Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Online ISSN : 1347-7439
Print ISSN : 0916-7250
Advance online publication
Showing 1-50 articles out of 58 articles from Advance online publication
  • Seongjae CHOI, Ye-In OH, Keun-Ho PARK, Jeong-Seok LEE, Jin-Hyung SHIM, ...
    Article ID: 18-0158
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: January 18, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Limb-sparing surgery is one of the surgical options for dogs with distal radial osteosarcoma (OSA). This case report highlights the novel application of a three-dimensional (3D)-printed patient-specific polycaprolactone/β-tricalcium phosphate (PCL/β-TCP) scaffold in limb-sparing surgery in a dog with distal radial OSA. The outcomes evaluated included postoperative gait analysis, complications, local recurrence of tumor, metastasis, and survival time. Post-operative gait evaluation showed significant improvement in limb function, including increased weight distribution and decreased asymmetry. The implant remained well in place and increased bone opacity was observed between the host bone and the scaffold. There was no complication due to scaffold or surgery. Significant improvement in limb function and quality of life was noted postoperatively. Local recurrence and pulmonary metastasis were identified at 8 weeks postoperatively. The survival time from diagnosis of OSA to death was 190 days. The PCL/β-TCP scaffold may be an effective alternative to cortical allograft in limb-sparing surgery for bone tumors.

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  • Hajime ASADA, Osamu ICHII, Hirotaka TOMIYASU, Kazuyuki UCHIDA, James K ...
    Article ID: 18-0419
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: January 18, 2019
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    The mutations of TP53 gene are frequently observed in canine histiocytic sarcoma (HS). The objective of this study was to examine the distribution of tumor cells with TP53 gene mutations. Tumor tissues were divided into three or four regions and TP53 gene mutations were examined. TP53 gene mutations were detected only in parts of the HS tissues from six of the eight dogs, and the frequency of the mutant allele varied (0–65%) among the tumor regions. This study suggests that canine HS can exhibit intratumor heterogeneity. Further studies are needed to examine the clinical significance of the intratumor heterogeneity of TP53 gene mutations.

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  • Tomoaki MURAKAMI, Tomoyuki MIYOSHI, Natsumi TAKAHASHI, Akihisa KANGAWA
    Article ID: 18-0321
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: January 15, 2019
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    Two Large Yorkshire piglets were diagnosed as persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous (PHPV). In case 1, the white cord-like structure extending from optic disc to lens was observed in the normal-sized right eye. Case 2 showed buphthalmos of the right eye. The internal structure of the right eye was unclear due to bleeding, but a white cord-like structure was slightly observed. In both cases, histological examinations revealed the fibrovascular cord-like structure in hyaloid vitreous. The retina was detached, and dysplastic nervous tissue was observed in anterior vitreous. Immunohistochemistry using various neural markers suggested that dysplastic nervous tissue was derived from the detached neural retina. By the characteristic macroscopic and histopathological features, both cases were diagnosed as PHPV. To our knowledge, this is the first report of swine PHPV.

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  • Gabriel Montoro NICÁCIO, Stelio Pacca Loureiro LUNA, Poliana CAVALETI, ...
    Article ID: 18-0506
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: January 15, 2019
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    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the intra-articular (IA) injection of botulinum toxin type A (BoNT/A) to the management of chronic pain in dogs. In a randomized, controlled, double-blinded study sixteen dogs with osteoarthritis secondary to hip dysplasia were distributed into two groups: 25 IU BoNT/A (BoNT) or saline solution (Control) was administered IA in each affected joint. All dogs received oral supplements (90 days) and carprofen (15 days). The dogs were assessed by a veterinarian on five occasions and the owner completed an assessment form at the same time (baseline to 90 days). The data were analyzed using unpaired-t test, Fisher’s exact test, analysis of variance and the Tukey’s test (P<0.05). There were no differences between groups in the veterinarian and owner assessments. Lower scores were observed in both groups during 90 days after IA therapy in the owner assessments (P<0.001). Compared with baseline, the Vet score was lower from 15-90 days after IA injection in the BoNT group, and at 15 and 30 days in the Control group (P<0.001). Both treatments were safe and reduced the clinical signs associated with hip osteoarthritis. However, IA BoNT/A (25 IU) did not provide better pain relief than the control treatment.

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  • Hiroki HIRAYAMA, Akira NAITO, Takashi FUJII, Masahito SUGIMOTO, Toshir ...
    Article ID: 18-0537
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: January 15, 2019
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    We investigated the effects of genetic background on the responses to superovulation in Japanese Black cattle. The genotype frequencies of GRIA1 and FSHR relating to ovulation and follicular development in each of the major bloodlines—Tajiri, Fujiyoshi, and Kedaka—were analyzed. The Tajiri line had the lowest frequency of G allele homozygosity of c.710A>G in GRIA1 among the three bloodlines, and deviation from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium was detected. Genotype frequencies of c.337C>G, c.871A>G, and c.1973C>G in FSHR were in Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium in all bloodlines. The results of generalized linear mixed-model analyses showed that farm, levels of plasma anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) concentration, age in months, repeated superovulation, c.337C>G in FSHR, and bloodlines had significant effects on the responses to superovulation. The number of transferable embryos in the group heterozygous for c.337C>G in FSHR was significantly higher than that in the group homozygous for the C allele. The Kedaka line showed a significantly higher number of ova/embryos, fertilized embryos, and transferable embryos than the Tajiri and Fujiyoshi lines. The concentration of circulating AMH is a useful endocrine marker for antral follicle counts. This study revealed the effects of genetic background on the responses to superovulation using levels of plasma AMH concentration as a covariate. The prominent effect of genetic background on superovulation in the Kedaka line requires additional studies to confirm the genomic regions and polymorphisms that are involved in the trait.

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  • Anna ISOBE, Maiko KAWAGUCHI
    Article ID: 18-0604
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: January 15, 2019
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    When rat pups are isolated from their mothers, they emit ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs). Although previous studies have reported that USVs are related to anxiety, others have reported that they are related to simple, nonemotional factors, such as physiological reactions to coldness. In this study, we examined the influence of three maternal separations on rat pups. The number of USVs during 5 min of USV test under maternal separation, latency in the righting reflex as motor function, and body temperature were recorded twice (the first and second tests) before and after the pups were put in various environments for 10 min. The environments were no maternal separation (Control: CON), maternal separation with littermates (LMS), and single maternal separation with a heater (SMS). In the second test, the SMS pups had fewer USVs, a lower body temperature, and a more rapid righting reflex than the CON and LMS pups. In addition, there was no strong correlation between USVs and righting reflex. As a result, pups undergoing 10 min of SMS while being kept warm by the heater showed rapid righting reflex. Thus, by a single maternal separation, the number of USVs decreased but the decrease was unrelated to decrease in motor function.

