Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Online ISSN : 1347-7439
Print ISSN : 0916-7250
ISSN-L : 0916-7250
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Displaying 1-47 of 47 articles from this issue
  • Takuya MATSUMOTO, Shigeaki OKUMURA, Satoshi HIRATA
    Article ID: 22-0238
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: August 09, 2022
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    This study aimed to apply radar technology to a large quadruped animal. We first developed a non-contact respiration measurement system using millimeter-wave array radar for a horse in standing position. Specifically, we measured the respiration of a stationary domestic horse in stables. Simultaneously, we measured the respiration rate using infrared thermography and developed a method for analyzing the radar information while verifying the rate of agreement. Our results suggested that the radar technology detected breathing and accurately measured the respiration of a horse, despite variation in the breathing frequency. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to apply a non-contact respiration measurement system using millimeter-wave array radar has been applied to large animals in an upright position, thereby demonstrating its potential application in animal husbandry and welfare.

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  • Akihisa HATA, Masaaki OCHI, Kayo FURUMOTO, Noboru FUJITANI
    Article ID: 22-0278
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: August 08, 2022
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    Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in blood is measured using the Japanese Society of Clinical Chemistry (JSCC) method in Japan and the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC) method in other countries. In human clinical practice, the IFCC method replaced the JSCC method due to international standardization. Moreover, veterinary LDH measurement will also eventually shift to the IFCC method. However, the relationship between the IFCC and JSCC methods for LDH in various animals and whether they can be equated or not have not yet been investigated. This study aimed to present the changes in measurements in canines and felines after switching to the IFCC method. The plasma LDH activity of canines (N=177) and felines (N=115), who visited a secondary care veterinary clinic, was measured using the JSCC and IFCC methods. The IFCC/JSCC ratio was <1.0 in 85% of canines and 88% of felines, indicating that the IFCC method tended to show lower values than the JSCC method, presumably because LDH5 is dominant among the LDH isozymes in canines and felines. The increase in the systematic errors of both assays was in the high value range, with some samples exceeding the error tolerance from near the upper end of the reference range. When switching to the IFCC method for LDH measurement in canines and felines, each institution should consider whether the reference range and clinical diagnostic values established by the JSCC method are appropriate for continued use.

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  • Atsunori YAMAMOTO, Tomoko KODAMA, Kosuke OTANI, Muneyoshi OKADA, Hidey ...
    Article ID: 22-0301
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: August 08, 2022
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    Chemerin is an adipocytokine whose concentration in blood correlates positively with blood pressure (BP). We have recently revealed that acute intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of chemerin-9, an active fragment of human chemerin, increased systemic BP in normal Wistar rats, suggesting that chemerin is involved in the central nervous control of peripheral BP. After secreted as an inactive form as prochemerin, a mature form of active chemerin is produced through the cleavage of its carboxyl (C)-terminus by proteases. Although the activity of cleaved products of chemerin has been extensively examined in vitro, in vivo effects remained to be elusive. In order to explore them, we performed acute i.c.v. injection of mouse chemerin-9 (mChemerin-9; 148F-156S), mouse chemerin-8 (mChemerin-8; 148F-155F), and mouse chemerin-7 (mChemerin-7; 148F-154A) into Wistar rats, and examined the effects on systemic BP. After chemerin fragment (1-30 nmol/head, i.c.v.) was cumulatively administered, systemic BP was measured by a cannulation method under an isoflurane anesthesia. mChemerin-9 but not mChemerin-8 and -7 induced a pressor response, which was concentration-dependent. In conclusion, we for the first time demonstrated that mChemerin-9 that corresponds to the C-terminal nine amino acids of active mouse chemerin156S increased systemic BP in rats, and also that chemerin fragments showed different effects on systemic BP dependent on how their C-terminus was cleaved.

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  • Yuki ANDO, Dai ISHIYAMA, Hideshige SHIMIZU, Natsumi ENDO, Tomomi TANAK ...
    Article ID: 22-0249
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: August 05, 2022
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    Changes in the C-reactive protein (CRP) and 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-prostaglandin F (PGFM) concentrations of uterine lavage fluid were examined in cows given an intrauterine povidone-iodine (PI) infusion. The mean polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) ratios (the ratio of PMN to total cells) and CRP concentration of uterine lavage fluid on the day after the treatment were significantly (P<0.05) greater in the PI infusion group (PMN: 53.0 ± 32.7%, CRP: 50.2 ± 32.3 ng/mL) than in the non-treatment control group (PMN: 7.9 ± 21.9%, CRP: 17.2 ± 5.9 ng/mL), whereas there was no significant difference in the mean PGFM concentration between the two groups. The present findings suggest that the uterine CRP level is a useful biomarker of local uterine inflammation in cows.

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  • Parnian AHMADI, Mahmoud BAAKHTARI, Masahiro YASUDA, Nariaki NONAKA, Ay ...
    Article ID: 22-0136
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: August 04, 2022
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    Intestinal coccidiosis caused by Eimeria protozoan species is an economically important disease, especially in poultry and cattle. Anti-coccidial drugs commonly used for controlling coccidiosis are toltrazuril (TTZ) and diclazuril (DCZ). In this study, the efficacies of TTZ and DCZ were compared using a murine model, and the effect of these treatments on the induction of acquired resistance was evaluated. Male C57BL/6J mice were inoculated with 1,000 sporulated E. vermiformis oocytes and treated with TTZ or DCZ. The recommended TTZ dose for cattle (15 mg/kg) completely prevented oocyte excretion. But, mice required 5 mg/kg of DCZ, which is five times the recommended dose for cattle, to reduce oocyte excretion. In E. vermiformis re-infection, TTZ (15 mg/kg) and DCZ (5 mg/kg) treatments did not interfere with the development of acquired resistance. Bodyweight gain was significantly higher in the TTZ-treated group than in the control (untreated/infected) group and the DCZ-treated group, and no significant difference in bodyweight gain was observed between the TTZ-treated group and the healthy (uninfected/untreated) group. Analysis of T lymphocyte subsets in the spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes indicated that the relative populations of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were reduced in the DCZ-treated and control (untreated/infected) groups, suggesting there was immunosuppression during the infection. However, no reductions in T cell populations were observed in the TTZ-treated group. The results indicated that an optimal anti-coccidial drug is one that can completely break the parasite life cycle in the host animal.

