Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Online ISSN : 1347-7439
Print ISSN : 0916-7250
ISSN-L : 0916-7250
Advance online publication
Displaying 1-30 of 30 articles from this issue
  • Takashi MADA, Asami UMEDA, Akira KODAMA, Daisuke TAKAMATSU
    Article ID: 24-0086
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: July 12, 2024
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    Clostridium sp. was detected in the organs of a cow with black watery diarrhea in Japan. Results identifying this species were inconsistent; Clostridium novyi type A infection was suggested by PCR assay targeting Clostridium fliC region (fliC-multiplex PCR), while 16S rRNA gene sequencing identified the isolated bacteria as Clostridium massiliodielmoense. Sequencing of fliC-multiplex PCR products from the isolates revealed the presence of fliC region in C. massiliodielmoense, which had 92.7% nucleotide similarity to that of C. novyi type A JCM 1406T, leading to the false positive detection of C. novyi by the PCR. This is the first C. massiliodielmoense isolation from clinical specimens, suggesting the need for further research on its pathogenicity and improvement in fliC-multiplex PCR.

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  • Sawa ONOUCHI, Tomoki YOSHIDA, Shouichiro SAITO, Yasuro ATOJI
    Article ID: 24-0182
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: July 09, 2024
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    We examined the relationship between inherited motor-related conformation and orientation of facial hair whorls in Japanese Kiso horses. Eleven horses were divided into clockwise, counterclockwise, and radial groups according to facial hair whorls. We placed six markers on anatomical landmarks of each lateral side in a horse and measured the height of the landmarks, the distance between adjacent landmarks, and the angle of the adjacent landmarks. In the counterclockwise group, the horses tended to exhibit higher values on the left side than on the right side, and the comparison of the height of landmarks revealed a significant difference between both sides. Therefore, the orientation of facial hair whorls may suggest the tendency of motor-related conformation, at least in counterclockwise group.

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  • Emi FUJII, Hotaka HASHIMOTO, Shin-ichiro FUKUMOTO, Naoyuki MAEDA, Yasu ...
    Article ID: 24-0057
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: July 08, 2024
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    Cattle mange causes extreme itchiness, and the associated stress is an animal welfare concern that leads to economic losses due to decreased cattle productivity and deworming costs. This study investigated the reason why Chorioptic mites, C. bovis and C. texanus, preferentially infest the tail root region (rTR) and performed histological and biochemical analysis focusing on the volatile components of host odors that serve as the starting point for infestation of parasitic arthropods. Skin samples were taken from the rTR, lateral abdominal, and central masseteric, with the latter two designated as comparison sites. The two and three-dimensional histological analysis measured each sebaceous and sweat gland percentage per unit volume. The q-PCR analyzed the expression levels of ALDH1A1 and LOC785756, which are genes associated with volatile odoriferous compounds that serve as repellency and attractive messengers for ticks. Immunohistochemistry stained three sites with anti-androgen binding protein beta-like (ABPβ-like), encoded by LOC785756, antibody. The three-dimensional analysis showed that sebaceous glands in the rTR tend to be more continuous and existed in larger masses than in other regions. The expression level of LOC785756 was significantly higher in the rTR, and immunohistochemistry revealed the presence of ABPβ-like in the sebaceous gland with strong positive signals in the rTR. These results suggest that C. bovis/texanus selectively infests the rTR because that skin has well-developed sebaceous glands, including a large amount of ABPβ-like, which acts as a mite attractant.

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  • Chiho KUSHIDA, Norihisa TAMURA, Yoshinori KASASHIMA, Kota SATO, Katsuh ...
    Article ID: 24-0161
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: July 08, 2024
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    In equine regenerative medicine using bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (BM-MSC), the importance of the quality management of BM-MSC has been widely recognized. However, there is little information concerning the relationship between cellular senescence and the stemness in equine BM-MSC. In this study, we showed that stemness markers (NANOG, OCT4, SOX2 and telomerase reverse transcriptase) and colony forming unit-fibroblast apparently decreased accompanied with incidence of senescence-associated β-galactosidase-positive cells by repeated passage. Additionally, we suggested that down-regulation of cell proliferation in senescent BM-MSC was related to increased expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2B (CDKN2B). On the other hand, forced expression of NANOG into senescent BM-MSC brought upregulation of several stemness markers and downregulation of CKDN2B accompanied with restoration of proliferation potential and osteogenic ability. These results suggested that expression of NANOG was important for the maintenance of the stemness in equine BM-MSC.