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  • Taisuke NAKAGAWA, Akihiro DOI, Koichi OHNO, Nozomu YOKOYAMA, Hajime TS ...
    Article ID: 18-0493
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: January 10, 2019
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    Megaesophagus (ME) is a common esophageal disease in dogs and the prognosis is generally poor, especially with aspiration pneumonia (AP). We retrospectively investigated the clinical features and prognosis of canine ME in Japan. Twenty-eight dogs were included in this study, with the Miniature Dachshund breed being significantly overrepresented (odds ratio: 4.33). Most cases (21 of 28) were diagnosed as idiopathic ME and Myasthenia gravis (MG) was the most common cause of secondary ME. The overall median survival time (MST) was not reached and the 3-month survival rate was 85.7%. Ten dogs were diagnosed with AP, at least once during the study period, and the MST of ME dogs with AP was 114 days. The survival time overall and even with AP, was notably more prolonged compared to the previous studies. We hypothesized that treatment for canine ME could prolong the survival time, even in those with both ME and AP.

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  • Tamako MIYAZAKI, Keiji OKADA, Tetsuro YAMASHITA, Masao MIYAZAKI
    Article ID: 18-0466
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: January 03, 2019
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    Several manufacturers recommend to feed mixture comprising equal amounts of oral rehydration salt (ORS) solution and milk for diarrheic calves after milk withdrawal. Such a feeding method is expected to supply more nutrients and energy compared to feeding only the ORS solution. However, little is known about the effects of feeding milk diluted with ORS solution on calves’ digestive process. This study examined the abomasal contents, volumes, and emptying rates in calves fed whole milk, milk diluted by 50% with ORS solution (50% ORS–milk), and ORS solution. Ultrasonography identified curds in the milk–fed calves, but not in the 50% ORS–milk–fed or the ORS–fed calves. The abomasal fluid of the 50% ORS–milk–fed calves contained not only β–lactoglobulin but also α–casein (CN), β–CN, and κ–CN, which were used for curd formation and undetectable in the milk–fed calves. Abomasal pH was relatively higher in the 50% ORS–milk–fed than that in the milk–fed calves. Abomasal emptying rates were significantly faster in the ORS–fed than in the 50% ORS–milk–fed and the milk–fed calves. These data indicate that the formation of abomasal curd is inhibited in the 50% ORS–milk–fed calves due to the resultant high abomasal pH and low κ–CN concentration. The 50% ORS–milk may not provide rehydration as quickly as the ORS solution. In conclusion, we do not recommend feeding 50% ORS–milk to calves.

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  • Reza RAJABI-TOUSTANI, Quzi Sharmin AKTER, Essam A. ALMADALY, Yoichiro ...
    Article ID: 18-0560
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: January 01, 2019
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    This study aimed to improve the staining of frozen-thawed Japanese Black bull sperm acrosomes with fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated peanut agglutinin (FITC-PNA). Spermatozoa were washed, fixed with 1–3% paraformaldehyde (PFA) in suspension for 10, 20, and 30 min, permeabilized with 0–2% Triton X-100 for 5 min, stained with FITC-PNA, and mounted with different antifade agents (0.22 M 1,4-diazabicyclo [2,2,2] octane (DABCO), SlowFade®, and ProLong®) in suspension (In-suspension) or on a smear (On-smear). The spermatozoa were categorized into seven pattern types either immediately or after storage for 24 hr. Experiment 1 showed that 1) the In-suspension method was better than the On-smear method; 2) if spermatozoa were stained using the In-suspension method and examined immediately, the best antifade agent was SlowFade®; 3) if samples were to be stored after staining using the On-smear method, DABCO should be avoided; 4) if spermatozoa were stained using the In-suspension method, storage of the stained samples was not recommended; and 5) if samples were to be stored after staining using the In-suspension method, ProLong® might be the best antifade agent. The results of experiment 2 showed that the concentration of Triton X-100 could be reduced to 0.1 from 1%. The results of experiment 3 showed that the paraformaldehyde concentration used for a 30 min fixation could be reduced from 3 to 2%. It is expected that the improved staining protocol will be useful to determine bull sperm acrosomal integrity.

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  • Keisuke SAITO, Mohie HARIDY, Walied ABDO, Ahmed EL-MORSEY, Samy KASEM, ...
    Article ID: 18-0566
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: January 01, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    A severely emaciated adult Steller’s sea eagle (Haliaeetus pelagicus ) was found dead with electrocution-induced severe wing laceration, with multiple cutaneous pock nodules at the periocular regions of both sides nearby the medial canthi and rhamphotheca. Histopathological examination of the nodules revealed hyperplasia of the epidermis with vacuolar degeneration and intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies (Bollinger bodies). The proventriculus was severely affected by nematodes and was ulcerated. Nucleotide sequencing of a PCR-amplified product of Avipoxvirus 4b core gene revealed 100% identity to the sequence of Avipoxvirus derived from other eagle species. This report describes the first detection of Avipoxvirus clade A from a Steller’s sea eagle.

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  • Kennosuke SUGIE, Tetsuya KOMATSU, Eri WATANDO, Nanami INABA, Kiyoko KA ...
    Article ID: 18-0630
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: January 01, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Five-day-old neonatal piglets presented with debilitation and ananastasia. At the necropsy of one piglet, the apex of the tongue was found to be discolored dark red, and disseminated white foci were found on the cut surface. Many white foci were also found in the lungs and on the serosa of the liver and spleen. Histopathological findings revealed multifocal necrotic glossitis and pneumonia with Gram-negative bacilli. The bacilli were identified as Actinobacillus suis through immunohistochemical, biochemical, and genetic tests, including 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Although A. suis usually causes inflammation in thoracic and abdominal organs, lesions were also found in the tongue in the present case. This study is the first report of glossitis caused by A. suis.

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  • Seoung-Woo LEE, Hoon JI, Su-Min BAEK, A-Rang LEE, Min-Ji KIM, Sang-Joo ...
    Article ID: 18-0277
    Published: 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: December 29, 2018
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    A 2-year-old castrated male mongrel dog presented with a well-demarcated fluctuant dermal mass, located on the back of the neck. Grossly along with cystic structures filled with a black greasy fluid, when cut open. Microscopically, the mass was multi-lobulated. The lobules consisted of neoplastic basaloid cells and showed central degeneration, forming multiple central cystic structures filled with dark melanin-pigmented materials. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells were strongly positive for CK14 and partially positive for CK19, but negative for CK7, CK8/18, CD34, S-100, Melan-A and α-SMA. Based on the findings, the present case was diagnosed as a feline-type basal cell tumor characterized by cystic structures filled with abundant black fluid.

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  • Maria Chiara MARCHESI, Domenico CAIVANO, Maria Beatrice CONTI, Frances ...
    Article ID: 18-0293
    Published: 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: December 28, 2018
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    Grass awns commonly cause respiratory disease in dogs; when located in the trachea or bronchi, they cause severe bronchial inflammation and sepsis. The interplay of cough, bronchoconstriction, and mucus secretion can result in a less effective expulsive cough phase, especially when the causal factor persists. The bronchial exudate could consequently become trapped in the upper respiratory tracts of dogs with bronchial vegetal foreign bodies. We retrospectively reviewed endoscopic findings of the upper respiratory tract in dogs that underwent bronchoscopy in our hospital and correlated these findings with the presence of bronchial grass awns. Muco-purulent exudate in the ventral larynx region, between the vocal cords and laryngeal ventricles, was frequently associated with the presence of bronchial grass awns. This laryngeal finding could be secondary to an altered response to grass awn localization in the bronchi. These results should be carefully considered, particularly in countries where grass awns are commonly found.

