Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Online ISSN : 1347-7439
Print ISSN : 0916-7250
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Showing 1-50 articles out of 62 articles from Advance online publication
  • Luca OMINI, Stefano MARTIN, Adolfo Maria TAMBELLA
    Article ID: 16-0483
    [Advance publication] Released: February 20, 2018
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    The purpose of this study was to describe and assess the feasibility of a new intra-articular approach in the treatment of cranial cruciate ligament deficiency in dogs using an artificial ligament and a new bone-anchor system. Twelve canine cadavers weighting 26 to 45 kg were used in this ex-vivo study. Special tibial and femoral screws, two helicoils, and a high resistance artificial fiber compose the implant. Surgery was performed using the mean cranio-lateral approach to the stifle joint. Helicoil and tibial screw, connected to the fiber, were inserted in the center of the tibial insertion area of the cranial cruciate ligament. The fiber was passed over-the-top, tensioned, and fixed to the femoral screw, previously inserted with the helicoil in the distal part of the femur. Surgery was completed in all the cases. Occasional problems found during the insertion of the helicoils and screws were resolved with simple procedures. Post-operative clinical assessment showed negative cranial drawer test, negative cranial tibial thrust, and normal range of motion. Radiographic evaluation showed an appropriate positioning of both tibial and femoral implants in all the cases. The results of the first surgical appraisal of this new technique are encouraging, although further studies are necessary to demonstrate the in vivo efficacy of this procedure.

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  • Chunguo LIU, Fei LIU, Zhigang LI, Liandong QU, Dafei LIU
    Article ID: 17-0444
    [Advance publication] Released: February 20, 2018
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    Feline bocavirus (FBoV) is a newly identified bocavirus of cats in the family Parvoviridae. A novel FBoV HRB2015–LDF was first identified from the cat with severe enteritis in Northeast China, with an overall positive rate of 2.78% (1/36). Phylogenetic and homologous analysis of the complete genome showed that FBoV HRB2015–LDF was clustered into the FBoV branch and closely related to other FBoVs, with 68.7–97.5% identities. And the genes of VP1, NPA and NS1 shared 70.7–97.6%, 72.4–98.6%, and 67.2–98.0% nucleotide identities with other FBoVs, respectively. The results suggested that the FBoVs could be divided into two distinct lineages, and the difference of nucleotide identities was >20–30% between the lineages.

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  • Ning JIANG, Enyu WANG, Donghua GUO, Xin WANG, Mingjun SU, Fanzhi KONG, ...
    Article ID: 17-0581
    [Advance publication] Released: February 20, 2018
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    Recently, parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) infection has been increasingly reported in mammals. In this study, five PIV5 strains were isolated from diarrhea-affected piglets from four provinces or municipalities in China. A F-gene-based phylogenetic tree indicated that the five isolated strains were closely related to the PIV5 strain ZJQ-221 from a lesser panda in China, and the PIV5 strain 1168-1 from a dog in South Korea. The new isolates differed genetically from other pig, calf, rhesus macaque kidney cells, human, and dog PIV5 reference strains. Our study reveals the presence of PIV5 in intestinal tissue samples collected from diarrhea-affected piglets, and provides novel information regarding the epidemiology and tissue tropism of PIV5.

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  • Seung-Il YANG, Jung-Hyun KIM, Soon-Wuk JEONG, Hyun-Jung HAN
    Article ID: 17-0633
    [Advance publication] Released: February 20, 2018
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    A one-year-old male Golden Retriever presented with acute onset of vomiting and hemorrhagic diarrhea since 2 days. The dog was depressed, showing abdominal pain, 12% dehydration, tachycardia, and a bounding pulse. Diagnostic imaging showed severe dilatation and fluid retention of the entire gastrointestinal tract with decreased motility. A foreign body was found in the gastroduodenal region, but there was no obstruction or plication. The dog was tentatively diagnosed with acute hemorrhagic diarrhea syndrome and rapidly recovered after supportive treatment. However, on the morning of day 4, anorexia and vomiting recurred, and diagnostic imaging revealed intestinal plication with free peritoneal fluid, not found on the previous image. An emergency laparotomy revealed the foreign body to be two used feminine hygiene products. These contaminated products were suspected to induce acute hemorrhagic diarrhea syndrome, and led to subsequent complication in this large dog.

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  • Mari INOHANA, Ayumi EGUCHI, Misato NAKAMURA, Rei NAGAHARA, Yosuke WATA ...
    Article ID: 17-0644
    [Advance publication] Released: February 16, 2018
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    We describe a case of choroid plexus carcinoma arising in the cerebrum of a 7-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rat. The tumor mass occupied the right lateral ventricle of the cerebrum. Histological analyses revealed that the epithelial tumor cells had proliferated in tubular, cribriform, papillary and solid growth patterns in the vicinity of the choroid plexus, with slight invasion into the cerebrum parenchyma. We divided the tumor cells into cuboidal, elongated and intermediate cells. Immunohistochemical studies showed that these tumor cells expressed relatively high levels of cytokeratin AE1/AE3, vimentin and glial fibrillary acidic proteins, and low levels of nestin, oligodendrocyte transcription factor and doublecortin proteins. The present case was diagnosed as a choroid plexus carcinoma with neuronal and glial differentiation.

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  • Nobuhide KIDO, Sohei TANAKA, Yuko WADA, Sumito SATO, Tomoko OMIYA
    Article ID: 17-0069
    [Advance publication] Released: February 15, 2018
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    To treat dental disorders and estimate age, it is important that veterinarians understand teeth eruption sequence for the animal in question. Few dental images of the eastern grey kangaroo have been published. In the present study, radiographic imagings of 29 kangaroos, ranging in age from 12 months to 10 years 9 months, was used to surveil the replacement of premolars and the eruption of molars. These images revealed eruption patterns in five stages, while the second and third deciduous premolars were shed non-systematically. Furthermore, the third premolars and fourth molars erupted in the mandible earlier than in the maxilla, which may contribute to the frequency of mandibular dental disorders.

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  • Haruo HASHIMOTO, Masafumi YAMAMOTO, Emika SUGIURA, Hayato ABE, Takahir ...
    Article ID: 17-0641
    [Advance publication] Released: February 14, 2018
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    Expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α was investigated in adiponectin knockout mice to elucidate the relationship between PPARα and adiponectin deficiency-induced diabetes. Adiponectin knockout (Adp–/–) mice were generated by gene targeting. Glucose tolerance test (GTT), insulin tolerance test (ITT), and organ sampling were performed in Adp–/– mice at the age of 10 weeks. PPARα, insulin, triglyceride, free fatty acid (FFA), and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) were analyzed from the sampled organs. Adp–/– mice showed impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance. Additionally, PPARα levels were decreased and plasma concentration of triglyceride, FFA, and TNFα were increased. These data may indicate that insulin resistance in Adp–/– mice is likely caused by an increase in concentrations of TNFα and FFA via downregulation of PPARα.

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  • Shotaro NAKAGUN, Josué DÍAZ-DELGADO, Kátia R. GROCH, Yoshiyasu KOBAYAS ...
    Article ID: 17-0691
    [Advance publication] Released: February 14, 2018
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    The occurrence of accessory spleens in cetacean species is high yet confirmed reports of intrapancreatic accessory spleen, a congenital malformation, remain undescribed. The current study provides the gross, microscopical, histochemical and immunohistochemical features of an intrapancreatic accessory spleen in a harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena). Grossly, a 17 × 18 × 9 mm well-demarcated, dark brown to red mass expanded the left pancreatic lobe. Microscopically, this mass consisted of mature splenic tissue interspersed with exocrine pancreatic acini. Intrapancreatic accessory spleens should be considered in the list of differential diagnoses for intrapancreatic nodular lesions in cetaceans.

