study, we identified a ~5% functional subpopulation of canine ADSCs with xCT+ expression (xCTHi). Compared with those of the xCT subpopulation (xCTLo), the xCTHi subpopulation showed a significantly higher proliferation rate, higher expression of conventional stem cell markers (SOX2, KLF4, and c-Myc), and higher expression of adipogenic markers (FABP4 and PPARγ). By contrast, the xCTLo subpopulation showed significantly higher expression of osteogenic markers (BMP1 and SPP) than xCTHi cells. These results suggest xCT as a candidate marker for detecting a functional subpopulation of canine ADSCs. Mechanistically, xCT could increase the adipogenic potential while decreasing the osteogenic differentiation potential, which could serve as a valuable target marker in regenerative veterinary medicine.

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