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  • Heidrun GEHLEN, Tarek SHETY, Heba EL-ZAHAR, Ina HOFHEINZ
    Article ID: 18-0325
    Published: 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: December 28, 2018
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    Cardiac biomarkers are important tools for monitoring disease progress and can monitor progression of therapy. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) has been studied for its use as a cardiac biomarker in human and small animal medicine while in horses with cardiac disease it has not been evaluated yet. The objective of the present study was to determine the concentration of plasma ET-1 in healthy horses and compare it with ET-1 concentration in horses with cardiac disease during rest and after exercise. 54 horses admitted to the Equine Clinic of Free University of Berlin were used in the present study, of which 15 horses were clinically healthy with no evidence of cardiac disease (Group 1), 22 horses suffered from cardiac disease with normal heart dimensions (Group 2) and 17 horses with cardiac disease and enlarged heart diameters (Group 3). Clinical examination, electrocardiography and echocardiography were performed. Endothelin-1 concentration was determined using ET-1 ELISA kit. The concentration of plasma ET-1 was significantly increased in horses with cardiac disease and normal cardiac dimensions (Group 2) and in horses with cardiac disease and enlargement of the left atrium (Group 3) compared to its concentration in clinically healthy horses (Group 1). In addition, the concentration of plasma ET-1 after exercise was significantly increased in diseased horses compared to its concentration at rest. Detection of ET-1 plasma concentration in horses at rest may be useful for detecting horses with changes in left atrial cardiac dimensions.

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  • M A HANNAN, Shingo HANEDA, Yasuyuki ITAMI, Sohei WACHI, Tomoko SAITOH, ...
    Article ID: 18-0414
    Published: 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: December 28, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    There has been no report of equine embryo transfer in Japan for the last 24 years. Our objective was to establish an effective protocol for embryo transfer in domestic horse. A Hokkaido native pony was bred by deep-horn artificial insemination with frozen semen from a Connemara pony. Embryo collection was performed using a non-surgical method on day 7. Two embryos were obtained from three flushes (67% recovery) and were transferred fresh into crossbred recipient mares. Both recipient mares were diagnosed pregnant (100% pregnancy rate) 5 days after embryo transfer and had normal progesterone levels until the end of the observation on day 35 of gestation. This is the first successful embryo transfer in Japan by artificial insemination using frozen semen. Embryo transfer technology could be extremely useful in improving the productivity of Japanese domestic and special riding horses.

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  • Naotoshi KUNINAGA, Makoto ASANO, Ryota MATSUYAMA, Takahiro MINEMOTO, T ...
    Article ID: 17-0605
    Published: 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: December 27, 2018
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    The small Indian mongoose (Herpestes auropunctatus) was introduced to Japanese islands and has impacted on the island’s biodiversity. Population control has been attempted through capturing but its efficiency has rapidly declined. Therefore, new additional control methods are required. Our focus has been on the immunocontraceptive vaccines, which act in an especially species-specific manner. The amino-acid sequence of the mongoose ovum zona pellucida protein 3 (ZP3) was decoded and two types of synthetic peptides (A and B) were produced. In this study, these peptides were administered to mongooses (each n=3) and the sera were collected to verify immunogenicity using ELISA and IHC. Treated mongoose sera showed an increasing of antibody titer according to immunizations and the antigen-antibody reactions against the endogenous mongoose ZP. In addition, IHC revealed that immune sera absorbed with each peptide showed a marked reduction in reactivity, which indicated the specificity of induced antibodies. These reactions were marked in peptide A treated mongoose sera, and the antibody titer of one of them lasted for at least 21 weeks. These results indicated that peptide A was a potential antigen, inducing autoantibody generation. Moreover, immunized rabbit antibodies recognized mongoose ZP species-specifically. However, the induction of robust immune memory was not observed. Also, the actual sterility effects of peptides remain unknown, it should be verified as a next step. In any case, this study verified synthetic peptides we developed are useful as the antigen candidates for immunocontraception of mongooses.

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  • Shouta M.M. NAKAYAMA, Ayuko MORITA, Yoshinori IKENAKA, Hazuki MIZUKAWA ...
    Article ID: 17-0717
    Published: 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: December 27, 2018
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    Worldwide use of anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs) for rodents control has frequently led to secondary poisoning of non-target animals, especially raptors. In spite of the occurrence of many incidents of primary or secondary AR-exposure and poisoning of non-target animals, these incidents have been reported only for individual countries, and there has been no comprehensive worldwide study or review. Furthermore, the AR exposure pathway in raptors has not yet been clearly identified. The aim of this review is therefore to comprehensively analyze the global incidence of primary and secondary AR-exposure in non-target animals, and to explore the exposure pathways. We reviewed the published literature, which reported AR residues in the non-target animals between 1998 and 2015, indicated that various raptor species had over 60% AR- detection rate and have a risk of AR poisoning. According to several papers studied on diets of raptor species, although rodents are the most common diets of raptors, some raptor species prey mainly on non-rodents. Therefore, preying on targeted rodents does not necessarily explain all causes of secondary AR-exposure of raptors. Since AR residue-detection was also reported in non-target mammals, birds, reptiles and invertebrates, which are the dominant prey of some raptors, AR residues in these animals, as well as in target rodents, could be the exposure source of ARs to raptors.

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  • Meihua ZHENG, Kentaro NAGAOKA, Gen WATANABE
    Article ID: 18-0644
    Published: 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: December 27, 2018
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    The influence of different levels of heat exposure on the functions of ovarian and adrenal gland were investigated in pre-puberty female rats. Three-week old female rats were treated with control (26℃) or three higher temperatures (38, 40 and 42℃) for 2hr/day. After 9 days of treatment, blood samples were collected for measurement of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol-17β, corticosterone, cholesterol and triglyceride. Adrenal glands, ovaries and liver were collected for analyzing gene expressions. Body and liver weight were significantly low in the 42℃ heating group. Circulating LH and triglyceride in the 42℃ heating group were significantly lower, and estradiol-17β, corticosterone and cholesterol were significantly higher than those of the control group. The gene expression of 3β-HSD and P450c21 in the adrenal gland; 3β-HSD, receptors of LH, FSH and estrogen in the ovary were significantly low in heated rats. The liver gene expressions of caspase 3 and NK-kB were significantly high in 42℃ heated rats, suggesting that the ability of liver metabolic function reduced in the 42℃ heated rats. These results demonstrated that the high temperature is responsible for suppression of ovarian function by decreasing the expression of steroidogenic enzymes, estrogen and gonadotropin receptors in the ovary. Increase in circulating estradiol-17β in the heated rats may be due to accumulate this hormone in circulation by potential changes in liver metabolism during the heat stress.