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  • Honoka NOJO, Sanae A ISHIJIMA, Mako MORIKAWA, Takaaki ITO, Rui KANO
    Article ID: 24-0032
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: June 25, 2024
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    Phytochemicals isolated from essential oils are effective alternatives for inhibiting microbial pathogens. Bovine protothecal mastitis is the cause of a reduction in milk production and the secretion of thin, watery milk with white flakes. In the present study, we performed in vitro susceptibility testing of the phytochemicals carvacrol, citral, and thymol in Prototheca strains isolated from cases of protothecosis in small animals and cow feces. The susceptibility of the algae to carvacrol, citral, and thymol was assessed using the modified CLSI M27-A3 broth microdilution method. The ranges of the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC%) of the phytochemicals in all isolates were 0.03% to 0.125% for carvacrol, 0.03% to 0.25% for citral, and 0.06% to 0.25% for thymol. Based on these results, carvacrol, citral, and thymol appear effective against Prototheca species at the tested concentrations, and may thus be useful for environmental disinfection in barns.

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  • Tomoya MORITA, Naohiro UCHIDA, Mayu KIMURA
    Article ID: 24-0004
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: July 03, 2024
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    Left ventricular dysfunction in dogs after the administration of doxorubicin (DOX) has been extensively examined. However, the effects of DOX on right ventricular (RV) function remain unknown. Therefore, the present study investigated whether the chemotherapy treatment with DOX decreases RV function. Twelve dogs (five with multicentric lymphoma, four with hemangiosarcoma, two with thyroid cancer, and one with lung adenocarcinoma) that received at least two doses of DOX were prospectively enrolled. Echocardiography and the measurement of troponin I were performed prior to each administration of DOX and approximately one month after the last administration. Right ventricular function was assessed by the RV fractional area change and RV Tei index. Two (n=4), three (n=3), four (n=3), and five (n=2) doses of DOX were administered. While no significant differences were observed in the RV fractional area change, the RV Tei index was significantly impaired after two doses of DOX. Troponin I level significantly increased after four doses. Cumulative doses of DOX correlated with the RV Tei index (r=0.77, P<0.001). The present results demonstrated that the chemotherapy treatment with DOX decreased RV function in a dose-dependent manner in dogs.

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  • Orkhon BANZRAGCHGARAV, Nanang R ARIEFTA, Rika UMEMIYA-SHIRAFUJI, Punsa ...
    Article ID: 24-0090
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: July 03, 2024
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    The present study is focused on evaluating acaricidal activity and chemical compositions of Erigeron acer root, which was identified as a promising candidate among fifteen Mongolian plant extracts tested for acaricidal activity. The acaricidal effect was evaluated against Haemaphysalis longicornis, assessed for toxicity to normal human skin fibroblast, and analyzed for its chemical constituents. The acetone extract of E. acer root showed significant activity against H. longicornis, with a lethal concentration (LC50) of 5.31 mg/mL and low toxicity, evidenced by a cytotoxic concentration (CC50) of 267.00 µg/mL. Using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and molecular networking, thirteen natural compounds were identified, including pyrrolidines, alkaloids, fatty acids, and flavonoids, highlighting the efficacy of E. acer root extract as an effective acaricide against H. longicornis and offering insights for developing new tick control solutions.