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  • Sorawot SONTHIPET, Sakchai RUENPHET, Kazuaki TAKEHARA
    Article ID: 17-0599
    [Advance publication] Released: February 12, 2018
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    An acidic agent, potassium monopersulfate (PMPS), was evaluated for bactericidal and virucidal effects against Salmonella Infantis (SI), Escherichia coli, rifampicin-resistant Salmonella Infantis (SI-rif), Newcastle disease virus (NDV), and avian influenza virus (AIV), in the absence or presence of organic materials. In addition, inactivation activity toward a virus on virus-spiked clothes was also examined. PMPS could inactivate SI, E. coli, and SI-rif even in the presence of organic materials under various concentrations and exposure/contact time conditions. PMPS could also inactivate NDV and AIV. In addition, PMPS could inactivate AIV on a virus-spiked rayon sheet. In conclusion, the present study showed that PMPS has good antimicrobial properties against SI, E. coli, SI-rif, NDV, and AIV when used at the optimal dosage and exposure timing. These results suggest that PMPS could be used as an alternative disinfectant for biosecurity enhancement in animal farms or hospitals.

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  • Azimun NAHAR, Sharda Prasad AWASTHI, Noritoshi HATANAKA, Kentaro OKUNO ...
    Article ID: 17-0708
    [Advance publication] Released: February 12, 2018
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    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-Ec) in retail chicken meats in Japan. Fifty-six domestic and 50 imported (Brazil, n=36; United States, n=8; Thailand, n=6) chicken meat samples were analyzed. The 162 ESBL-Ec included 111 from 43 (77%) domestic samples and 51 from 26 (52%) Brazilian samples. Fifty-three and 30 of 111 and 51 ESBL-Ec from domestic and Brazilian chickens, respectively, were selected for ESBL genotyping. The blaCTX-M (91%), blaTEM (36%) and blaSHV (15%) genes were detected in ESBL-Ec isolated from domestic chickens, whereas blaCTX-M (100%) and blaTEM (20%) were detected in ESBL-Ec isolated from imported chickens.Among the blaCTX-M group, blaCTX-M-2 (45%) and blaCTX-M-1 (34%) were prevalent in domestic chicken isolates, whereas blaCTX-M-2 (53%) and blaCTX-M-8 (43%) were prevalent in imported chicken isolates. Domestic chicken isolates were mostly resistant to tetracycline (83%), followed by streptomycin (70%) and nalidixic acid (62%). Imported chicken isolates were resistant to streptomycin (77%), followed by nalidixic acid (63%) and tetracycline (57%). Notably, extensive multidrug resistance was detected in 60% (32/53) and 70% (21/30) ESBL-Ec from domestic and imported chickens, respectively. Virulence genes associated with diarrheagenic and extra-intestinal pathogenic E. coli were detected in ESBL-Ec isolated from domestic and imported chickens. These data suggest that ESBL-Ec in retail chicken meats could be a potential reservoir for antimicrobial resistance determinants and that some are potentially harmful to humans.

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  • Naoki YONEDA, Tadashi TAKADA, Tetsushi HIRANO, Shogo YANAI, Anzu YAMAM ...
    Article ID: 18-0014
    [Advance publication] Released: February 09, 2018
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    Although neonicotinoid pesticides are expected to have harmful influence on mammals, there is little animal experimental data to support the effect and mechanisms. Since acetylcholine causes the release of dopamine, neonicotinoids may confer a risk of developmental disorders via a disturbance in the monoamine systems. Male mice were peripubertally administered dinotefuran (DIN) referring to no observed effect level (NOEL) and performed behavioral and immunohistological analyses. In an open field test, the total locomotor activity was increased in a dose-dependent manner. The immunoreactivity of tyrosine hydroxylase in the substantia nigra was increased in DIN-exposed mice. These results suggest that exposure to DIN in peripubertal male mice causes hyperactivity and a disturbance of dopaminergic signaling.

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  • Masatoshi FUJIHARA, Yukino TAMAMURA, Hiroyuki TABUCHI, Kaho UEGAKI
    Article ID: 17-0122
    [Advance publication] Released: February 08, 2018
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    Disc immuno-immobilization is a simple method for typing the flagellar phase of Salmonellaenterica. We re-examined this method using commercial antisera, which contains the preservative sodium azide. Originally prepared motility agar activates bacterial motility and renders S. enterica resistant to sodium azide, resulting in the formation of immuno-immobilization lines around reactive immuno-discs. Though disc immuno-immobilization serves both serotyping and phase inversion, this method is insufficient for the strains in which phase variation rarely occurs. Here, we devised a novel immuno-disc phase inversion method, and all S. enterica strains tested were identically typed. These methods would drastically simplify the task of S. enterica typing in clinical laboratories.

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  • Yung Kun KIM, Eunok LEE, Jin Woo OH, Sung Yong HAN
    Article ID: 17-0441
    [Advance publication] Released: February 08, 2018
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    Sexual size dimorphism of craniomandibular morphology of the Eurasian otter Lutra lutra in South Korea was analyzed using linear measurements. In total, 32 skulls (18 males and 14 females) and 22 linear measurements (16 cranial and 6 mandibular measurements) were used. Our results showed statistically significant sexual dimorphism between male and female skull size. Multivariate analyses using the cranial and mandibular traits showed significant differences between the sexes, respectively. The most dimorphic trait was ectorbital breadth (EOB), and the EOB of the male was approximately 10% greater than that of the female. This type of sexual size dimorphism, in which males are generally larger than females, is a general pattern shown in family Mustelidae. Several researchers have suggested various hypotheses about the factors causing sexual size dimorphism, i.e., ‘resource partitioning model’ and ‘sex-specific pressure model.’ Our results are consistent with these hypotheses, and we suggest that these factors would have affected the sexual size dimorphism of the Eurasian otter in Korea.

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  • Shigefumi KISHIDA, Yuko KATO-MORI, Katsuro HAGIWARA
    Article ID: 17-0485
    [Advance publication] Released: February 08, 2018
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    The composition of the intestinal microbiota is related to the health and immune function of the host. Administration of antibiotics affects the composition of the intestinal microbiota. However, the effects of immune function on the composition of the intestinal microbiota are still unclear. In this study, we investigated the lymphocyte composition and determined the relationships between lymphocyte function and the intestinal microbiota following antibiotic treatment in mice. To change the composition of the intestinal microbiota, mice were treated with or without antibiotics. Analysis of intestinal microbiota was performed by metagenomic analysis targeting 16S rRNA. Lymphocyte subsets of splenocytes were measured by flow cytometry. For functional analysis of T cells, splenocytes were stimulated with concanavalin (Con A), and cytokine gene expression was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Firmicutes were predominant in the control group, whereas Bacteroidetes predominated in the antibiotic-treated group, as determined by metagenomic analysis. The diversity of the microbiota decreased in the antibiotic-treated group. Analysis of lymphocyte subsets showed that CD3+ cells decreased, whereas CD19+ cells increased in the antibiotic-treated group. All cytokine genes in splenocytes treated with Con A were downregulated in the antibiotic-treated group; in particular, genes encoding interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-13 significantly decreased. Taken together, these results revealed that changes in the composition of the intestinal microbiota by antibiotic treatment influenced the population of lymphocytes in splenocytes and affected the immune response.