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  • Da-Eun LEE, Kyu-Chang KIM, Soon-Wuk JEONG, Hun-Young YOON
    Article ID: 18-0190
    Published: 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: December 26, 2018
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    A castrated male Shih-Tzu dog was presented for evaluation of urine leakage after urethrotomy. A fistula with urine leakage was identified in the perineal region. On retrograde urethrography, the contrast extravasated from the penile urethra into the subcutaneous tissue of the perineum. Urine leakage with urethrocutaneous fistula was diagnosed. During surgery, the disrupted urethra wall and two urethral defects were identified. A fascia lata autograft was used, rather than primary repair of the urethra. Two pieces of fascia lata were harvested and sutured to the urethral defects. The fistula was treated with debridement and drainage. No evidence of urine leakage and dysuria was noted 6 months postoperatively. Thus, this case report describes successful urethral reconstruction using a fascia lata autograft.

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  • Fumitaka TAKAHASHI, Shigenori KOUNO, Shinya YAMAGUCHI, Yasushi HARA
    Article ID: 17-0553
    Published: 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: December 24, 2018
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    This study investigated cerebral ventricle size and concurrent craniocervical junction abnormality in relation to atlantooccipital overlapping (AOO) in dogs with atlantoaxial instability (AAI). A total of 61 dogs were treated with atlantoaxial ventral fixation. Medical records of each dog, including magnetic resonance (MR) and computed tomography (CT) images, were retrospectively reviewed. CT images were assessed for the presence of AOO and the dogs were then assigned to either an AOO group or a non-AOO group accordingly. CT images were also evaluated to determine the foramen magnum (FM) index. Syringomyelia, cerebellar compression, dorsal compression, and the degree of enlargement of each cerebral ventricle were evaluated using MR images. Of the 61 dogs, 23 had AOO and 38 did not. Furthermore, the ventricle/brain height ratio, the fourth ventricle height/cerebellum length ratio, and the fourth ventricle width/cerebellum length ratio were significantly higher in the AOO group than in the non-AOO group. However, the FM index, third ventricle/brain height ratio, and incidence of syringomyelia did not differ significantly between the two groups. Dogs with concurrent AOO exhibited significantly more dilatation of the lateral and fourth ventricles.

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  • Jingyu TANG, Dongdong YIN, Rui WANG, Qi ZHOU, Xiaoya ZHOU, Xue XING, H ...
    Article ID: 18-0036
    Published: 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: December 24, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Duck Tembusu virus disease, caused by the duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV), can lead to a severe reduction in egg production and growth retardation in laying ducks and ducklings, respectively. In this study, we engineered a novel recombinant adenovirus expressing the E protein of DTMUV (rAd-E) in AAV-293 cells (analyzed by western blot and indirect immunofluorescence assays). Intramuscular immunization of Cherry Valley ducks with rAd-E was performed to evaluate host cellular and humoral immune responses. Compared to the phosphate-buffered saline administered group and the negative control wild-type adenovirus (wtAd) group, the rAd-E vaccinated group showed increased cellular and humoral responses. The results from the cytokine release and lymphocyte proliferation assays showed that rAd-E induced a stronger cellular immune response than the control group (P<0.01), 4 weeks after primary immunization. The results of enzyme-linked immunosorbent and virus neutralization assays showed that rAd-E induced higher titers of specific neutralizing antibodies, 2 weeks after primary immunization. The DTMUV challenge experiment showed a higher survival rate (80%) of ducks in the rAd-E group, when challenged with 0.5 ml (ELD50 = 10−2.67/0.2 ml) of the DTMUV strain AH-F10. These results indicate that rAd-E effectively protects ducks against DTMUV infection. Therefore, rAd-E could be a vaccine candidate to provide an effective and safe method for prevention and control of DTMUV infection.

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  • Madeh SADAN, El-Sayed EL-SHAFAEY, Sabry EL-KHODERY
    Article ID: 18-0471
    Published: 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: December 20, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The present study was designed to describe the clinical presentation of abdominal hernias and to evaluate the efficacy of polypropylene mesh in repair of such affection in camels. Twenty-six dromedary camels were included in this study on the basis of clinical and ultrasonographic evidence of abdominal hernia. Factors associated with prevalence and clinical findings of hernia were presented and hernioplasty using polypropylene mesh was evaluated as a surgical intervention. Out of 26 studied camels, abdominal hernia was prevalent in Wadeh camels than other breeds (17 vs 9, P<0.01). Camels <6 years of age exhibited more hernias than other age groups (18 vs 8, P<0.01). Moreover, females showed a significantly higher prevalence (19 vs 7, P<0.01) of abdominal hernia compared to males (26.9%, n=7). The sensitivity (96.8%) and specificity (93.1%) of ultrasonography for diagnosing hernia were higher in comparison to clinical examination (88.3%). At 3 weeks postoperatively, the clinical index score of 26 operated camels was significantly reduced in comparison with pretreated (22 vs 4, P<0.005). However, only 2 cases had recurrence of the hernia and 2 camels had slight swelling in situ. By the 6th month post treatment, all treated camels were completely recovered. In conclusion, the polypropylene mesh is a viable and consistent alternative effective treatment for abdominal hernias in camels. In addition, the clinical index scores and ultrasonography provide a precise paradigm for diagnosis and preoperative planning for abdominal hernias in dromedary camels.

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  • Jeong-Ha SIM, Sangyun SHIN, Won-Kyu KIM, Hong-Shik OH, In-Shik KIM, Do ...
    Article ID: 18-0520
    Published: 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: December 19, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    This study examined and compared the branching pattern of the aortic arch (AA) and its major branches in the Siberian roe deer (Capreolus pygargus) on Jeju Island (Jeju roe deer [JRD]) with those in the roe deer of the Korean peninsula (mainland roe deer [MRD]). Seven of the nine expected types was observed in the arterial silicone casts of 29 deer (10 males, 19 females). The JRD was identical to the MRD in that absence of the typical pattern; however, the main three pattern types differed between the two. This difference resulted from differences in the branching patterns of the right subclavian artery and costocervical trunk. In conclusion, the JRD has different type of AA from the MRD.

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  • Toshio SHIMAMORI, Kenji TSUKANO, Koichiro SERA, Jun NODA, Kazuyuki SUZ ...
    Article ID: 18-0527
    Published: 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: December 17, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The aim of the present study was to measure changes in the serum concentrations of some elements in endotoxin-challenged calves using a particle-induced X-ray emission analysis and to screen for elements useful as diagnostic markers. The results obtained revealed that serum Zn concentrations were more accurate diagnostic markers for detecting endotoxin shock in calves than other elements. Serum Zn level in endotoxin-challenged calve was significantly lower from 8 to 12 hr after the endotoxin challenge than pre-challenge values. In addition, serum Zn concentrations in calves from 4 to 24 hr after endotoxin challenges were significantly lower than those of control. Our results indicate that serum Zn concentration has potential as diagnostic markers for detecting inflammation in calves with endotoxin shock.