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  • Kio YOSHIDA, James K CHAMBERS, Kei ITO, Hidehiro HIRAO, Kazumi NIBE, K ...
    Article ID: 24-0181
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: July 02, 2024
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    In the present study, histopathological and immunohistochemical findings of olfactory ganglioneuroblastoma in a dog were compared to those of canine olfactory neuroepithelia and neuroblastomas. Olfactory ganglioneuroblastoma consists of ganglion cell-like tumor cells with Schwannian stroma and neuroblast-like tumor cells. Immunohistochemically, ganglion cell-like tumor cells were immunopositive for synaptophysin, β3-tubulin, and tyrosine hydroxylase, Schwannian stroma was immunopositive for GFAP and SOX2, and neuroblast-like tumor cells were immunopositive for OLIG2, β3-tubulin, SOX2, cytokeratin AE1/AE3, and p63. The immunohistochemical results of olfactory neuroepithelia and olfactory neuroblastomas were similar to those of neuroblast-like tumor cells. These results suggest that the ganglion cell-like tumor cells in the present case have a sympathetic neuron immunophenotype, whereas neuroblast-like tumor cells have an olfactory neuroepithelial immunophenotype.

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  • Noriyuki MIYAHO, Manabu MOCHIZUKI, Muneki HONNAMI
    Article ID: 24-0038
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: July 01, 2024
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    An 8-year-old Portuguese Water Dog presented with a 5-month history of left forelimb lameness. There was palmar pain. Ultrasonography revealed enlargement of the left median nerve. Subsequent MRI also showed enlargement of the median nerve in the distal palmar to the mid-forearm region. Rapid intraoperative diagnosis suggested Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) and a neurotomy was performed. The lameness had almost disappeared in 1 month after surgery. Recurrence occurred 26 months postoperatively and the forelimb was amputated. At 950 days after the neurotomy, radiography revealed lung metastasis, and the dog died 988 days after the neurotomy. Neurotomy for MPNST should be performed with caution until more information is available regarding methods for early detection, margin determination, and indication determination for neurotomy.

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  • Keiko YAMAMOTO, Nobuyuki KASHIWAGI, Mika OTSUKA, Tatsuya HORI
    Article ID: 23-0523
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: June 27, 2024
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    In this study, we examined the usefulness of a simpler and more feasible method for determining the optimal timing of artificial insemination and the conditions for its success in six female common bottlenose dolphins. Pregnancy was successfully achieved in five dolphins by performing intrauterine insemination, using chilled semen stored for less than 3 days or frozen semen within 24 hr of exhibiting a peak serum estradiol (E2) level of 100 pg/mL or higher or on the day with a serum E2 level of approximately 100 pg/mL, measured with a simple measuring device. We concluded that the determining the optimal timing of intrauterine insemination by measuring serum E2 levels is a simpler and more useful method compared with the conventional approach.

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  • Mio KOBAYASHI, Keisuke TAKESUE, Tetsuhito KIGATA, Natsumi KOBAYASHI, S ...
    Article ID: 24-0069
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: June 27, 2024
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    Sarcocystis spp. cause pigeon protozoan encephalitis, a neuronal disease. A female pigeon exhibiting torticollis had a necrotic area in the cerebral hemisphere surrounded by lesions with perivascular cuffing, gliosis, granulomatous foci, and meningitis. Non-necrotic lesions were also observed in the brainstem. Intact and degenerative schizonts were observed within the neuropils and neurons in the lesions. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was extracted from paraffin-embedded brain tissues and genetically analyzed after gel electrophoresis to determine Sarcocystis spp. using specific primer sets for 28S ribosomal ribonucleic acid and internal transcribed spacer region-1. DNA sequencing confirmed a significant homology with S. calchasi. This is the first report of meningoencephalitis with malacia caused by S. calchasi in a rock pigeon in Japan.

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  • Yongsun KIM, Byung-Jae KANG
    Article ID: 24-0141
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: June 27, 2024
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    This retrospective case study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of collagen matrix (DuraGen®) in preventing subcutaneous emphysema, a common complication following dorsal rhinotomy. Six client-owned dogs diagnosed with nasal masses using computed tomography were included in this study. Dorsal rhinotomy was performed, and a collagen matrix was used to seal bone defects before fixation of the nasal bone flap. Following collagen matrix application, all dogs recovered without notable complications. These findings suggest that the collagen matrix is a reliable and safe intervention for mitigating subcutaneous emphysema after dorsal rhinotomy.