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  • Danbee KWON, Jaehwan KIM, Hyeeun LEE, Byeol KIM, HyunHee HAN, HyunJu O ...
    Article ID: 17-0428
    [Advance publication] Released: February 06, 2018
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    This study aimed to demonstrate the higher accuracy and reproducibility of quantitative computed tomography (QCT) compared with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as a gold standard for measuring canine bone mineral density (BMD). Seven middle-aged beagle dogs underwent lumbar vertebral and bilateral femoral DXA and QCT scans. BMD (mg/cm2) was measured at the vertebral body from L2 to L6, femoral neck, and proximal and distal femoral diaphyses. The BMD values were measured 3 times and compared. The BMD value on QCT was higher than that on DXA for femoral BMD but not for vertebral BMD. The correlation was strong for the lumbar vertebrae (r=0.66) and was strongest for L3 (r=0.85). No correlation was found for the femoral neck (P=0.35), and only moderate correlations were found for the proximal and distal femoral diaphyses (r=0.43 and r=0.40, respectively). The limits of agreement were narrower for vertebral BMD than for femoral BMD, and L3 had the narrowest limits of agreement. The intraclass correlation (ICC) was higher for DXA than for QCT at all lumbar and femoral sites measured, but the ICC of QCT was higher than 0.7. In conclusion, L3 can be used to monitor changes in BMD, and relative values and sequential monitoring of femoral BMD can also be useful because of the high reproducibility of QCT measurements. QCT would be a useful technique for evaluation of BMD in veterinary practice.

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  • Le Ngoc NINH, Sirikachorn TANGKAWATTANA, Peerapol SUKON, Naoki TAKAHAS ...
    Article ID: 17-0480
    [Advance publication] Released: February 06, 2018
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    This study demonstrated the potential of using urea and urea fertilizer to neutralize formaldehyde (Fd) in chicken cadavers. Initially, in vitro Fd neutralization with various concentrations of urea solution (US) and urea fertilizer solution (UFS) was conducted; subsequently, 18% US and 27% UFS were selected for infusing into the formalinized chickens. The measurement at 48 hr after infusion showed that both solutions could effectively lower Fd in chicken cadavers to below a permissible exposure limit without affecting cadaveric and histological quality. In addition, neutralizing power of 18% US was approximately 1.3 times that of 27% UFS. This is the first demonstration of neutralizing potential of US and UFS against Fd both in vitro and in vivo.

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  • Masahiro TAKAHASHI, Tatsutoshi HONDA, Shingo HATOYA, Toshio INABA, Nor ...
    Article ID: 17-0607
    [Advance publication] Released: February 06, 2018
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    It is currently unclear how mechanical micro-vibration affects the in vitro culture of embryos in Japanese Black cow. In the experimental groups, immature oocytes and fertilized embryos were cultured using the micro-vibration culture system with the vibration set for 5 sec at intervals of 60 min and frequency of 20, 40, or 80 Hz, respectively, during in vitro maturation and in vitro development. Compared with the control group, the rate of blastocyst development significantly increased in the 40 Hz group. In addition, the number of blastocyst cells reduced significantly in the 80 Hz group. In conclusion, the development of blastocysts in cows is facilitated by providing moderate mechanical micro-vibration to immature oocytes and embryos during the in vitro maturation and in vitro development.

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  • Takayuki MINESHIGE, Kikumi OGIHARA, Junichi KAMIIE, Go SUGAHARA, James ...
    Article ID: 17-0647
    [Advance publication] Released: February 06, 2018
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    Canine squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) shows highly invasive and locally destructive growth. In animal models and human cancer cases, periostin plays a critical role in the enhancement of cancer growth; however, the mechanism of involvement in canine cancers remains unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the involvement of periostin in the pathophysiology of SCC in dogs. We examined the localization of periostin and periostin-producing cells in 20 SCC and three squamous papilloma specimens. Furthermore, we focused on transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, which was assumed to be an inducing factor of periostin, using culture cells. By immunohistochemistry, limited periostin expression in the stroma was observed in all squamous papillomas. In SCC, periostin protein diffusely expressed at the tumor invasion front of cancer growth. In situ hybridization revealed that periostin mRNA was expressed in the stromal fibroblasts in SCC. In vitro analysis determined that canine SCC cells expressed significantly higher levels of TGF-β1 mRNA compared with canine keratinocytes. In addition, recombinant TGF-β1 induced secretion of periostin from cultured dermal fibroblasts. These data suggest that periostin produced by stromal fibroblasts may be involved in the pathophysiology of canine SCC. TGF-β1 derived from SCC cells may stimulate fibroblasts to produce periostin.

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  • Fumitaka TAKAHASHI, Takaharu HAKOZAKI, Shigenori KOUNO, Shuji SUZUKI, ...
    Article ID: 17-0438
    [Advance publication] Released: February 05, 2018
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    We compared clinical outcomes after ventral fixation in dogs with atlantoaxial instability (AAI) on the basis of the presence or absence of atlantooccipital overlapping (AOO). Of 41 dogs diagnosed with AAI and treated ventral fixation, 12 exhibited AOO (AOO group), whereas 29 did not (non-AOO group). The AOO group had significantly higher neurological scores before (P=0.024) and 1 month after (P=0.033) surgery compared with the non-AOO group; however, no significant differences were observed between the groups 2 months after surgery. The presence of complicating AOO affected the clinical signs for dogs with AAI, but did not directly affect the outcome of surgical stabilization of AAI.

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  • Ryuji FUKUSHIMA, Toshiki ARAIE, Naoaki ITOU, Takae KAWAGUCHI, Shusaku ...
    Article ID: 17-0451
    [Advance publication] Released: February 05, 2018
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    A 14-year-old intact male West Highland White Terrier weighing 6.9 kg was admitted to the Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology Animal Medical Center with the complaint of syncope after showing signs of nausea during feeding. Sinus arrest induced by deglutition was confirmed using a Holter electrocardiography test. However, the clinical symptoms significantly improved after implantation of a permanent pacemaker. Seven months after implantation, the dog died from acute pancreatitis, a cause unrelated to the syncope. Immediately after its death, the heart, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, and other organs were dissected and examined histopathologically. The brain was also examined using magnetic resonance imaging. Examination results led to the diagnosis of swallowing-induced situational syncope.

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  • Rongchang LIU, Cuiteng CHEN, Yu HUANG, Longfei CHENG, Ronghui LU, Guan ...
    Article ID: 17-0452
    [Advance publication] Released: February 02, 2018
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    In total, 985 livers were collected from 275 backyard waterfowl farms distributed in seven provinces of southern China. The virus that was most commonly isolated was avian influenza virus, with a 12.1% positivity rate. Of the other positive samples, 10.6% tested positive for avian Tembusu virus, 6.8% for duck hepatitis A virus, 3.8% for duck plague virus, 3.4% for Muscovy duck parvovirus, 3.1% for goose parvovirus, 1.0% for mycoplasma, and 0.9% for respiratory enteric orphan virus. The bacterium that was most commonly isolated was Escherichia coli, with a 47.1% positivity rate. This survey suggests that backyard waterfowl in southern China could be an important vector for the storage, variation, and transmission of various pathogens.