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  • Yosuke SASAKI, Yoshihiro IKI, Tomoaki ANAN, Jun HAYASHI, Mizuho UEMATS ...
    Article ID: 22-0178
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: August 03, 2022
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    The present study assessed the economic loss due to treatment of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in Japanese Black calves that were introduced to a backgrounding operation from the age of 3 to 4 months until the age of 10 months. The data collected from a backgrounding operation in Miyazaki, Japan included the records of 2,690 animals entering the farm from 2013 to 2018. The treatment duration was defined as the number of days from the beginning to end of treatment. The cost of treatment was defined as the total cost of treatment during the treatment duration. The average incidence of BRD was 54.6%, and the relative frequency of calves that had BRD once, twice, and three or more times until they left the farm was 64.4%, 26.8%, and 8.8%, respectively (total recorded diagnoses of BRD: 2,494). Among the 2,494 recorded diagnoses, the average and median duration of treatment of BRD was 5.9 days and 3.0 days, respectively. The average and median cost of treatment was 7,767 and 5,600 Japanese yen, respectively. A prolonged duration of treatment and high cost of treatment were associated with BRD relapse, steers, and early stage of production (P<0.05). At the studied farm, the total cost of treatment during the 6-year study period was 19,658,988 yen, and the annual cost was approximately 3 million yen. In summary, the present study showed that BRD had a large economic impact in this backgrounding operation.

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  • Ho-Seong CHO, Ul-Soo CHOI, Yeonsu OH
    Article ID: 21-0347
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: August 02, 2022
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    A 3-year-old female Miniature Schnauzer dog with a week-long history of generalized intention tremor and progressive weight loss for several months was admitted. Mild anemia, fever, splenomegaly, aseptic cerebral meningitis and systemic lymph nodes enlargement were examined through erythrogram, ultrasonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Mycobacterium bovis was identified via molecular microbiology having the same molecular type as that of isolates from a cattle farm previously identified. However, the dog was raised in a city. The M. bovis had multidrug resistance (MDR)-bearing mutations in both katG and rpoB genes toward first-line antibiotics. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing an MDR M. bovis infection of a dog in Korea.

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  • Akiyo HAGIWARA, Asami NISHIMORI, Shinichi HATAMA, Osamu MIKAMI, Yoshih ...
    Article ID: 21-0607
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: August 01, 2022
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    We examined a 26-month-old steer with neoplastic lesions in the spleen, lymph nodes, heart and kidneys, characterized by pleomorphic lymphoid cells that were immunohistochemically positive for CD20. The presence of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) at >200,000 copies per 100,000 cells by quantitative RT-PCR was considered to be due to random integration of the provirus into the neoplastic cells´ genomes. Inverse PCR identified the presence of one, two, two and three different malignant clones in the heart, spleen, mesenteric node and blood, respectively. Because BLV can rapidly induce lymphoma and a high proviral load facilitates B-cell carcinogenesis, multiclonal tumor development was suspected in the present case.

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  • Shoji OGAWA, Tamaki YANA, Tomohiro KONDO, Toshiya OKADA
    Article ID: 22-0025
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: August 01, 2022
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    Changes in body weight (BW), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and localization of renin in the kidneys of neonates born to normal mothers (C neonates) or to five-sixths (5/6) nephrectomized (2/3 left kidney and right kidney) mothers (Nx neonates) were studied. Maternal 5/6 nephrectomy caused weight loss in neonates but no differences in SBP or renin localization. Culling Nx neonates to a litter of 3 at 1 day after birth resulted in growth catching up with C neonates from 3 weeks old and increases in both SBP and renin-positive cells in neonatal kidney. These findings revealed that maternal 5/6 nephrectomy results in low-birth-weight neonates and that these neonates are at increased risk of metabolic syndrome by catch-up growth.

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  • Dai HASEGAWA, Keisuke AOSHIMA, Kazuyoshi SASAOKA, Atsushi KOBAYASHI, M ...
    Article ID: 22-0144
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: July 29, 2022
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    A 12-year and 3-month spayed female mixed cat was presented with severe lumbar pain. Magnetic resonance imaging and postmortem examination revealed a swollen lesion in the spinal cord at L3 level. Histologic examination identified extensive neoplastic cell proliferation with massive necrosis in the tumor tissue. Two types of neoplastic cells were recognized. One type of neoplastic cells were large cells characterized by round to polygonal shape and abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm (referred to as “large cells”). The other neoplastic cells were small, densely proliferated, and had round to irregular shape and scant eosinophilic cytoplasm (referred to as “small cells”). Both types of cells were positive for oligodendrocyte transcription factor 2 and SRY-box transcription factor 10. Glial fibrillary acidic protein was positive in large cells but negative in most small cells. Digital analysis for Ki-67-stained tumor tissues found that total 21.1% ± 6.5% of tumor cells were positive for Ki-67. Based on these findings, we diagnosed malignant oligoastrocytoma in the spinal cord.