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  • Kengo UEDA, Akiko UEDA, Kiyokazu OZAKI
    Article ID: 18-0517
    Published: 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: December 14, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    A tumor had formed in the right eye of a 14-year-old male chinchilla. The black-and-white-colored tumor occupied the entire eye except for the lens and had invaded extensively inside the orbit. Histologically, round, spindle- to polygonal-shaped tumor cells had proliferated in a solid-sheet arrangement. The tumor cells exhibited polymorphic nuclei ranging from round- to polygonal-shaped, as well as abundant cytoplasm, which occasionally contained melanin granules. In some areas, several cells were surrounded by the basal lamina. Additionally, the tumor showed cervical lymph-node metastasis. Upon immunostaining, the tumor cells were positive for epithelial markers (cytokeratin AE1/AE3, 8/18, and 20), S100, and vimentin. Consequently, we diagnosed primary pleomorphic iridociliary adenocarcinoma with lymph-node metastasis. This is the first report of iridociliary adenocarcinoma in chinchillas.

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  • Adam STERN
    Article ID: 18-0586
    Published: 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: December 14, 2018
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    Cases of hyperthermia caused by exposure to high environmental temperature are not uncommonly encountered in dogs. The circumstances surrounding the exposure to high environmental temperature may be accidental or intentional; thus highlighting the importance to perform a forensic autopsy. This report documents three cases of canine environmentally induced hyperthermia and all dogs in this report died less than 6 hrs after exposure to the high environmental temperatures. The most commonly observed macroscopic findings included cutaneous petechial and ecchymotic hemorrhage, pulmonary edema and congestion, and epicardial and endocardial hemorrhage. Microscopically, there was systemic vascular congestion and hemorrhage, fibrin thrombi formation, and occasional enterocyte and/or renal tubular necrosis. The findings from all cases were consistent with hyperthermia induced disseminated intravascular coagulation.

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  • Yuya TSURUTA, Shusaku SHIBUTANI, Rie WATANABE, Hiroyuki IWATA
    Article ID: 18-0366
    Published: 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: December 12, 2018
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    Ibaraki virus (IBAV) is an arbovirus that is transmitted by biting midges and causes Ibaraki disease in cattle. IBAV induces apoptosis in several mammalian cell lines, and apoptosis in turn facilitates IBAV replication. In addition, virus-induced apoptosis may contribute to mammalian-specific pathogenicity considering that some arboviruses induce apoptosis in mammalian cells but not in insect cells. In this study, we found that when hamster lung cells (HmLu-1) are used as a virus host, IBAV causes severe cytopathic effects with little induction of apoptosis. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition of apoptosis did not affect IBAV-induced cytotoxicity. These results indicate the existence of an apoptosis-independent pathway in which IBAV replicates and exerts cytotoxicity in mammalian cells.

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  • Takehisa SOMA, Kaisaku OHTA, Runa YAMASHITA, Kazumi SASAI
    Article ID: 18-0472
    Published: 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: December 12, 2018
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    To evaluate the accuracy of hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test as the index of feline panleukopenia virus (FPV)-protective ability, sera from 153 FPV-vaccinated cats aged ≥7 months with HI titer of <1:10–1:40, were examined for serum neutralizing (SN) antibody. SN antibody was detected (≥1:10) in 33 (62.3%) of 53 HI antibody-negative cats, and ranged <1:10–1:160. This suggests that FPV-antibody detection sensitivity of HI test is lower than SN test, and SN test is more suitable for the assessment of FPV-vaccine effect than HI test especially in cats with negative or low HI titer. SN titer was 1:32, FPV-protective threshold, or higher in all cats with HI titers of ≥1:20, suggesting it may be appropriate to set protective HI threshold at 1:20.

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  • Ayman Samir FARID, Eman Mohamed FATH, Shogo MIDO, Nariaki NONAKA, Yoic ...
    Article ID: 18-0540
    Published: 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: December 12, 2018
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    Infections with gastrointestinal nematodes provoke immune and inflammatory responses mediated by cytokines released from T-helper type-2 (Th2) cells. Infections with Trichinella species have been reported to differ by the host species. Previously, in rats, we observed acute liver inflammation in response to infection with Trichinella spiralis, and the rat hosts showed a series of biochemical changes characterized by a decrease in serum paraoxonase (PON)1 activity associated with the down-regulation of hepatic PON1 synthesis. In the present study, we investigated the effect(s) of species differences on the immune response against T. spiralis infection by analyzing serum PON1 activity and the associated inflammatory/anti-inflammatory mediators in mice. There were inconsistent changes in the serum PON1 activity of mice infected with T. spiralis, and these changes were associated with significant increases in the serum levels of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12 (p70), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and tumor necrosis factor α during the enteric phase of the infection, while the levels of IL-5 and interferon γ were significantly increased throughout the entire experimental period. Moreover, T. spiralis infection in mice was associated with little inflammatory cell infiltration in hepatic tissues. Given the zoonotic prevalence of T. spiralis, further mechanistic research in this area is warranted.

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  • Risako KAWATA, Tatsuhito II, Tatsuya HORI, Yukino MACHIDA, Kazuhiko OC ...
    Article ID: 18-0573
    Published: 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: December 12, 2018
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    A 14-year and 8-month-old intact male Amur tiger presented with an enlarged left testis, measuring 5.7 × 5.5 × 4.5 cm. The cut surface was mottled dark red to reddish brown in color. Microscopically, the enlarged left testis comprised round or polygonal neoplastic cells arranged in a diffuse sheet pattern. These neoplastic cells had a hyperchromatic nucleus and an abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm. Immunohistochemically, these neoplastic cells were positive for vimentin, chromogranin A, synaptophysin, melan-A, inhibin-α, and S100 and negative for desmin and WT-1. Based on these morphological and immunohistochemical findings, the tumor was diagnosed as a Leydig cell tumor.

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  • Emel AKSOY, Ahmet Kursat AZKUR
    Article ID: 18-0582
    Published: 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: December 12, 2018
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    Schmallenberg virus (SBV), discovered in 2011 in Germany, is associated with clinical manifestations of fever, diarrhea, reduced milk yield, abortions and congenital malformations in ruminants. Despite many studies performed for SBV, there is no detailed research on in vitro apoptotic effect of SBV. This study is aimed to determine apoptosis pathways and role of pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic molecules in Vero cells infected with SBV. The study results showed that SBV induced apoptosis via both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways by activating both caspase-8 and caspase-9, respectively. Expression analyses of pro-apoptotic (Bax, Bak and Puma) and anti-apoptotic (Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL) genes were revealed that SBV-induced apoptosis causes upregulation of pro-apoptotic genes, dominantly via Puma gene, whereas Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL genes were downregulated. In conclusion, this is the first detailed report about SBV induced apoptosis in the Vero cells via both extrinsic and intrinsic cascades and apoptosis induction is seem to be regulated by Puma.