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  • Khoirun NISA, Sue Yee LIM, Tatsuyuki OSUGA, Nozomu YOKOYAMA, Masahiro ...
    Article ID: 17-0525
    [Advance publication] Released: February 02, 2018
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    Quantitative contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) enables non-invasive and objective evaluation of intestinal perfusion by quantifying the intensity of enhancement on the intestine after microbubble contrast administration. During CEUS scanning, sedation is sometimes necessary to maintain animal cooperation. Nevertheless, the effect of sedative administration on the canine intestinal CEUS is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effect of sedation with a combination of butorphanol and midazolam on the duodenal CEUS-derived perfusion parameters of healthy dogs. For this purpose, duodenum was imaged following contrast administration (Sonazoid®, 0.01 ml/kg) in six healthy beagles before and after intravenous injection of a combination of butorphanol (0.2 mg/kg) and midazolam (0.1 mg/kg). Furthermore, hemodynamic parameters including blood pressure and heart rate were recorded during the procedure. Five CEUS derived perfusion parameters including time-to-peak (TTP), peak intensity (PI), area under the curve (AUC), wash-in and wash-out rates (WiR and WoR, respectively) before and after sedation were statistically compared. The result showed that no significant change was detected in any of perfusion parameters. Systolic and mean arterial pressures significantly reduced after sedative administration, but diastolic arterial pressure and heart rate did not significantly change. Moreover, no significant partial correlation was observed between perfusion parameters and hemodynamic parameters. Thus, we concluded that the combination did not cause significant influence in duodenal CEUS perfusion parameters and could be a good option for sedation prior to duodenal CEUS in debilitated dogs.

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  • Tsuyoshi TAJIMA, Tamami SHINODA, Norimoto URAKAWA, Kazumasa SHIMIZU, T ...
    Article ID: 18-0011
    [Advance publication] Released: January 30, 2018
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    The present study was designed to clarify phosphodiesterase 9 (PDE9) expression in bovine tracheal smooth muscle tissue, and to elucidate that PDE9 may contribute to the regulation of airway relaxation. PDE9 mRNA expression was detected in bovine tracheal smooth muscle. Sodium nitroprusside (an NO donor) and BAY 73-6691 (a selective PDE9 inhibitor) reduced high K+- and carbachol-induced contraction. BAY 73-6691 relaxed tracheal tissue on the same level with vardenafil (a selective PDE5 inhibitor). These results support our hypothesis that PDE9 plays functional role in the tracheal smooth muscle relaxation. PDE9 inhibitors are expected to be a novel target of the add-on treatment of airway hyperresponsiveness.

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  • Koudai KAWASE, Hazuki UJIIE, Motonori TAKAKI, Kazuto YAMASHITA
    Article ID: 17-0107
    [Advance publication] Released: January 29, 2018
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    A set of evidence-based consensus guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in dogs and cats (RECOVER guidelines) was published in 2012. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical outcomes of CPR performed according to those guidelines in dogs. A total of 141 dogs with cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA) were identified and underwent CPR between January 2012 and December 2015 at the Sapporo Nighttime Animal Hospital. CPR was performed according to no-consensus traditional veterinary CPR procedures in 68 dogs (TRADITIONAL group), and according to the RECOVER guidelines in 73 dogs (RECOVER group). There was no significant difference in the age, body weight, or time from CPA identification to initiation of CPR between the TRADITIONAL and RECOVER groups (median [range]: 10 [0–16] vs. 11 [0–16] years; 6.6 [1.0–58.6] vs. 5.5 [1.1–30.4] kg; and 0 [0–30] vs. 0 [0–30] min, respectively). In the TRADITIONAL group, 12 dogs (17%) achieved a return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), but none survived to hospital discharge. However, 32 dogs (43%) in the RECOVER group achieved ROSC, and 4 (5%) were discharged from the hospital. Incorporating the RECOVER guidelines into clinical practice significantly improved the ROSC rate (P=0.001). However, the rate of survival to hospital discharge was still low. This may suggest that a superior intensive care unit that provides advanced post-CPA care could benefit veterinary CPR patients.

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  • Kidong SON, Yong Kwan KIM, Chanjin WOO, Seung-Jun WANG, Youngsik KIM, ...
    Article ID: 17-0519
    [Advance publication] Released: January 29, 2018
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    An outbreak of botulism occurred over a two-month period beginning July 20, 2016. In all, 697 wild birds were found paralyzed or dead at the Namdong reservoir and 11 Gong-gu. Using a mouse bioassay, type C botulinum toxin was identified in the bird serum, liquid cultures of soil samples, and maggot extracts. To minimize further infection of wild birds, we opened the floodgates of the Namdong reservoir adjacent to the Yellow Sea; this decreased the water temperature and the nutrient load such as nitrogen and phosphorus. The outbreak stopped shortly after taking these actions. It is not known if these efforts decreased the number of dead and diseased wild birds. Our study demonstrates one potential approach to minimize future botulism outbreaks among wild birds and their habitats.

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  • Sirinart CHAICHANATHONG, Kasuyoshi TAYA, Gen WATANABE, Kentaro NAGAOKA ...
    Article ID: 17-0531
    [Advance publication] Released: January 29, 2018
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    Immunolocalization of inhibin-α and inhibin/activin βA and βB subunits in the testes of Asian elephant was determined. Testicular sections were immunostained with polyclonal antisera against inhibin subunit-α and inhibin/activin βA and βB using the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method. Positive immunostaining against inhibin-α subunit was strongly present in Sertoli cells, and positive immunostaining for the inhibin/activin βA and βB subunits was observed in both Sertoli and Leydig cells. These results indicated that while Sertoli cells are the predominant source of inhibin and activin secretions in the testes of adult male Asian elephant, Leydig cells are a source of activin but not inhibin.

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  • Nobue KUNIYOSHI, Yuji YOSHIDA, Yoshiki ITOH, Shin-ichi YOKOTA, Takeshi ...
    Article ID: 17-0418
    [Advance publication] Released: January 26, 2018
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    Owl monkeys are the only one species possessing the nocturnal lifestyles among the simian monkeys. Their eyes and retinas have been interested associating with the nocturnal adaptation. We examined the cellular specificity and electroretinogram (ERG) reactivity in the retina of the owl monkeys by comparison with the squirrel monkeys, taxonomically close-species and expressing diurnal behavior. Owl monkeys did not have clear structure of the foveal pit by the funduscope, whereas the retinal wholemount specimens indicated a small-condensed spot of the ganglion cells. There were abundant numbers of the rod photoreceptor cells in owl monkeys than those of the squirrel monkeys. However, the owl monkeys' retina did not possess superiority for rod cell-reactivity in the scotopic ERG responses. Scanning electron microscopic observation revealed that the rod cells in owl monkeys' retina had very small-sized inner and outer segments as compared with squirrel monkeys. Owl monkeys showed typical nocturnal traits such as rod-cell dominance. However, the individual photoreceptor cells seemed to be functionally weak for visual capacity, caused from the morphological immaturity at the inner and outer segments.