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  • Mitsuhiro IKEDA, Hirotaka KONDO, Yuka EHARA, Kazuo GOTO, Hisashi SHIBU ...
    Article ID: 22-0267
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: July 29, 2022
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    A central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps) presented with periorbital swelling and exophthalmos. A retrobulbar mass was detected, and enucleation with the mass was performed. Histologically, the mass was composed of a dense sheet and interlacing bundles of round to polygonal to short spindle-shaped cells with occasional bizarre mononuclear and multinucleated giant cells. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells had various degrees of membranous and/or cytoplasmic granular reactivity to anti-ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 and anti-CD204 antibodies. Ultrastructurally, the neoplastic cells had irregular nuclei and abundant cytoplasm with membrane-bound electron-dense lysosomes and endoplasmic reticula. These findings were consistent with a histiocytic sarcoma. The present study provided a detailed description of retrobulbar histiocytic sarcoma for the first time in a central bearded dragon.

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  • Kaori SHIMIZU, Hiroshi TAKASE, Ayaka OKADA, Yasuo INOSHIMA
    Article ID: 22-0158
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: July 27, 2022
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    Parapoxvirus (PPV) causes papular stomatitis and contagious pustular dermatitis in ruminants worldwide. The virus is generally transmitted through close contact with skin lesions containing PPV in infected animals and indirectly through PPV-contaminated materials. PPV-infected animals frequently do not show clinical signs and the route of PPV transmission is sometimes unclear. In this study, the possibility of mechanical transmission of PPV by houseflies (Musca domestica) was investigated using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) gene surveillance. Samples were collected from cattle, sheep, barn environments, direct wash solution of the body surface of houseflies, and indirect wash solution of the body surface and feces of the flies. Bovine papular stomatitis virus, pseudocowpox virus, and orf virus were detected in the oral cavity and body surface of cattle and sheep without clinical signs of PPV infection or barn environments; PPV was considered to have been retained on the farm. PPVs were also detected in the direct wash solution of the body surface of houseflies, and the indirect wash solution of the body surface and feces of the flies. The viral sequence determined from the indirect wash solution of the body surface and feces of the flies was identical to that determined from the body surface of cattle and barns. These results suggested that houseflies may mechanically transmit PPV to both cattle and sheep.

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  • Atsushi NAKA, Atsushi HINENOYA, Sharda Prasad AWASTHI, Shinji YAMASAKI
    Article ID: 22-0213
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: July 27, 2022
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    Escherichia albertii has recently been recognized as a zoonotic enteropathogen associated with food-poisoning. The reservoirs and transmission routes of this bacterium to humans are still unclear. In this study, we performed a survey of E. albertii in fecal specimens of wild and safeguarded animals in Okayama Prefecture and its prefectural borders, Japan to understand its reservoir in the environment. Forty-two E. albertii were isolated from 10 and 31 droppings of 59 crows and 125 starlings, respectively. Fifty-two E. albertii were isolated from 906 mammal droppings, and out of 52 isolates, origin of 33, 6 and 1 isolates were from martens, foxes, and rabbit, respectively, however, origin of 12 isolates remained unknown. Three E. albertii were isolated from two and one feces of 159 dogs and 76 cats, respectively. Pulsed-filed gel electrophoresis analysis grouped 97 E. albertii strains into 66 pulsotypes including 36 and 30 pulsotypes of isolates from mammals and birds, respectively. E. albertii strains isolated in this study were genetically diverse. Although clonal relationship was not observed between mammal and bird isolates, there were intra- and inter-species relationship in mammalian isolates. All E. albertii strains were positive for eae and Eacdt virulencegenes. Furthermore, 20 and 7 strains also carried Eccdt-I and stx2f genes, respectively. Taken together, the results indicate that genetically diverse and potentially virulent E. albertii are distributed among various wild and safeguarded animals in Okayama Prefecture, and the animals could also be reservoirs of E. albertii.

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  • Emi TANIGUCHI, Ayumi HATTORI, Kaito KUROGI, Yukihiro HISHIDA, Fumiko W ...
    Article ID: 22-0125
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: July 26, 2022
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    l-Ornithine is known to stimulate growth hormone (GH) release in mammals. Here, we demonstrated that increases in plasma GH levels after oral administration of l-ornithine were first observed 150 min after administration, and the elevated levels were sustained for more than 90 min in mice. The increase was significantly delayed compared with the reported timing of plasma and tissue levels of l-ornithine after administration. The l-ornithine-induced increase in GH release was completely blocked by [D-Lys3]-GHRP-6, a ghrelin receptor antagonist, but not by cyclosomatostatin or JV-1-38, antagonists of somatostatin and GH-releasing hormone, respectively. These results suggest the involvement of ghrelin receptor-mediated pathways in l-ornithine-induced increases in GH release.

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  • Federica POLI, Maurizio CALISTRI, Valentina MEUCCI, Gianfranco DI GENN ...
    Article ID: 22-0210
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: July 26, 2022
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    Intervertebral disc extrusion associated with extensive epidural hemorrhage (DEEH) is a well-documented pathological condition in veterinary medicine. This retrospective study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and clinical features of DEEH in a population of French Bulldogs affected by intervertebral disc extrusion (n=75), compare the findings with those from a group of Dachshunds (n=98) and identify possible predictive factors of DEEH and outcomes in surgically treated patients. The study showed that the prevalence of DEEH observed in Dachshunds (11.2% [95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.7–19.2%]) was significantly lower than that observed in French Bulldogs (41.3% [95% CI: 30.1–53.3%]). The multiple logistic regression model highlighted that the patients presenting with an acute onset of clinical signs (>24 hr) (odds ratio [OR]: 13.08; 95% CI: 4.63–37.03, P=0.00), presence of clinical signs progression (OR: 5.04; P=0.01), and French Bulldogs (OR: 5.15; 95% CI: 1.71–15.54, P=0.00) were at increased risk of developing DEEH. Secondary analysis showed that patients with DEEH were at an increased risk of being non-ambulatory at discharge (OR: 3.43; P=0.017). Overall, the surgically treated patients had favorable outcomes.