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  • Genya SHIMBO, Michihito TAGAWA, Kotaro MATSUMOTO, Mizuki TOMIHARI, Mas ...
    Article ID: 18-0333
    Published: 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: December 07, 2018
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    This study proposed a novel radiographic positioning in order to image the cranioventral lung region using a portable X-ray unit and digital radiography system. In the novel position, calves were restrained in a chute and a unilateral forelimb was pulled cranially with the contralateral forelimb tied to the chute; the forelimbs were then spread cranio-caudally as in a scissor position (Three-legged view: TL view). In a preliminary study, we applied the TL view for imaging of 14 clinically healthy calves. In a clinical study, accuracy in detecting cranioventral lung lesions was compared between the standard standing view and the TL view for 19 calves, which were culled from herd; the results of postmortem examination were used as gold standard. Seven evaluators independently interpreted the images. The median (range) number of trials and the time for obtaining optimal position were 2 (1–7) and 263 sec (105–488), respectively in 14 healthy calves. Calves thicker than approximately 40 cm were not considered candidates for TL view in this setting because of difficulty in restraint and the low output of the portable X-ray unit. The TL view improved the detection of consolidation in the cranioventral lung region, compared with the standard view. The TL view was considered an optional view when the cranioventral lung region was an area of interest, because this view was relatively easy to perform and required a small number of personnel, even for large calves.

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  • Du-Min GO, Sang-Ho WOO, Su-Hyung LEE, Dae-Yong KIM
    Article ID: 18-0531
    Published: 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: December 07, 2018
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    A 3.9-year-old female African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) had a firm, tan-colored mass with an uneven surface arising from the mandibular salivary gland. A histopathologic examination revealed that the mass was composed of neoplastic proliferation of epithelial and spindle cells. The neoplastic spindle cells showed positive for vimentin, smooth muscle actin, calponin and cytokeratin 14 and, negative for cytokeratin 19, suggesting that spindle cells were derived from myoepithelial cells. Based on the histological findings and immunohistochemistry results, the mass was diagnosed as pleomorphic adenoma. Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common benign tumor found in human salivary glands, but it is rare in animals. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of pleomorphic adenoma in hedgehogs.

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  • Nozomi SHIWA, Hiroko YAMASHITA, Koki TOMIOKA, Kazunori KIMITSUKI, Dari ...
    Article ID: 18-0591
    Published: 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: December 07, 2018
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    In the present study, follicle-sinus complexes (FSCs) were harvested from the muzzle skin of 123 dogs with suspected canine rabies, and the sensitivity and specificity of FSC analysis were compared with those of brain tissue immunohistochemistry analysis. In the FSCs, viral antigen was detected from Merkel cells. Sensitivity was 97.3%, specificity was 100%, and the coefficient κ was 0.88. These results reconfirm that FSCs are very useful for the postmortem diagnosis of canine rabies, and suggest that 5 FSCs can yield results that are almost equivalent to those derived from brain tissue analysis in rabid dogs.

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  • Firoj ALOM, Hayato MATSUYAMA, Hiroshi NAGANO, Saki FUJIKAWA, Yasuyuki ...
    Article ID: 18-0631
    Published: 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: December 06, 2018
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    Here, we investigated the effects of 9-hydroxyphenanthrene (9-phenanthrol), a potent and selective transient receptor potential melastatin 4 (TRPM4) channel blocker, on the resting membrane potential and cholinergic contractile responses to elucidate the functional role of TRPM4 channels in the contractile activities of mouse detrusor and ileal longitudinal smooth muscles. We observed that, 9-phenanthrol (3–30 µM) did not significantly inhibit high K+-induced contractions in both preparations; however, 9-phenanthrol (10 µM) strongly inhibited cholinergic contractions evoked by electrical field stimulation in detrusor preparations compared to inhibitions in ileal preparations. 9-Phenanthrol (10 µM) significantly inhibited the muscarinic agonist, carbachol-induced contractile responses and slowed the maximum upstroke velocities of the contraction in detrusor preparations. However, the agent (10 µM) did not inhibit the contractions due to intracellular Ca2+ release evoked by carbachol, suggesting that the inhibitory effect of 9-phenanthrol may primarily be due to the inhibition of the membrane depolarization process incurred by TRPM4 channels. On the other hand, 9-phenanthrol (10 µM) did not affect carbachol-induced contractile responses in ileal preparations. Further, 9-phenanthrol (10 µM) significantly hyperpolarized the resting membrane potential and decreased the basal tone in both detrusor and ileal muscle preparations. Taken together, our results suggest that TRPM4 channels are constitutively active and are involved in setting of the resting membrane potential, thereby regulating the basal tone in detrusor and ileal smooth muscles. Thus, TRPM4 channels play a significant role in cholinergic signaling in detrusor, but not ileal, smooth muscles.

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  • Young Joo KIM, Narae LEE, Jin YU, Hanbin LEE, Gayeon AN, Sohyun BANG, ...
    Article ID: 17-0711
    Published: 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: December 05, 2018
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    The purpose of this study was to use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to compare the volumes and three-dimensional configurations of the soft palate and nasopharynx in non-brachycephalic and brachycephalic dogs with different body weights, and infer which factors influence nasopharyngeal volume. This was a retrospective observational study. The brain MRI medical records of all dogs referred to the Veterinary Medical Center, Chungbuk National University, between 2013 and 2016, for evaluation of intracranial disease were reviewed. There was a significant difference in the two-dimensional parameters including soft palate length/skull length ratio (P<0.01) and maximum soft palate thickness (P<0.01), and three-dimensional parameters which included soft palate volume (P<0.01), nasopharyngeal volume (P<0.01), soft palate/total upper airway volume ratio (P<0.01), and nasopharyngeal volume/total upper airway volume ratio (P<0.01), between brachycephalic and non-brachycephalic dog breeds. Nasopharyngeal volume correlated positively with the maximum soft palate thickness and body weight in all breeds. The three-dimensional morphologic grades of soft palate were significantly different between the two groups. In brachycephalic breeds, Grade 3 was observed in 33% of cases but was absent in non-brachycephalic breeds, where Grade 1 was present in 85% of the cases. We can conclude that three-dimensional morphology and upper airway volume are significantly different between brachycephalic and non-brachycephalic breeds, and body weight and maximum soft palate thickness are the key factors associated with a decreased nasopharyngeal volume.

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  • Namika HARADA, Koka TAKIZAWA, Toshiyuki MATSUURA, Naoko YOKOSAWA, Kaor ...
    Article ID: 18-0625
    Published: 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: November 28, 2018
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    A Japanese Black calf became dehydrated on the first day of life and died on the third day. Gross examination revealed a large amount of yellowish-brown serous fluid in the abdominal cavity and whitish-yellow fibrin in the serosa of the abdominal organs. Patchy red spots were observed throughout the peritoneum, and the outer membrane of the umbilical arteries was dark red. Bacteriologically, Mannheimia haemolytica serotype 2 was isolated from the umbilical arteries and vein, liver, and kidney. Histopathology revealed inflammation with M. haemolytica serotype 2 in the outer membrane of the umbilical arteries and in the serosa of the bladder and intestinal tract. This is the first case of bovine peritonitis with histopathologic and immunohistochemical identification of M. haemolytica.