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  • Toshinobu KATO, Takeshi OHTA, Hidenori IWASAKI, Hatsue KOBAYASHI, Akir ...
    Article ID: 17-0659
    [Advance publication] Released: January 26, 2018
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    Conventional clinical treatments for allergy management remain suboptimal; new, orally available medications that improve a wide range of allergic signs have been desired. We previously demonstrated that JTE-852, a novel spleen tyrosine kinase inhibitor, potently and simultaneously suppresses secretion of granule contents, arachidonate metabolites, and cytokines from mast cells stimulated by immunoglobulin E-crosslinking. In the present study, we investigated the effects of JTE-852 in four rat models (sneezing, rhinorrhea, airway constriction, and airway inflammation) as representatives of allergy models. Rats were sensitized and challenged with antigen. Allergic reactions developed after challenge were detected. JTE-852 and current anti-allergic drugs (ketotifen, pranlukast, and prednisolone) were administered orally before challenge. JTE-852 showed significant blocking effects on antigen-induced allergic reactions in all models, indicating that JTE-852 in oral dosage form would improve a wide range of allergic signs. The current anti-allergic drugs, on the other hand, failed to display significant suppression in several models. Because JTE-852 suppresses the secretion of all three groups of allergic mediators from mast cells, it would be capable of targeting signs that current drugs cannot sufficiently relieve. We anticipate JTE-852 to be a promising new anti-allergic drug that is potentially more effective than conventional drugs.

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  • Naoko OHTANI, Koshi SUDA, Erika TSUJI, Kentaro TANEMURA, Hiroshi YOKOT ...
    Article ID: 17-0460
    [Advance publication] Released: January 25, 2018
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    Bisphenol A (BPA) is among the better-known endocrine disruptors. BPA is used in various food-contacting materials and is easily eluted into food; as a result, we are exposed to BPA on a daily basis. In adults, BPA is metabolized and eliminated rapidly from the body. However, numerous reports suggest that fetuses and young children are susceptible to BPA. One of the concerning adverse effects of BPA is disruption of behavior, especially anxiety-like behavior. In order to study the mechanism of influences on offspring, it is important to clarify the most vulnerable gestation period. We hypothesized that offspring in late pregnancy would be more susceptible to BPA, because late pregnancy is a critical time for functional brain development. In this study, C57BL/6 mouse fetuses were exposed prenatally by oral dosing of pregnant dams, once daily from gestational day 5.5 to 12.5 (early pregnancy) or 11.5 to 18.5 (late pregnancy), with BPA (0 or 10 mg/kg body weight). Following birth and weaning, the resulting pups were tested using an elevated plus maze at postnatal week 10. The behavior of the offspring was altered by prenatal BPA exposure during late pregnancy but not during early pregnancy. These results indicated that offspring are more vulnerable to exposure to BPA in late pregnancy.

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  • Minami GOTO, Kayoko YONEMARU, Akihiro HIRATA, Hidenari FURUHASHI, Toku ...
    Article ID: 17-0602
    [Advance publication] Released: January 25, 2018
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    A mass was found at the base of the dorsum linguae of a male 11-year-old Labrador retriever. The tumor comprised of ganglion cells and Schwannian cells with Verocay bodies. The ganglion cells were positive for neuron-specific enolase, S-100, nerve growth factor receptor, and beta III tubulin. The Schwannian cells were positive for neuron-specific enolase, S-100, nerve growth factor receptor, and glial fibrillary acidic protein. The lingual mass was diagnosed as a ganglioneuroma. To our knowledge, there has been no previous report of a lingual ganglioneuroma in a dog.

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  • Zhenxiang LU, Weina GUO, Chang LIU
    Article ID: 16-0572
    [Advance publication] Released: January 23, 2018
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    In this study, we have identified a bacterium that can inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, and further analyzed its antibacterial activity and other biological characteristics and laid the foundation for its future application.Throughisolation and culture of the unknown bacteria, the culture characteristics, morphology observation, biochemical test, preliminary antibacterial test, 16S rRNA PCR amplification, sequence analysis, and homology analysis were performed.It was found thatthe bacteria are Gram positive spore chain Bacillus. The bacteria could only ferment glucose for acid production, but could not utilize lactose and maltose. The VP test for this bacteria was positive, while indole and methyl red tests were negative. Further analysis showed that these bacteria shared a homology up to 99.4% with Bacillus subtilis DQ198162.1. Thus, this newly identified bacterium was classified as Bacillus subtilis. Importantly, the crude bacteriocin of this Bacillus subtilis could inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus, and Salmonella, which implies its potential usage in the future.

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  • Dafei LIU, Fei LIU, Dongchun GUO, Xiaoliang HU, Zhijie LI, Zhigang LI, ...
    Article ID: 17-0442
    [Advance publication] Released: January 23, 2018
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    To rapidly distinguish Canine distemper virus (CDV), canine parvovirus (CPV), and canine kobuvirus (CaKoV) in practice, a one–step multiplex PCR/RT–PCR assay was developed, with detection limits of 102.1 TCID50 for CDV, 101.9 TCID50 for CPV and 103 copies for CaKoV. This method did not amplify nonspecific DNA or RNA from other canine viruses. Therefore, the assay provides a sensitive tool for the rapid clinical detection and epidemiological surveillance of CDV, CPV and CaKoV in dogs.

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  • Yong ZHOU, Yuding FAN, Nan JIANG, Wenzhi LIU, Yuheng SHI, Jianqing ZHA ...
    Article ID: 17-0529
    [Advance publication] Released: January 23, 2018
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    Aeromonas hydrophila is an opportunistic pathogen of a variety of aquatic animals that displays extreme diversity in drug resistance, phenotypes, virulence genes, and virulence. In this study, eight pathogenic A. hydrophila strains were isolated from diseased Amur sturgeons and investigated for their sensitivity to select antibiotics, their phenotype, virulence genes, and virulence. According to the phylogenetic analysis of the DNA gyrase subunit B protein, the eight isolates formed a single branch in the A. hydrophila group. The antibiotics ceftazidime, cefuroxime, cefoperazone, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, aztreonam, and cefepime appeared effective against them. All of the isolates possessed the virulence genes for aerolysin, flagellin, heat-stable cytotonic enterotoxin, heat-labile cytotonic enterotoxin, hemolysin, and elastase, while only one isolate, HZ8, possessed the gene for lateral flagella. The cytolytic enterotoxin andlipase geneswere present in all isolates, except in ZJ10 and ZJ12. Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence PCR indicated that the eight A. hydrophila isolates could be divided into four types. Isolates YW2, TR3, HZ8, and ZJ10, each representing a different type, were selected for challenge experiments. The challenge tests revealed that isolate HZ8 had the lowest lethal dose, causing 50% mortality at 2.30 × 104 colony forming units (cfu)/ml. The isolate ZJ10 had the highest LD50,1.25 × 106 cfu/ml. Knowledge of the characteristics of the A. hydrophila isolates obtained from Amur sturgeon will be beneficial in developing potential disease control strategies.

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  • Takuma NISHIGAWA, Satsuki NAGAMACHI, Hiromi IKEDA, Vishwajit S. CHOWDH ...
    Article ID: 17-0661
    [Advance publication] Released: January 23, 2018
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    It is well known that maternal stress during the gestation and lactation periods induces abnormal behavior in the offspring and causes a lowering of the offspring’s body weight. Various causes of maternal stress during the lactation period, relating to, for example, maternal nutritional status and reduced maternal care, have been considered. However, little is known about the effects on milk of maternal stress during the lactation period. The current study aimed to determine whether free amino acids, with special reference to sulfur-containing amino acids in milk, are altered by restraint stress in lactating mice. The dams in the stress group were restrained for 30 min at postnatal days 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12. Restraint stress caused a reduction in the body weight of lactating mice. The concentration of taurine and cystathionine in milk was significantly higher in the stress group, though stress did not alter their concentration in maternal plasma. The ratio of taurine concentration in milk to its concentration in maternal plasma was significantly higher in the stress group, suggesting that stress promoted taurine transportation into milk. Furthermore, taurine concentration in milk was positively correlated with corticosterone levels in plasma. In conclusion, restraint stress in lactating mice caused the changes in the metabolism and in the transportation of sulfur-containing amino acids and resulted in higher taurine concentration in milk. Taurine concentration in milk could also be a good parameter for determining stress status in dams.