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  • Numfa FUNGBUN, Hiromitsu SASAKI, Ryota TERASHIMA, Takuya MURATA, Shuic ...
    Article ID: 22-0272
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: July 26, 2022
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    The expression of annexin A1 (ANXA1) is augmented by gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) in LβT2 gonadotroph. We examined the distribution of ANXA1 in the pituitary tissues and the effect of ovariectomy. ANXA1 was mainly stained on folliculostellate cell-like irregular shaped cells with extended process of adult female rats. Large gonadotroph, so called castration cells, appeared two weeks after the ovariectomy. ANXA1 in castration cells exists around cells although another GnRH responsive annexin, ANXA5, was apparent also in the cytoplasm. The pituitary expression of ANXA1 after ovariectomy was significantly higher than intact rats. These difference in tissue distribution of two annexins suggest ANXA1 and ANXA5 bear different physiological function in the gonadotroph under GnRH regulation.

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  • Masaru USUI, Yutaka TAMURA, Tetsuo ASAI
    Article ID: 22-0253
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: July 22, 2022
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    The emergence and spread of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria (ARB) and antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) are a global public health concern. ARB are transmitted directly or indirectly from animals to humans. The importance of environmental transmission of ARB and ARGs has recently been demonstrated, given the relationships between compost, livestock wastewater, insects, and wildlife. In addition, companion animals and their surrounding environments (veterinary hospitals and homes with companion animals) should be considered owing to their close relationship with humans. This review discusses the current status and future perspectives of ARB and ARGs in animal-breeding environments.

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  • Daisuke KONDOH, Ryoko ONO, Masashi YANAGAWA, Tatsuhiko GOTO
    Article ID: 22-0174
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: July 20, 2022
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    Although fancy caudae are important traits for chicken breeds, factors associated with their morphological diversity are not fully understood. We analyzed the caudal skeleton of the Tosa-jidori, Chabo, and Minohikichabo breeds with wild-type, erect, and rich caudae, respectively. Five of six Tosa-jidori chickens had four caudal vertebrae, whereas all six Chabo and five of six Minohikichabo chickens had five. The angle of the apex pygostyli with respect to the margo cranialis was significantly larger and smaller in Chabo and Minohikichabo than Tosa-jidori chickens, respectively. These findings indicated that the caudal skeleton is one of important factors for forming the characteristic traits of chicken breeds.

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  • Mizue INUMARU, Isao NISHIUMI, Kazuto KAWAKAMI, Yukita SATO
    Article ID: 22-0179
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: July 20, 2022
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    Widespread surveys of avian haemosporidia (Plasmodium, Haemoproteus, and Leucocytozoon) in wild birds have substantially advanced information on the haemosporidian fauna of Japan. However, many areas and bird species remain insufficiently investigated. Bird carcasses collected for personal specimen collection seldom reach academic audience particularly in the veterinary field. The presence of avian haemosporidia was investigated in these personally collected bird carcasses, in order to better understand the avian haemosporidian fauna in Japan. Bird carcasses were donated through personal contact upon approval of the study. Tissue samples were collected from the birds and examined for haemosporidian parasites using nested-PCR targeting the cytochrome b gene. 143 birds of 85 species were donated, including 34 species and two subspecies that were molecularly or collectively investigated for the first time in Japan. Avian haemosporidian DNA was detected from 37 of the 134 tested birds (27.61%). In 8 bird species, avian haemosporidia was detected for the first time. 29 lineages were detected, including 8 novel and 9 known lineages detected in Japan for the first time. Furthermore, 16 lineages were detected from novel host species. While information that could be drawn was limited and risk management of zoonotic diseases needs re-consideration, these findings expanded information on the host range and distribution of several lineages. Collectively, this method of investigation using personally collected bird samples can provide important additions to more fully understand the avian haemosporidian fauna of Japan, as well as other areas with limited investigations.

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  • Anne Marit VIK, Sayaka TSUCHIDA, Atsushi KOBAYASHI, Yuki AKIBA, Mei HA ...
    Article ID: 22-0189
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: July 20, 2022
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    Egg yolk from captive and wild Japanese rock ptarmigan were analyzed for fatty acid composition. Compared to commercially reared poultry species, the ptarmigan yolk samples displayed higher level of polyunsaturated fatty acids as opposed to monounsaturated fatty acids. The difference between the commercial controls and ptarmigan were larger than the difference between groups of ptarmigan, indicating that the fatty acid profile of Japanese rock ptarmigan might be partly attributed to genetic factors rather than feed, despite wild and captive birds having vastly different diets, and captive birds having been artificially bred for several generations.

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  • Tomomi KURUMISAWA, Takuya YAGISAWA, Yasunori SHINOZUKA, Kazuhiro KAWAI
    Article ID: 22-0108
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: July 19, 2022
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    In bovine mastitis, antimicrobial treatment is often initiated before the causative organism is identified a problem in the prudent use of antimicrobials. In this study, we aimed to reduce the total amount of antimicrobials used in mastitis treatment by administering glycyrrhizin, an anti-inflammatory drug, instead of antimicrobials at the onset of clinical mastitis without systemic symptoms, followed by symptom-based antimicrobial selection therapy (ST), to examine the effect of this treatment strategy on treatment outcomes and antimicrobial use. Comparisons between cases that received antimicrobial treatment starting from the day of diagnosis (blanket antibiotic therapy [BT] group: 33 cases) and cases that received ST starting from the day after the diagnosis (ST group: 57 cases) revealed no difference in the cure rate, milk withholding period, or recurrence rate. However, the ST group had a significantly lower amount of antimicrobials than the BT group. Additionally, a single administration of glycyrrhizin before ST significantly relieved the udder symptoms and reduced the antimicrobial amount when compared with cases without glycyrrhizin administration. Thus, a single administration of glycyrrhizin followed by ST can reduce the total antimicrobial use.