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  • Donghwi SHIN, Yoocheol JEONG, Seongchan YEON, Inhyung LEE, Won-gyun SO ...
    Article ID: 23-0436
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: June 25, 2024
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    Laparoscopic ovariectomy under general anesthesia was planned in a 10-year-old, 146 kg, apparently healthy female African lion (Panthera leo). The lion was immobilized via intramuscular darts containing midazolam (0.033 mg/kg), medetomidine (50 µg/kg) and ketamine (2.5 mg/kg), and intubated using an endotracheal tube (16 mm internal diameter). The anesthesia was maintained using sevoflurane (0.9–2.1% end-tidal concentration), in combination with remifentanil (0.1 µg/kg/min) and ketamine (11 µg/kg/min) at a constant rate infusion (CRI), with Hartmann’s solution (5 mL/kg/hr). Surgery was conducted with stable vital signs, but hypotension (mean arterial blood pressure 55 mmHg) developed, requiring dobutamine treatment. The hypotension was effectively controlled by adjusting dobutamine from 5 µg/kg/min to 0.2 to 0.3 µg/kg/min. This case suggests possibilities that dosages in this range can be clinically useful for peri-anesthetic hypotension in lions.

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  • Kei NAKAJIMA, Kazufumi KASUYA, Hironobu SENBA, Katsunori TAGAMI, Yuta ...
    Article ID: 23-0342
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: June 18, 2024
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    Strangles is a globally widespread, commonly diagnosed and important infectious disease of equids caused by Streptococcus equi subsp. equi. We performed whole genome sequencing of 19 S. equi isolates collected from imported horses at the Japanese border. Of these isolates, 15 isolates were obtained from clinical cases and 4 were from subclinical cases. The 19 isolates were grouped into 3 Bayesian analysis of population structure (BAPS) groups by the core genome single nucleotide polymorphism analysis corresponding to exporting country, SeM typing, or exporter of the horses. The 19 isolates possessed same pathogenic genes regardless of clinical status in imported horses and no antimicrobial resistance genes. The disease status of the horses may rather reflect the prior exposure of animals with sub-clinical infection to S. equi.

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  • Mizuki KUSUMOTO, Haruka NARITA, Tomoki MOTEGI, Kazuki HARADA
    Article ID: 24-0197
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: June 18, 2024
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    One of the most significant research areas in veterinary medicine is the search for carbapenem substitutes for the treatment of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacterales (ESBL-E). This study applied a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) strategy in validating optimal latamoxef (LMX) therapeutic regimens against canine ESBL-E infections. Five dogs were administered a bolus dose of 40 mg/kg LMX intravenously to measure serum drug concentrations and determine PK indices using the noncompartmental model. The highest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) with a probability of target attainment ≥90% was used to compute the PK/PD cutoff values for bacteriostatic (time for which the unbound drug concentration was above the MIC [fTAM] ≥40%) and bactericidal (fTAM ≥70%) effects when administered at 20, 30, 50, and 60 mg/kg, in addition to 40 mg/kg. The cumulative fraction of response (CFR) was determined using the MIC distribution of wild-type ESBL-E in companion animals. The PK/PD cutoff values can be increased by reducing the dosing interval rather than increasing the dose per time. Based on the calculated CFRs for ESBL-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, all LMX regimens in this study and those administered at 30–60 mg/kg every 8 and 6 hr were found to be optimal (CFR ≥90%) for exerting bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects, respectively. However, the regimens of 50 and 60 mg/kg every 6 hr may merely exert bacteriostatic effects on ESBL-producing Enterobacter cloacae. Further clinical trials are required to confirm the clinical efficacy of LMX.