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  • Yuya NAGASAWA, Yoshio KIKU, Kazue SUGAWARA, Takahiro YABUSAKI, Kazuyos ...
    Article ID: 18-0581
    Published: 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: November 26, 2018
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    We evaluated the relationship between the severity of coliform mastitis and bacterial load in 106 quarter milk samples. We found no significant relationship between somatic cell count, severity score, and coliform bacterial load in milk in bovine clinical coliform mastitis. Results of the Cochran-Armitage test for trend in milk bacterial load proportions indicated a significant decreasing low group (P<0.001), increasing medium group (P<0.002) and increasing high group (P<0.02) with increasing clinical grade. The present study indicates that the coliform bacterial load in milk is significantly associated with clinical severity states in cases of bovine coliform mastitis, and can be a useful indicator for optimal management of this disease.

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  • Kenzo YONEMITSU, Shohei MINAMI, Keita NOGUCHI, Ryusei KUWATA, Hiroshi ...
    Article ID: 18-0576
    Published: 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: November 23, 2018
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    Wild boars are a reservoir for many zoonotic pathogens and a good sentinel for surveillance of zoonotic viral infections, but collection of serum samples from wild boars in the field is sometimes difficult and requires special equipment and techniques. In this study, ELISA using meat juices extracted from the heart and diaphragm of wild boars, instead of serum samples, was performed to detect antibodies against zoonotic pathogens, Japanese encephalitis virus and hepatitis E virus. The results of ELISA using meat juice samples were significantly correlated with those using serum samples and meat juice contained one-fifth the antibodies of serum samples. As meat juice is easily collected from wild animals in the field without special equipment and techniques, ELISA using meat juice is a simple and superior method for serological survey of zoonosis among wild animals.

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  • Afia KHATUN, Masashi SAKURAI, Yusuke SAKAI, Masato TACHIBANA, Naoya OH ...
    Article ID: 18-0619
    Published: 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: November 23, 2018
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    It has been well known in humans that eosinophil infiltration into the site of inflammation and eosinophilia occur in mycobacterial infections. However, the role of eosinophils against the mycobacterium is unclear. We showed in previous study that in situ mouse eosinophils infiltrated into tissues produce α-defensin, an anti-bacterial peptide. We investigated in this study whether eosinophils reacting to mycobacteria produce α-defensin in mice and whether it can be used as a model. We showed that mycobacterial infection induced blood eosinophilia and infiltration of α-defensin producing eosinophils that to surround mycobacteria at the site of infection. These findings were usually seen during human mycobacterial infection. We established a good model to study host defense mechanism against mycobacteria through α-defensin via eosinophils.

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  • Anna ISOBE, Tsutomu SHIMADA, Masaki ABURADA, Rie YANAGISAWA, Tomoyoshi ...
    Article ID: 18-0342
    Published: 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: November 22, 2018
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    Currently, metabolic syndrome is a worldwide concern. Thus, it is imperative to understand the mechanism of metabolic syndrome by establishing various metabolic syndrome models. In this study, we used Hatano high-avoidance animals (HAA) and low-avoidance animals (LAA), both derived from Sprague–Dawley rats by selective breeding to determine high- or low-avoidance rates in shuttle-box active avoidance tests. HAA and LAA rats have some strain differences related to eating and appetite. Therefore, we determined whether Hatano rats could be used as a metabolic syndrome model. We compared food intake, body weights, blood pressure levels, plasma component levels, and fat contents between HAA and LAA rats. The HAA rats showed more active eating, higher blood pressure, higher percentage fat, and higher triglyceride levels than the LAA rats—these features correspond to some of the risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome. Our study suggests that HAA rats can be considered as a metabolic syndrome model by focusing on their feeding behavior, blood pressure levels, and percent body fat.

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  • Yusuke GOTO, Gakuji YAEGASHI, Yoshihiro KUMAGAI, Fusae OGASAWARA, Maki ...
    Article ID: 18-0550
    Published: 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: November 21, 2018
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    A reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method was developed for broadly detecting the avian encephalomyelitis virus (AEV). The new primers were based on conserved sequences of the 5′-untranslated region of AEV, because the virus was not detected using previous reported RT-PCR. By applying this method to the chicken samples with suspected AEV infection in Japan, we successfully obtained PCR products of the predicted size from all samples, and we confirmed the presence of AEV via sequence analysis.

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  • Masaaki KOGA, Mizuki KURAMOCHI, Mohammad Rabiul KARIM, Takeshi IZAWA, ...
    Article ID: 18-0599
    Published: 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: November 21, 2018
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    Fibrotic lesion is formed by myofibroblasts capable of producing collagens. The myofibroblasts are characterized by immunoexpressions of vimentin, desmin and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in varying degrees. The cellular characteristics remain investigated in myocardial fibrosis. We analyzed immunophenotypes of myofibroblasts appearing in isoproterenol-induced myocardial fibrosis in rats until 28 days after injection (10 mg/kg body weight); the lesions developed as interstitial edema and inflammatory cell reaction on 8 hr and days 1 and 3, and fibrosis occurred on days 1, 3, 7, 14, and 21 by gradual deposition of collagens, showing the greatest grade on day 14; the lesions gradually reduced with sporadic scar until day 28. Myofibroblasts expressing vimentin and α-SMA increased with a peak on day 3, and then, gradually decreased onwards. Interestingly, Thy-1 expressing cells appeared in the affected areas, apparently being corresponding to the grade similar to vimentin- and α-SMA-positive cells. Thy-1 is expressed in immature mesenchymal cells such as pericytes with pluripotent nature. The immunoreactivity for A3-antigen, a marker for immature mesenchymal cells, was seen in some surrounding cells. There were no cells reacting with antibodies to nestin or glial fibrillary acidic protein, although hepatic myofibroblats have been reported to react with these antibodies. Collectively, myofibroblasts appearing in rat myocardial fibrosis may have been derived from immature mesenchymal cells positive for Thy-1 or A3-antigen, with thereafter showing expressions of vimentin and α-SMA in differentiation.

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  • Fusae OGASAWARA, Yoshihiro KUMAGAI, Osamu MIKAMI, Yoshiharu ISHIKAWA, ...
    Article ID: 18-0413
    Published: 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: November 19, 2018
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    Erythroblastic sarcoma in a 10-year-old Japanese Black cow with anemia is described. Tumor masses or nodules were located mainly in the thoracic cavity, and some lymph nodes were slightly enlarged. Although neoplastic involvement of the bone marrow was detected, the cow was not leukemic. The diagnosis was made based on the localized distribution of neoplastic lesions, no increase of intravascular nucleated cell number, deeply eosinophilic cytoplasm in some tumor cells, and frequent immunoreactivity of the tumor cells for hemoglobin. The tumor cells were characterized by marked pleomorphism and atypia; such morphological deviation from their normal counterparts may be connected with functional deviation resulting in the sarcomatous growth of these erythroid cells.