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  • Andhika Yudha PRAWIRA, Wartika Rosa FARIDA, Huda Salahudin DARUSMAN, S ...
    Article ID: 22-0227
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: July 18, 2022
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    The fatty acid composition in the skin of Sunda porcupine (Hystrix javanica) is an interesting topic due to the special features of quills, especially in the dorsal region. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the composition of fatty acids in the dorsal region of Sunda porcupine skin. It was conducted using skin samples of the thoracodorsal and lumbosacral regions taken by biopsies and from frozen specimens. The skin lipid was extracted and then derivatized into fatty acid methyl ester before analyzing with gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The results showed that the skin is composed of up to 25 fatty acids ranging from C12 to C25 with various types but only 16 were found in both regions and sexes. Fatty acids with an antibacterial effect were found abundantly, such as oleic, palmitic, stearic, and linoleic acids. The total abundance in the thoracodorsal region was higher than lumbosacral, while the composition in male was higher than in female. Based on the results, the fatty acid composition in the dorsal skin region of Sunda porcupine consists of at least 16 types ranging from C12–C25. Additionally, the region and sex were observed to contribute significantly to the variation in skin fatty acid composition.

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  • Myagmarsuren ODONCHIMEG, Dashzevge ERDENECHIMEG, Adiyasuren TUVSHINBAY ...
    Article ID: 22-0250
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: July 18, 2022
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    Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is a transboundary viral infectious disease in cattle caused by a Capripoxvirus. LSD has been recently introduced in some Asian countries. However, in Mongolia, no report of LSD is publicly available. We clinically examined LSD symptoms in 1,034 cattle from 4 soum (district) in Dornod province in Mongolia. Sixty-one cattle of them were confirmed with symptoms of LSD and then viral P32 gene was detected by a PCR. The overall prevalence of LSD in cattle was 5.9%. Females odds ratios (OR) = 2.27 than males, adults (>2.5-years-old, OR = 3.68) than young (1–2.5-years-old) and calves (<1-year-old) were at higher risks for LSD cases in Mongolia, while locations near the tube well and pond water are major risk areas for viral transmission due to density of insects often is high. For virus isolation, skin nodule tissue samples of 4 cattle located in four distinct soums were used for viral propagation using the MDBK cell line. Internal terminal repeat region and RPO30 gene of 4 Mongolian isolates were amplified and sequenced. In the phylogenetic trees, Mongolian LSDVs (2021) were clustered together with the Chinese (2020) and Vietnamese isolates (2020). This is the first report alarming the LSD outbreak in Mongolia that was confirmed by our study. The newly isolated viruses would be a useful base for developing diagnostic tools and inactivated vaccine technology. A large-scale study of LSD is next priority for establishing successful control strategy of further disease outbreak.

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  • Dah-Renn FU, Tsuyoshi KADOSAWA
    Article ID: 22-0106
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: July 15, 2022
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    The expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) has been reported in human nasopharyngeal and canine nasal carcinomas. The present study measured EGFR and COX-2 expression and calculated correlations between these proteins and clinical variables and outcomes in dogs with nasal carcinoma treated with radiation therapy. Before treatment, the immunohistochemistry of EGFR and COX-2 was performed in 67 biopsied tissues from canine nasal carcinomas. The correlations between these protein levels, clinical variables, and outcomes were evaluated. EGFR and COX-2 were detected in 88.1% and 82.1% of our samples, respectively. Neither EGFR nor COX-2 was associated with T stage and cribriform plate destruction. Dogs with low EGFR levels had a significantly longer survival time than dogs with high EGFR expression (P=0.043). The COX-2 expression level was not significantly associated with survival times after radiation therapy (P=0.653). Overexpression of EGFR is negatively correlated with survival in dogs with nasal carcinoma. Future studies should identify tumor biomarkers to develop therapeutic targets for effective treatments for canine nasal carcinomas.

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  • Masato KIKUCHI, Takuma OKABE, Hideshige SHIMIZU, Takashi MATSUI, Fuko ...
    Article ID: 21-0672
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: July 14, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The use of antimicrobial agents in food-producing animals may lead to the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria of animal origin. However, there is a paucity of data on the quantity of antimicrobials use on dairy farms in Japan. This study describes antimicrobial use on dairy farms from 1 January 2014 to 31 December 2016 in five administrative districts (central, eastern, western, southern and northern) of Chiba Prefecture. The use of antimicrobial agents in dairy cattle over these three years was evaluated in terms of the antimicrobial treatment incidence (ATI; theoretical number of animals per 1,000 animal-days subjected to antimicrobial treatment) using data collected from a total of 442 dairy farms in that prefecture. Our results revealed that the average ATI on these farms for these years ranged from 38.7 to 39.4 with no significant difference between years and that the average ATI for these administrative districts varied between 32.9 and 43.2 with a significant variation between some of the districts. Approximately 84% of antimicrobials were administered intramammarily, 13–14% by injection and 1–2% orally. Scenario analyses were performed to assess the effect of changes in some of the defined daily dose (DDDjp) values used to calculate the ATI. Our results revealed that the calculated ATI is considerably affected by the changes in the long-acting factor used for assigning the DDDjp values of intramammary products for dry cows and the way in which DDD values are assigned for combination products.