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  • Sakuya INANAGA, Hiroshi SHIMODA, Masaya IGASE, Hirotaka KONDO, Iori KO ...
    Article ID: 23-0426
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: June 14, 2024
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    The African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) is known to have a high incidence of tumor. However, investigating the tumors of this species has been constrained by the limited availability of research materials such as cell lines and genome information. In this study, we successfully established a novel cell line from a histiocytic sarcoma (HS) of an African pygmy hedgehog, allowing us to conduct a drug screening. We investigated using FDA-approved drug library screening to determine which anticancer drug this tumor cell line is sensitive to, and as a result of apoptosis experiments, bortezomib among the three proteasome inhibitors was found to induce cell death of cancer cells by significantly increasing caspase-3 cleavage (P<0.01). Thus, we elucidated that the proteasome inhibitors, particularly bortezomib, exhibit anti-tumor effects on a cell line derived from an HS in an African pygmy hedgehog through a mechanism comparable to that described in human tumors. This study reports the first characterized cell line from the African pygmy hedgehog and also highlights the potential utility of bortezomib as an anti-tumor treatment for HS in this species.

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  • Mihyun CHOI, Namsoon LEE
    Article ID: 23-0451
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: June 14, 2024
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    A 2-year-old castrated Russian Blue cat presented with inappetence, depression, and labored respirations. Radiography findings suggested left lung atelectasis; however, the ultrasonography findings did not indicate lung atelectasis. The left pulmonary artery (PA) was abnormally small on echocardiography; further, there were no other cardiac anomalies. Computed tomography revealed an abnormally small left PA and left lung. Furthermore, bronchiectasis and tree-in-bud patterns were observed in the lung lobes. Based on these findings, the cat was diagnosed with isolated left PA hypoplasia, presumed left lung hypoplasia, and feline chronic bronchial disease. Early diagnosis of this disease is important because it can cause serious complications, including recurrent respiratory infection, bronchiectasis, massive hemoptysis, and pulmonary hypertension.

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  • Ryo MATSUMURA, Daisuke KOBAYASHI, Kyo ITOYAMA, Haruhiko ISAWA
    Article ID: 24-0124
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: June 14, 2024
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    Coltiviruses, belonging to the genus Coltivirus within the family Spinareoviridae, are predominantly tick-borne viruses. Some of these species have been implicated in human diseases; however, their diversity, geographical distribution, and evolutionary dynamics remain inadequately. Therefore, this study was undertaken to explore the phylogenetic evolution of coltiviruses and related viruses. Our results revealed the detection of novel coltivirus-related sequences in adult female Haemaphysalis megaspinosa ticks collected from Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. Molecular phylogenetic analysis revealed a close association between the sequences and the genome sequences of known coltivirus-related viruses, namely Qinghe tick reovirus and Fennes virus. The putative coltivirus-related virus was tentatively designated the Nakatsu tick virus. This study provides insights into the phylogenetic evolution of coltiviruses and related viruses.

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  • Ren KIMURA, Reeko UEDA, Hisashi TSUJIMURA, Takeshi BAN, Atsushi TANAKA
    Article ID: 24-0023
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: June 07, 2024
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    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is highly prevalent in domestic cats. This study aimed to compare urinary D-amino acid levels between control and CKD-afflicted cats as a novel noninvasive method for assessing CKD.Cats were divided into control and CKD stage II groups in accordance with the International Renal Interest Society guidelines. The urinary DL-amino acid levels of the cats were analyzed using chiral tandem liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and their medical records were investigated. The CKD group had considerably lower urinary D-amino acid concentrations and enantiomeric ratios than the control group. The total urinary D-amino acid contents significantly correlated with blood parameters (creatinine and urea nitrogen). These findings may contribute towards the detection of CKD stage II in domestic cats.

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  • Takumi KOMIYA, Akihiro MORI, Naohito NISHII, Hitomi ODA, Eri ONOZAWA, ...
    Article ID: 2-0345
    Published: 2021
    Advance online publication: March 05, 2021
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    A 5-year-old castrated male domestic shorthair cat was diagnosed with diabetic ketoacidosis and severe insulin resistance. Although the conventional treatment for diabetic ketoacidosis was provided, the cat required frequent hospitalization because of severe dehydration and repeated diabetic ketoacidosis. We detected anti-insulin antibodies for human in this cat. Serum insulin-binding IgG levels were markedly elevated compared with those in healthy cats and other diabetic cats. We initiated prednisolone to suppress the effects of anti-insulin antibodies. After initiation of prednisolone, the cat was gradually recovered with increasing activity and appetite. Furthermore, satisfactory glycemic control was achieved with combined subcutaneous injection of insulin detemir and insulin degludec.