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  • Natsuko SUGIURA, Kandai DOI, Takuya KATO, Tatsushi MORITA, Shin-ichi H ...
    Article ID: 17-0092
    [Advance publication] Released: January 19, 2018
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    To examine outbreaks of mange in raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) with respect to population density, we analyzed camera trap videos, and isolated mites from raccoon dog carcasses. In a camera trapping survey, we categorized the skin condition of raccoon dogs, and used a number of independent videos to calculate the relative abundance index (RAI). The RAI of raccoon dogs with alopecia increased following an increase in the RAI of those without alopecia. Among 27 raccoon dog carcasses, 12 showed mange-compatible skin lesions. Sarcoptes scabiei was isolated from 11 of these raccoon dogs, indicating that sarcoptic mange was endemic in our study area. Therefore, a high relative population density may be a factor underlying epizootics of sarcoptic mange in raccoon dogs.

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  • Atsushi TSUKAMOTO, Minami OHGODA, Nozomi HARUKI, Masatoshi HORI, Tomo ...
    Article ID: 17-0483
    [Advance publication] Released: January 16, 2018
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    The neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis (AP). Maropitant is an NK1R antagonist that is widely used as an antiemetic in dogs and cats. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory action of maropitant in a mouse model of AP. AP was induced in BALB/c mice by intraperitoneal administration of cerulein, and maropitant was administered subcutaneously at a dose of 8 mg/kg. We assessed the mRNA expression levels of NK1R and substance P (SP) in the pancreatic tissue via real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. In addition, the effect of maropitant on plasma amylase, lipase, and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels was measured in each mouse. Inflammatory cell infiltration in the pancreas was assessed by myeloperoxidase (MPO) staining. Our results showed that AP induction significantly elevated the mRNA expression of SP in the pancreatic tissue. Treatment with maropitant significantly lowered plasma amylase and IL-6 levels. In addition, treatment with maropitant inhibited the infiltration of MPO-positive cells in the pancreas. The present study suggests that maropitant possesses an anti-inflammatory activity, in addition to its antiemetic action.

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  • Naoki TAKAHASHI, Takuya HIROSE, Jun A. MINAGUCHI, Hiromi UEDA, Prasarn ...
    Article ID: 17-0562
    [Advance publication] Released: January 12, 2018
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    Superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) of the bovine hindlimb originates from the caudolateral aspect of the distal femur and finally inserts onto the plantar aspect of the middle phalanges. In the present study, morphology and morphometry of the bovine SDFT at the muscle-tendon junction (MTJ), middle metatarsus (mM) and tendon-bone interface (TBI) were investigated. Cross-sectional morphology at the three regions of SDFT were oval, semioval and ring-formed, respectively. Significant difference in cross-sectional area was found only between MTJ-mM and mM-TBI (P<0.05). Functional compression and friction from the adjacent structures could be the most potential interactions affecting such appearances. Morphometric data of tenocyte number, water content, and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) length and angle were found increasing in the proximodistal direction, except the fibril diameter and collagen fibril index (CFI). Statistical analyzes could reveal significant differences in average number of tenocytes (P<0.0001), CFI (between MTJ-mM and MTJ-TBI, P<0.05), water content (between MTJ-TBI, P<0.05), length of GAG chains (between MTJ-TBI, P<0.05), and angle of GAG chains (P<0.0001), respectively. The fibrillar characteristics at the three different areas, including fibril diameter distribution and interfibrillar distance, existed in conforming to the tensional axes in situ. In addition, length and angle of GAG chains were relevant to moving directions of the collagen fibrils.

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  • Kiyokazu OZAKI, Masakazu HIRABAYASHI, Koji NOMURA, Isao NARAMA
    Article ID: 17-0645
    [Advance publication] Released: January 04, 2018
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    Lilies are considered nephrotoxic only to domestic cats, which belong to the family Felidae of the suborder Feliformia. However, a 7-month-old female meerkat, belonging to the family Herpestidae of the suborder Feliformia, presented with oliguria, seizure, tachypnea, self-biting, and nystagmus after it ingested lilies. The meerkat died approximately 40 hr after lily ingestion. Gross and histopathologic lesions consistent with acute renal failure were conspicuous in the animal. The renal lesions were acute tubular necrosis, corresponding to the typical pathological changes of lily toxicosis in cats. In addition, massive hepatocyte necrosis and pulmonary congestion/oedema were observed. These findings suggest that lily toxicosis in meerkats is characterized by pulmonary and hepatic failure, in addition to the renal failure observed in domestic cats.

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  • Yasutomo HORI, Yasuhiro HEISHIMA, Yohei YAMASHITA, Noriko ISAYAMA, Nob ...
    Article ID: 17-0620
    [Advance publication] Released: January 03, 2018
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    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common cause of secondary systemic hypertension in cats. We investigated the relationship between indirect blood pressure and the prevalence of systemic hypertension in various CKD stages in cats. Client-owned cats (24 control cats and 77 cats with CKD) were included. Biochemical examinations of plasma were conducted by a commercial laboratory. Diseased cats were divided into two groups based on the International Renal Interest Society (IRIS) guidelines (II and III–IV). Indirect blood pressure was measured using an oscillometric technique. Severe hypertension was diagnosed if systolic blood pressure (SBP) was ≥180 mmHg. Indirect blood pressures were significantly higher in IRIS stage III–IV than in the control cats. Of 77 cats with CKD, 25 (32.5%) had severe hypertension. The frequency of severe hypertension increased with an increase in IRIS stage; 0% in the controls, 27.6% in the IRIS stage II, and 47.4% in the IRIS stage III–IV, respectively. The indirect SBP was weakly correlated with urea nitrogen (r=0.27) and creatinine (r=0.23) concentrations in plasma. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that if plasma creatinine concentration is >3.7 mg/dl, cats with CKD had an increased risk for developing severe hypertension (P<0.001). Our results suggest that indirect blood pressure was correlated with the severity of CKD, and the prevalence of severe hypertension increased in cats with severe CKD. The risk of severe hypertension may be high in cats with severe CKD.

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  • Takanori SHIGA, Seiichi OKUNO, Kazuyuki UCHIDA, James K. CHAMBERS, Hir ...
    Article ID: 17-0459
    [Advance publication] Released: January 02, 2018
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    An 8-year-old male Japanese Shiba exhibited muscle wasting and a stiff gait. A low-amplitude myotonic discharge was recorded by needle electromyography (EMG). A histopathological examination on a tru-cut biopsy sample from the muscle revealed myofiber size variations. Internal nuclei and cytoplasmic vacuoles were observed in many fibers. A type 1 fiber predominance and many hybrid type fibers were observed immunohistochemically. On the basis of these EMG and histopathological findings, myotonic dystrophy (DM) was suspected as tentative diagnosis. The cytoplasm around the vacuoles was immunopositive for cytochrome c, tom 20, and SOD-1, suggesting that these vacuoles might occur within mitochondria. Collectively, these results indicate that a mitochondrial abnormality partly play the role on the pathogenesis of present case.