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  • Takafumi TOMIYASU, Hiroshi MORI, Katsunori OKAZAKI
    Article ID: 22-0169
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: July 14, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is the causative agent of enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL), of which annual number has rapidly increased in Japan, and it can be divided into two categories based on the amino acid at position 233 in the Tax protein. Here, we conducted a nationwide surveillance of Japanese Black cattle between 2008 and 2021 in Japan. Among 237 tumor samples, 131 (55.3%) and 101 (42.6%) were harbored L233- and P233-Tax, respectively. Onset of EBL under the age of 3 years by L233-Tax-carrying BLV was frequently observed, especially in the animals born via embryo transfer. We also found that L233-Tax-carrying BLV was more prevalent in dairy areas than non-dairy areas. These findings give insight into prevention of EBL.

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  • Ju-Bin KANG, Phil-Ok KOH
    Article ID: 22-0119
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: July 13, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Ischemic stroke is a severe neurodegenerative disease with a high mortality rate. Retinoic acid is a representative metabolite of vitamin A. It has many beneficial effects including anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and neuroprotective effects. The purpose of this study is to identify specific proteins that are regulated by retinoic acid in ischemic stroke. Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was performed to induce focal cerebral ischemia. Retinoic acid (5 mg/kg) or vehicle was injected intraperitoneally into male rats for four days prior to MCAO operation. Neurobehavioral tests were performed 24 hr after MCAO and the cerebral cortex was collected for proteomic study. Retinoic acid alleviates neurobehavioral deficits and histopathological changes caused by MCAO. Furthermore, we identified various proteins that were altered by retinoic acid in MCAO damage. Among these identified proteins, adenosylhomocysteinase, isocitrate dehydrogenase [NAD+] subunit α, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, Rab GDP dissociation inhibitor β, and apolipoprotein A1 were down-regulated in MCAO animals with vehicle treatment, whereas retinoic acid treatment alleviated these reductions. However, heat shock protein 60 was up-regulated in MCAO animals with vehicle, while retinoic acid treatment attenuated this increase. The changes in these expressions were confirmed by reverse transcription-PCR. These proteins regulate cell metabolism and mediate stress responses. Our results demonstrated that retinoic acid attenuates the neuronal damage by MCAO and regulates the various protein expressions that are involved in the survival of cells. Thus, we can suggest that retinoic acid exerts neuroprotective effects on focal cerebral ischemia by modulation of specific proteins.

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  • Federica TIRRITO, Francesca COZZI, Martina BONALDI, Stefania CORAZZO, ...
    Article ID: 22-0134
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: July 12, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The objective of this study was to calculate lateral ventricles dimension in Cavalier King Charles Spaniel dogs with Chiari-like malformation and investigate the association between ventriculomegaly and signalment, clinical signs, ventricular asymmetry, grade of Chiari-like malformation, syringomyelia and index of medullary kinking. Retrospectively, 43 client-owned Cavalier King Charles Spaniels, older than 1 year of age, with magnetic resonance imaging diagnosis of Chiari-like malformation were enrolled. Initial and follow-up (up to 36 months) clinical status was graded. Images were reviewed to quantify the enlargement of lateral ventricles, evaluate ventricular symmetry, grade of Chiari-like malformation, grade of syringomyelia and medullary kinking index. Cases presenting epileptic seizures during the evaluation period were also recorded. The most common initial clinical signs were scratching and neck pain. Ventriculomegaly was identified in 70% of dogs, Chiari-like malformation grade 2 was observed in 77% of cases, ventricular asymmetry and syringomyelia were identified in 54% and 80% of dogs, respectively; the median medullary kinking index was 37.77%. Moreover, 28% of dogs presented epileptic seizures. No significant association was identified between dimension of lateral ventricles and signalment, clinical signs, and imaging findings; no significant association was identified between ventriculomegaly and epilepsy (P≥0.05). In conclusion, the prevalence of ventriculomegaly in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels is high but this finding does not seem related to the severity of clinical signs, presence of Chiari-like malformation, syringomyelia and craniocervical junction abnormalities such as medullary kinking.

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  • Kei KAWAMURA, Mina JIMBO, Keisuke ADACHI, Yuri SHIRANE, Masanao NAKANI ...
    Article ID: 21-0665
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: July 08, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Mammals exhibit several types of diel activity pattern, including nocturnal, diurnal, crepuscular, and cathemeral. These patterns vary inter- and intra-specifically and are affected by environmental factors, individual status, and interactions with other individuals or species. Determining the factors that shape diel activity patterns is challenging but essential for understanding the behavioral ecology of animal species, and for wildlife conservation and management. Using camera-trap surveys, we investigated the species distributions and activity patterns of terrestrial mammals on the Shiretoko Peninsula, Hokkaido, Japan, with particular focus on brown bears and sika deer. From June to October 2019, a total of 7,530 observations were recorded by 65 camera-traps for eight species, including two alien species. The diel activity pattern of brown bears was diurnal/crepuscular, similar to that of bears in North America, but different from European populations. Bear observations were more frequent during the autumnal hyperphagia period, and adult females and sub-adults were more diurnal than adult males. In addition, bears inside the protected area were more diurnal than those outside it. These findings suggest that appetite motivation, competitive interactions between conspecifics, and human activities potentially affect bear activity patterns. Similar to other sika deer populations and other deer species, the diel activity patterns of sika deer were crepuscular. Deer showed less variation in activity patterns among months and sex-age classes, while adult males were observed more frequently during the autumn copulation period, suggesting that reproductive motivation affects their activity patterns.

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  • Yoshimasa SASAKI, Kotaro AOKI, Yoshikazu ISHII, Yutaka TAMURA, Tetsuo ...
    Article ID: 22-0084
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: July 08, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The emergence and increasing prevalence of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) are a global concern. To investigate the prevalence and characteristics of sequence type 398 (ST398) MRSA in pig ears, 102 pig’s ears were collected from 102 animals shipped from 51 farms at an abattoir. Eight ST398 MRSA isolates were isolated from the ears of eight pigs shipped from seven farms. Of the eight ST398 isolates, seven had the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type IVd and these were obtained from seven pigs shipped from six farms. Single nucleotide polymorphisms ranging from 13 to 26 were observed in the core-genome regions in the seven SCCmec type IVd isolates. We believe that this is the first report on the isolation of ST398 MRSA SCCmec type IVd in Japan.