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  • Linjie LI, Xiaoling SHI, Derong ZHANG, Xin CAO, Amjad ALI, Jialin BAI
    Article ID: 20-0487
    Published: 2020
    Advance online publication: November 13, 2020
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  • Mario DOLERA, Luca MALFASSI, Simone PAVESI, Sara FINESSO, Giovanni MAZ ...
    Article ID: 16-0077
    Published: 2017
    Advance online publication: November 15, 2017
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Atlanto-axial (AA) instability due to ligament insufficiency is a common cause of cervical spinal cord compression in toy breeds. However, in some dogs a difference in size between the atlas and the axis leads to joint incongruence that exacerbates AA subluxation and makes surgical treatment challenging. Twelve dogs with AA instability with incongruence were enrolled in a single institution prospective observational study. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the AA joint were compared to a retrospectively reviewed control group. A novel surgical approach consisting of a dorsal internal fixation technique was performed in six dogs. For affected dogs, the mean normalised difference between the dorso-ventral atlas canal and the dorso-ventral axis canal was 29.67% (median of 35.07%, standard deviation 25.64%), while in normal dogs a mean difference of 4.67% (median of 3.95%, standard deviation 5.21%) was observed. On MRI, 12/12 affected dogs had spinal cord compression, which was classified as reducible (3/12), partially reducible (6/12) and non-reducible (3/12). In surgically operated dogs, follow-up CT showed a partial or complete reduction of the previous spinal cord compression with a consistent amelioration or resolution of the presenting complaints. The proposed surgical technique was safe and effective in dogs with partially or completely reducible spinal cord compression.

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  • Mohamed ABDO, Khaled SHOGHY, Yoshinao Z. HOSAKA, Tomohiro IMAGAWA, Saf ...
    Article ID: 14-0225e
    Published: 2014
    Advance online publication: August 20, 2014
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    This article released online on July 30, 2014 as advance publication has been retracted by the Editorial Board of Journal of Veterinary Medical Science due to a violation of the journal’s “Information for Authors”.
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  • Mohamed ABDO, Khaled SHOGHY, Yoshinao Z. HOSAKA, Tomohiro IMAGAWA, Saf ...
    Article ID: 14-0225
    Published: 2014
    Advance online publication: July 30, 2014
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    This article has been retracted by the Editorial Board of Journal of Veterinary Medical Science due to a violation of the journal's “Information for Authors”.
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  • Article ID: 13-0051e
    Published: 2013
    Advance online publication: November 30, 2013
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    This article released online on August 9, 2013 as advance publication was withdrawn from consideration for publication in The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science at author's request.
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  • Hui LI, Guoquan WU, Jiancheng LI, Shusheng TANG, Xilong XIAO, Yanan XU ...
    Article ID: 13-0051
    Published: 2013
    Advance online publication: August 09, 2013
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    This article released online on August 9, 2013 as advance publication was withdrawn from consideration for publication in The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science at author's request.
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  • Article ID: 11-0339e
    Published: 2012
    Advance online publication: December 25, 2012
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    This article released online on September 26, 2012 as advance publication was withdrawn from consideration for publication in The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science at author's request.
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  • Farhad SAFARPOOR DEHKORDI
    Article ID: 11-0580e
    Published: 2012
    Advance online publication: November 01, 2012
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    This article released online on August 3, 2012 as advance publication was withdrawn from consideration for publication in The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science at author’s request.
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  • Seyedhosein JAROLMASJED, Saeed KOLAHIAN
    Article ID: 11-0339
    Published: 2012
    Advance online publication: September 26, 2012
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    This article released online on September 26, 2012 as advance publication was withdrawn from consideration for publication in The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science at author's request.
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  • Farhad SAFARPOOR DEHKORDI
    Article ID: 11-0580
    Published: 2012
    Advance online publication: August 03, 2012
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    This article released online on August 3, 2012 as advance publication was withdrawn from consideration for publication in The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science at author's request.
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