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  • Natsumi MASUDA, Youhei MANTANI, Hideto YUASA, Chiaki YOSHITOMI, Masaya ...
    Article ID: 17-0686
    [Advance publication] Released: January 01, 2018
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    The distributions of β-defensin 1 and 2 in secretory host defense system throughout respiratory tract of healthy rats were immunohistochemically investigated. In the nasal epithelium, a large number of non-ciliated and non-microvillous cells (NCs) were immunopositive for both β-defensin 1 and 2, whereas a small number of goblet cells (GCs) were immunopositive only for β-defensin 1. Beta-defensin 2-immunopositive GCs were few. In the nasal glands, a small number of acinar cells and a large number of ductal epithelial cells were immunopositive for both β-defensins. In the laryngeal and tracheal epithelia, a very few NCs and GCs were immunopositive for both β-defensins. In laryngeal and tracheal glands, a very few acinar cells and a large number of ductal epithelial cells were immunopositive for both β-defensins. In the extra-pulmonary bronchus, a small number of NCs were immunopositive for both β-defensins. A small number of GCs were immunopositive for β-defensin 1, whereas few GCs were immunopositive for β-defensin 2. From the intra-pulmonary bronchus to alveoli, a very few or no epithelial cells were immunopositive for both β-defensins. In the mucus and periciliary layers, β-defensin 1 was detected from the nose to the extra-pulmonary bronchus, whereas β-defensin 2 was weakly detected only in the nose and the larynx. These findings suggest that the secretory sources of β-defensin 1 and 2 are mainly distributed in the nasal mucosa and gradually decrease toward the caudal airway in healthy rats.

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  • Sun Tee TAY, Kai Ling KHO, Siew Fen LYE, Yun Fong NGEOW
    Article ID: 17-0448
    [Advance publication] Released: December 29, 2017
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    Bartonella bovis is a small Gram-negative bacterium recognized as an etiological agent for bacteremia and endocarditis in cattle. As few reports are available on the taxonomic position of B. bovis and its mechanism of virulence, this study aims to resolve the phylogeny of B. bovis and investigate putative virulence genes based on whole genome sequence analysis. Genome-wide comparisons based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and orthologous genes were performed in this study for phylogenetic inference of 27 Bartonella species. Rapid Annotation using Subsystem Technology (RAST) analysis was used for annotation of putative virulence genes. The phylogenetic tree generated from the genome-wide comparison of orthologous genes exhibited a topology almost similar to that of the tree generated from SNP-based comparison, indicating a high concordance in the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of Bartonella spp. The analyses show consistent grouping of B. bovis in a cluster related to ruminant-associated species, including Bartonella australis, Bartonella melophagi and Bartonella schoenbuchensis. RAST analysis revealed genes encoding flagellar components, in corroboration with the observation of flagella-like structure of BbUM strain under negative straining. Genes associated with virulence, disease and defence, prophages, membrane transport, iron acquisition, motility and chemotaxis are annotated in B. bovis genome. The flagellin (flaA) gene of B. bovis is closely related to Bartonella bacilliformis and Bartonella clarridgeiae but distinct from other Gram-negative bacteria. The absence of type IV secretion systems, the bona fide pathogenicity factors of bartonellae, in B. bovis suggests that it may have a different mechanism of pathogenicity.

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  • Nesta BORTEY-SAM, Yoshinori IKENAKA, Osei AKOTO, Shouta M.M. NAKAYAMA, ...
    Article ID: 17-0410
    [Advance publication] Released: December 27, 2017
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    Industrialization, economic and population growth rates in Ghana have increased the release of contaminants including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) into the environment through which humans and animals are exposed. Cattle is reported to be exposed to high levels of PAHs through feed and inhalation. Once exposed, PAHs are metabolized and excreted in urine, feces or bile. In a previous study, cattle in Ghana was reported to excrete high levels of 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHPyr) due to high exposure to the parent compound, pyrene. 1-OHPyr is further metabolized to glucuronide and sulfate conjugates. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the sex and site differences in urinary excretion of conjugated pyrene metabolites using cattle urine collected from rural and urban sites of the Ashanti region, Ghana. From the results, geometric mean concentration adjusted by specific gravity indicated that 1-OHPyreneGlucuronide (PyG) was the most abundant conjugate followed by PyrenediolSulfate (M3). The sum of conjugated pyrene metabolites and sum of both conjugated and deconjugated pyrene metabolites correlated significantly with PyG, PydiolSulfate (M2) and PydiolSulfate (M3). The study revealed no significant difference in urinary excretion of conjugated pyrene metabolites between rural and urban sites. This indicated that similar to urban sites, cattle in rural sites were exposed to high levels of pyrene. There was no significant difference in urinary concentrations of conjugated pyrene metabolites between sexes.

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  • Atsushi HIRATA, Masataka KASAHARA, Nobuyuki MATSUURA, Tatsuya ICHINOHE
    Article ID: 17-0319
    [Advance publication] Released: December 22, 2017
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    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of remifentanil infusion on oral tissue blood flow including submandibular gland tissue blood flow (SBF) and internal carotid artery blood flow (ICBF) in rabbits during sevoflurane anesthesia. Twelve male Japan White rabbits were anesthetized with sevoflurane and remifentanil. Remifentanil was infused at 0.2 and 0.4 µg/kg/min. Measurements included circulatory variables, common and external carotid artery blood flow (CCBF, ECBF), ICBF, tongue mucosal blood flow (TMBF), masseter muscle tissue blood flow (MBF), mandibular bone marrow tissue blood flow (BBF), tongue muscle tissue blood flow (TBF), and SBF. Vascular resistances for each tissue, including the tongue mucosa, masseter muscle, mandibular bone marrow, tongue muscle, and submandibular gland, were calculated by dividing the mean arterial pressure by the respective tissue blood flow. Remifentanil infusion decreased oral tissue blood flow and circulatory variables. CCBF, ECBF, and ICBF did not change. The calculated vascular resistance in each oral tissue, except for the tongue mucosa, increased in an infusion-rate-dependent manner. These results showed that remifentanil infusion reduced TMBF, MBF, BBF, TBF, and SBF in an infusion-rate-dependent manner without affecting ICBF under sevoflurane anesthesia.

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  • Sayed Fathi EL-HAWARI, Hisashi SAKATA, Norihiko OYAMA, Jun TAMURA, Chi ...
    Article ID: 17-0512
    [Advance publication] Released: December 20, 2017
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    The anesthetic and cardio-respiratory effects of xylazine-alfaxalone combination were evaluated in calves. Six calves (age: 6–9 months old; weight: 114–310 kg) were anesthetized with intravenous alfaxalone 15 min after administration of intramuscular saline (0.5 ml/100 kg) or xylazine (0.1 mg/kg; 0.5 ml/100 kg of a 2% xylazine solution). Anesthesia induction was smooth and orotracheal intubation was achieved in all calves. The calves anesthetized with xylazine-alfaxalone required a smaller induction dose of alfaxalone (1.23 ± 0.17 mg/kg, P=0.010) and accepted endotracheal intubation for a significantly longer period (16.8 ± 7.2 min, P=0.022) than the calves anesthetized with alfaxalone alone (2.28 ± 0.65 mg/kg 7.3 ± 1.6 min). At 5 min after induction, tachycardia (heart rate: 166 ± 47 beats/min of heart rate), hypertension (mean arterial blood pressure: 147 ± 81 mmHg), and hypoxemia (partial pressure of arterial blood oxygen [PaO2]: 43 ± 10 mmHg) were observed in the calves anesthetized with alfaxalone alone, whereas hypoxemia (PaO2: 47 ± 7 mmHg) and mild hypercapnia (partial pressure of arterial blood carbon dioxide: 54 ± 5 mmHg) were observed in the calves anesthetized with xylazine-alfaxalone. Premedication with xylazine provided a sparing effect on the induction dose of alfaxalone and a prolongation of anesthetic effect. Oxygen supplementation should be considered to prevent hypoxemia during anesthesia.