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  • Itsuro KAZAMA, Ryo KUWANA, Mizuki MUTO, Amu NAGANO, Ririka FUJIMURA, A ...
    Article ID: 22-0243
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: July 08, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Using bullfrog hearts, we previously reproduced a ST segment elevation in electrocardiogram (ECG), mimicking human ischemic heart disease. In the present study, by inducing subepicardial burn injuries on the inferior part of the frog heart ventricle, we could reproduce typical ECG changes observed in human inferior wall myocardial infarction, such as the marked elevation of the ST segments in inferior limb leads (II, III, aVF) and their reciprocal depression in the opposite limb leads (I, aVL). Due to the decrease in Na+/K+-ATPase protein expression, the resting membrane potential of injured cardiomyocytes shifted toward depolarization. Such induced electrical difference between the injured and intact cardiomyocytes was thought to be responsible for the creation of “currents of injury” and the subsequent ST segment changes.

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  • Dongze LENG, Shinji YAMADA, Yusuke CHIBA, Syuji YONEYAMA, Yusuke SAKAI ...
    Article ID: 22-0085
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: July 07, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) causes substantial economic losses in the livestock industry worldwide. Plasmids encoding the BVDV E2 protein are potential DNA vaccines against BVDV, but their immunogenicity has been insufficient. Here, we investigated the adjuvant effect of CD40 and CD63 plasmids on the immune responses to a BVDV E2 DNA vaccine in mice. We constructed pUMVC4a-based plasmids encoding the BVDV E2 protein (pE2), mouse CD40 (pCD40), or mouse CD63 (pCD63). Protein expression by each plasmid was confirmed through Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence staining of cultured cell lines. BALB/c mice were immunized intradermally twice with pE2 in combination with, or without, pCD40 or pCD63, with 3 weeks between the two doses. pE2 with pCD40 induced significantly higher neutralizing antibody titers against BVDV than pE2 alone. pE2 with pCD63 induced significantly higher anti-E2 IgG2a antibody titers than pE2 alone. Furthermore, pE2 with pCD40 or pCD63 induced significantly increased lymphocyte proliferation and interferon (IFN)-γ production in response to BVDV, compared with E2 alone. These results suggest that a plasmid encoding CD40 or CD63 can be used as an adjuvant to enhance immune responses to DNA vaccines against BVDV.

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  • Harunobu SAITO, Keisuke NAKAGAWA, Yuko KITAMURA, Keisuke KUWATA, Eiji ...
    Article ID: 22-0206
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: July 07, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is the causative agent of infectious bronchitis (IB) in chickens. There is a correlation between cross-protection and percentage of similarity between nucleotide sequences of the S1 protein, which is responsible for generating neutralizing and serotype-specific antibodies. Therefore, RT-PCR is commonly used to amplify the IBV-S1 gene following DNA sequencing in order to predict the efficacy of vaccines against IBV strains. We successfully enhanced the sensitivity for detection of the IBV-S1 gene by second PCR after purification of the 1st RT-PCR product. Using that method, we obtained detailed information on the prevalence of IBV on poultry farms in Gifu Prefecture, Japan. The IBV-S1 gene detection method used in the current study will enable accurate information on the prevalence of IBV in Japan to be obtained.

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  • Kango TATEMOTO, Milagros Virhuez MENDOZA, Keita ISHIJIMA, Yudai KURODA ...
    Article ID: 22-0255
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: July 06, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    In Japan, the first patient with severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome was reported in Yamaguchi in 2012. To understand the severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) infection in this region, a retrospective surveillance in sika deer and wild boar in Yamaguchi was conducted using a virus-neutralizing (VN) test. The result revealed that 510 of the 789 sika deer and 199 of the 517 wild boars were positive for anti-SFTSV antibodies. Interestingly, seroprevalence in sika deer increased significantly from 2010–2013 to 2015–2020. The SFTSV gene was detected in one of the 229 serum samples collected from sika deer, but not from wild boars. In conclusion, SFTSV had spread among wild animals before 2012 and expanded gradually around 2013–2015 in Yamaguchi.

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  • Konosuke OTOMARU, Takuro MIYAHARA, Hiroto SAITA, Shinya YAMAUCHI, Tomo ...
    Article ID: 22-0170
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: July 05, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of vitamin E supplementation on blood oxidative stress biomarker in weaned calves. Thirty clinically healthy 12 weeks of age Japanese Black calves were randomly assigned to two groups: 15 calves received 300 IU of vitamin E daily from 12 to 18 weeks of age (VE group), and the other 15 calves did not receive the vitamin E (control group). Blood samples were taken at 12, 14, 16, 18, and 20 weeks of age. The concentration of serum reactive oxygen metabolites at 20 weeks of age were significantly lower in the VE group than those in the control group. Vitamin E supplementation to weaned calves might affect blood oxidative stress.