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  • Ryo NISHIMURA, Kiyoshi OKUDA, Yosuke GUNJI, Ahmed Magzoub KHALID, Yosh ...
    Article ID: 17-0267
    [Advance publication] Released: December 19, 2017
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    BNIP3 (BCL2/adenovirus E1B nineteen kilodalton interacting protein-3), a member of the BCL2 family, is activated under hypoxic conditions and induces apoptosis or mitochondrial autophagy for adapting cells to hypoxia. The physiological roles of BNIP3 in the mammalian ovary are still unclear. In order to understand the role of BNIP3 in the bovine ovary, we examined its mRNA and protein expressions of BNIP3 in follicular granulosa cells and corpus luteum (CL). BNIP3 mRNA and protein expressions in granulosa cells from large follicles (>10 mm) at the follicular stage were much higher than those in small follicles (2–8 mm). BNIP3 mRNA and protein expressions in the CL peaked at the early luteal stage. In bovine granulosa cells cultured for 6 hr under hypoxia (3% O2) and normoxia (20% O2), BNIP3 mRNA expression was higher under hypoxia. These results of the present study suggest that BNIP3 has some roles in luteal formation in the bovine ovary, and that the highly expressed BNIP3 in the granulosa cells from large follicles at the follicular stage is related to the roles of BNIP3 in the luteal formation.

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  • Misato NAKAMURA, Toshinori YOSHIDA, Ayumi EGUCHI, Mari INOHANA, Rei NA ...
    Article ID: 17-0570
    [Advance publication] Released: December 19, 2017
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    An 18-year-old female black leopard (Panthera pardus) showed renal failure, leukocytosis and presence of subcutaneous masses in the lower abdominal region and right shoulder; she eventually died. Histopathological observations included a mammary gland carcinoma with comedo, solid and tubulopapillary patterns in subcutaneous tissue, and highly proliferated tumor cells in systemic organs. The tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin AE1/AE3. The mammary gland tumor was diagnosed as intermediate-grade adenocarcinoma, based on a previously reported histological grading system of feline mammary carcinomas. Chronic interstitial nephritis was estimated to have been ongoing for 5 years, whilst acute necrotic pancreatitis in relation to tumor metastasis could have been the cause of death.

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  • Yuichiro OCHIAI, Atushi BABA, Mio HIRAMATSU, Naoto TOYOTA, Toshihiko W ...
    Article ID: 17-0497
    [Advance publication] Released: December 18, 2017
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    Currently, given the concerns regarding animal welfare, it is required that anesthesia or analgesia be used during surgery in experimental animals. Therefore, it is important to understand how anesthesia affects the health conditions of experimental animals. In this study, rat blood biochemistry and hematological changes were examined following administration of a mixture of three anesthetic agents—medetomidine, midazolam, and butorphanol (MMB). One of three MMB dose combinations was subcutaneously administered to rats. After 1 hr, rats were treated with atipamezole, to reverse the anesthetic effects. Blood biochemistry and hematological parameters were assessed at 1, 4, and 24 hr post-MMB treatment. We also recorded body weight and food intake at 0, 2, 4, 6, and 24 hr post-MMB administration. Following MMB administration, transient increases were observed in glucose (GLUC) levels, hematocrit (HCT) values, and hemoglobin (HGB) levels, whereas transient decreases were observed in total protein (TP) content and white blood cell (WBC) counts. Most of these parameters returned to control values 24 hr following MMB administration. Additionally, body weight and food intake decreased in MMB-treated rats. In conclusion, intermediate and high doses of MMB changed some blood biochemistry and hematological parameters, body weight, and food intake. In contrast, low-dose MMB did not cause these effects. Therefore, depending on the experimental design, MMB may influence the results of studies that use laboratory animals. Consequently, anesthetic agents used in laboratory animals should be chosen based on detailed knowledge of their pharmacological effects.

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  • Takeharu KANEDA, Hidenori KANDA, Tsuyoshi TAJIMA, Norimoto URAKAWA, Ka ...
    Article ID: 17-0526
    [Advance publication] Released: December 18, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The mechanism of imidazole-induced contraction on the bovine tracheal smooth muscle was investigated. Imidazole induced muscle contraction in a concentration-dependent manner on bovine, porcine and guinea-pig tracheas, but not in rat or mouse. In bovine tracheas, imidazole was cumulatively applied and induced muscle tension and increasesd intracellular Ca2+ level in a concentration -dependent manner. Imidazole, even at 300 μM, the concentration at which maximum contractile response occurs, did not significantly increase in cAMP content relative to control. Atropine inhibited imidazole-induced contraction at a concentration- dependent manner and pretreatment of hemicholinium-3 almost abolished imidazole-induced contraction. Conversely, pretreatment of tripelennamine, indomethacin or tetrodotoxin did not affect imidazole-induced contraction. Acetylcholine or eserine induced contraction in bovine, porcine, guinea pig, rat and mice trachea in a concentration -dependent manner. However, there was little difference in the rank order of maximum contraction of these agents. Imidazole-induced contraction was greater in bovine trachea compared to the other species tested. Further, cAMP did not appear to play a role in imidazole- induced contraction, suggesting other mechanisms, such as the release of endogenous acetylcholine.

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  • Hidetoshi SUGIHARA, Kei MIYAJI, Keitaro YAMANOUCHI, Takashi MATSUWAKI, ...
    Article ID: 17-0638
    [Advance publication] Released: December 18, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Skeletal muscle has an ability to regenerate in response to injury due to the presence of satellite cells. Injury in skeletal muscle causes infiltration of pro-inflammatory macrophages (M1 macrophages) to remove necrotic myofibers, followed by their differentiation into anti-inflammatory macrophages (M2 macrophages) to terminate the inflammation. Since both M1 and M2 macrophages play important roles, coordinated regulation of their kinetics is important to complete muscle regeneration successfully. Progranulin (PGRN) is a pluripotent growth factor, having a protective role against the inflamed tissue. In the central nervous system, PGRN regulates inflammation by inhibiting the activation of microglia. Here we used muscle injury model of PGRN-knockout (PGRN-KO) mice to elucidate whether it has a role in the kinetics of macrophages during muscle regeneration. We found the prolonged persistence of macrophages at the late phase of regeneration in PGRN-KO mice, and these macrophages were suggested to be M2 macrophages since this was accompanied with an increased CD206 expression. We also observed muscle hypertrophy in PGRN-KO mice at the late stage of muscle regeneration. Since M2 macrophages are known to have a role in maturation of myofibers, this muscle hypertrophy may be due to the presence of increased number of M2 macrophages. Our results suggest that PGRN plays a role in the regulation of kinetics of macrophages for the systemic progress of muscle regeneration.

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