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  • Chih-Chiang WANG, You-Liang LI, Po-Yen CHIU, Chun CHEN, Hung-Che CHEN, ...
    Article ID: 21-0671
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: July 04, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Corni fructus is consumed as food and herbal medicine in Chinese culture. Studies have revealed thatcorni fructus exhibits potent antioxidant activity; however, few studies have investigated the ability of corni fructus to lower uric acid concentrations. In this study, the xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibition and uric acid–lowering effect of corni fructus extract (CFE) were evaluated in mice with potassium oxonate–induced hyperuricemia. Hyperuricemia is a chronic disease prevalent worldwide and is associated with high recurrence rates. In addition, drugs used to treat hyperuricemia induce side effects that discourage patient compliance. Hyperuricemia induces metabolic imbalances resulting in accumulative uric acid deposition in the joints and soft tissues. Hyperuricemia not only induces gout but also interrupts hepatic and renal function, thereby trigging severe inflammation and various complications, including obesity, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, diabetes, and metabolic diseases. In this study, the ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) of CFE resulted in yields of antioxidant photochemical components significantly higher than those of CFEs formed using other substances. The EAF of CFE exhibited high free radical scavenging activity and XO inhibition and effectively lowered uric acid concentrations in the animal model of chemically induced hyperuricemia. The results of this study can serve as a reference for the prevention of preclinical gout as well as for functional food research.

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  • Takumi KOMIYA, Akihiro MORI, Naohito NISHII, Hitomi ODA, Eri ONOZAWA, ...
    Article ID: 2-0345
    Published: 2021
    Advance online publication: March 05, 2021
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    A 5-year-old castrated male domestic shorthair cat was diagnosed with diabetic ketoacidosis and severe insulin resistance. Although the conventional treatment for diabetic ketoacidosis was provided, the cat required frequent hospitalization because of severe dehydration and repeated diabetic ketoacidosis. We detected anti-insulin antibodies for human in this cat. Serum insulin-binding IgG levels were markedly elevated compared with those in healthy cats and other diabetic cats. We initiated prednisolone to suppress the effects of anti-insulin antibodies. After initiation of prednisolone, the cat was gradually recovered with increasing activity and appetite. Furthermore, satisfactory glycemic control was achieved with combined subcutaneous injection of insulin detemir and insulin degludec.

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  • Linjie LI, Xiaoling SHI, Derong ZHANG, Xin CAO, Amjad ALI, Jialin BAI
    Article ID: 20-0487
    Published: 2020
    Advance online publication: November 13, 2020
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
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  • Mario DOLERA, Luca MALFASSI, Simone PAVESI, Sara FINESSO, Giovanni MAZ ...
    Article ID: 16-0077
    Published: 2017
    Advance online publication: November 15, 2017
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Atlanto-axial (AA) instability due to ligament insufficiency is a common cause of cervical spinal cord compression in toy breeds. However, in some dogs a difference in size between the atlas and the axis leads to joint incongruence that exacerbates AA subluxation and makes surgical treatment challenging. Twelve dogs with AA instability with incongruence were enrolled in a single institution prospective observational study. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the AA joint were compared to a retrospectively reviewed control group. A novel surgical approach consisting of a dorsal internal fixation technique was performed in six dogs. For affected dogs, the mean normalised difference between the dorso-ventral atlas canal and the dorso-ventral axis canal was 29.67% (median of 35.07%, standard deviation 25.64%), while in normal dogs a mean difference of 4.67% (median of 3.95%, standard deviation 5.21%) was observed. On MRI, 12/12 affected dogs had spinal cord compression, which was classified as reducible (3/12), partially reducible (6/12) and non-reducible (3/12). In surgically operated dogs, follow-up CT showed a partial or complete reduction of the previous spinal cord compression with a consistent amelioration or resolution of the presenting complaints. The proposed surgical technique was safe and effective in dogs with partially or completely reducible spinal cord compression.

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  • Mohamed ABDO, Khaled SHOGHY, Yoshinao Z. HOSAKA, Tomohiro IMAGAWA, Saf ...
    Article ID: 14-0225e
    Published: 2014
    Advance online publication: August 20, 2014
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    This article released online on July 30, 2014 as advance publication has been retracted by the Editorial Board of Journal of Veterinary Medical Science due to a violation of the journal’s “Information for Authors”.
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  • Mohamed ABDO, Khaled SHOGHY, Yoshinao Z. HOSAKA, Tomohiro IMAGAWA, Saf ...
    Article ID: 14-0225
    Published: 2014
    Advance online publication: July 30, 2014
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    This article has been retracted by the Editorial Board of Journal of Veterinary Medical Science due to a violation of the journal's “Information for Authors”.
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  • Article ID: 13-0051e
    Published: 2013
    Advance online publication: November 30, 2013
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    This article released online on August 9, 2013 as advance publication was withdrawn from consideration for publication in The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science at author's request.
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  • Hui LI, Guoquan WU, Jiancheng LI, Shusheng TANG, Xilong XIAO, Yanan XU ...
    Article ID: 13-0051
    Published: 2013
    Advance online publication: August 09, 2013
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    This article released online on August 9, 2013 as advance publication was withdrawn from consideration for publication in The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science at author's request.
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  • Article ID: 11-0339e
    Published: 2012
    Advance online publication: December 25, 2012
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    This article released online on September 26, 2012 as advance publication was withdrawn from consideration for publication in The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science at author's request.
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  • Farhad SAFARPOOR DEHKORDI
    Article ID: 11-0580e
    Published: 2012
    Advance online publication: November 01, 2012
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    This article released online on August 3, 2012 as advance publication was withdrawn from consideration for publication in The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science at author’s request.
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  • Seyedhosein JAROLMASJED, Saeed KOLAHIAN
    Article ID: 11-0339
    Published: 2012
    Advance online publication: September 26, 2012
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    This article released online on September 26, 2012 as advance publication was withdrawn from consideration for publication in The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science at author's request.
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  • Farhad SAFARPOOR DEHKORDI
    Article ID: 11-0580
    Published: 2012
    Advance online publication: August 03, 2012
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    This article released online on August 3, 2012 as advance publication was withdrawn from consideration for publication in The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science at author's request.
    Download PDF (273K)
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