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  • Arockiasamy Arun Prince MILTON, Rajesh Kumar AGARWAL, Govindarajan Bhu ...
    Article ID: 18-0488
    Published: 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: November 02, 2018
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    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), and Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) make up an important group of pathogens causing major animal and public health concerns worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of different pathotypes of E. coli in captive wildlife. We analyzed 314 fresh fecal samples from captive wildlife, 30 stool swabs from animal caretakers, and 26 feed and water samples collected from various zoological gardens and enclosures in India for the isolation of E. coli, followed by pathotyping by multiplex PCR. The overall occurrence rate of E. coli was 74.05% (274/370). The 274 E. coli isolates were pathotyped by multiplex PCR targeting 6 genes. Of them, 5.83% were pathotyped as EPEC, 4.74% as STEC, and 1.09% as ETEC. The 16S rRNA genes from the selected isolates were amplified, sequenced, and a phylogenetic tree was constructed. The phylogenetic tree exhibited indiscriminate genetic profiling and some isolates from captive wild animals had 100% genetic identity with isolates from caretakers, suggesting that captive wildlife may serve as a reservoir for infection in humans and vice-versa. The present study demonstrates for the first time the prevalence of these E. coli pathotypes in captive wildlife in India. Our study suggests that atypical EPEC strains are more frequent than typical EPEC strains in captive wildlife. Discovering the implications of the prevalence of these pathotypes in wildlife conservation is a challenging topic to be addressed by further investigations.

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  • Zhen CHEN, Shaohua SHI, Baoming QI, Su LIN, Cuiteng CHEN, Chunhua ZHU, ...
    Article ID: 18-0168
    Published: 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: September 12, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Hydropericardium syndrome (HPS) is one of the important emerging diseases causing huge losses to the poultry industry. It affects mainly 3- to 6-week-old broiler chickens and rarely occurs in breeding and laying flocks. Recently, an HPS case was recorded with a sudden heavy mortality in a 100-day-old laying flock. A fowl adenovirus serotype 4 (FAdV-4), named as GDMZ strain, was isolated and identified using polymerase chain reaction coupled with electron microscopy. The animal experiment showed that a mortality of 100% was recorded with hydropericardium as a conspicuous lesion throughout the course of infection. Microscopically, vacuolar changes and intranuclear inclusion bodies were observed in the liver and vacuolar changes were observed in the heart. The complete genome sequence of GDMZ strain was determined to investigate the molecular properties of GDMZ strain. The comparative analysis revealed that the novel Chinese FAdV-4 isolate contained open reading frame (ORF) 19, ORF27, and ORF48 genomic deletions. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that FAdV-4 could be divided into two major clades, of which Chinese FAdV-4 were located at a distinct clade.

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  • Valeria PASCIU, Elena BARALLA, Maria NIEDDU, Sara SUCCU, Cristian PORC ...
    Article ID: 18-0356
    Published: 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: August 01, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Currently, several commercially available biochemical kits are validated for their use in human but not in animals. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate the applicability of human kits for alanine-aminotransferase, aspartato-aminotransferase, albumin, total protein, total cholesterol, and triglycerides in ovine plasma. Assays were validated according to international guidelines and stability was explored. Accuracy values were between 67 and 100%, and intra and interday precisions (%RSD) were < 15% for all studied parameters. These results confirm the suitability of the studied human kits for their use in ovine plasma and they were used in plasma collected from pregnant ewes.

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  • Yi-Ming CHEN, Chi-Chang HUANG, Chien-Yu HSIAO, Sindy HU, I-Lin WANG, H ...
    Article ID: 18-0165
    Published: 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: June 29, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Ludwigia octovalvis extract (LOE) is a widely used traditional Chinese herbal medicine. To date, few studies have demonstrated the effect of LOE supplementation on exercise performance, physical fatigue and biochemical profile. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the potential beneficial effects of LOE extract on fatigue and ergogenic functions following physiological challenge. Male ICR mice from 3 groups (n=8 per group) were orally administered LOE for 4 weeks at 0 (vehicle), 61.5 (LOE-1X) or 307.5 (LOE-5X) mg/kg/day. LOE supplementation was able to dose-dependently increase endurance swimming time (P<0.0001) and decrease levels of serum lactate (P=0.0022), ammonia (P<0.0001), creatine kinase (P<0.0001), blood urea nitrogen (P<0.0001) and glucose utilization (P<0.0001) after acute exercise challenge. The glycogen in gastrocnemius muscle also increased with LOE treatment in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.0001). Biochemically, AST, ALT, LDH, CK, BUN, creatinine and UA levels were decreased with LOE treatment. Our study shows that 4-week supplementation with LOE increases muscle glycogen content storage to enhance exercise performance and anti-fatigue effects.

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  • Dafei LIU, Fei LIU, Dongchun GUO, Xiaoliang HU, Zhijie LI, Zhigang LI, ...
    Article ID: 17-0442
    Published: 2018
    [Advance publication] Released: January 23, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    To rapidly distinguish Canine distemper virus (CDV), canine parvovirus (CPV), and canine kobuvirus (CaKoV) in practice, a one–step multiplex PCR/RT–PCR assay was developed, with detection limits of 102.1 TCID50 for CDV, 101.9 TCID50 for CPV and 103 copies for CaKoV. This method did not amplify nonspecific DNA or RNA from other canine viruses. Therefore, the assay provides a sensitive tool for the rapid clinical detection and epidemiological surveillance of CDV, CPV and CaKoV in dogs.

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  • Mario DOLERA, Luca MALFASSI, Simone PAVESI, Sara FINESSO, Giovanni MAZ ...
    Article ID: 16-0077
    Published: 2017
    [Advance publication] Released: November 15, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Atlanto-axial (AA) instability due to ligament insufficiency is a common cause of cervical spinal cord compression in toy breeds. However, in some dogs a difference in size between the atlas and the axis leads to joint incongruence that exacerbates AA subluxation and makes surgical treatment challenging. Twelve dogs with AA instability with incongruence were enrolled in a single institution prospective observational study. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the AA joint were compared to a retrospectively reviewed control group. A novel surgical approach consisting of a dorsal internal fixation technique was performed in six dogs. For affected dogs, the mean normalised difference between the dorso-ventral atlas canal and the dorso-ventral axis canal was 29.67% (median of 35.07%, standard deviation 25.64%), while in normal dogs a mean difference of 4.67% (median of 3.95%, standard deviation 5.21%) was observed. On MRI, 12/12 affected dogs had spinal cord compression, which was classified as reducible (3/12), partially reducible (6/12) and non-reducible (3/12). In surgically operated dogs, follow-up CT showed a partial or complete reduction of the previous spinal cord compression with a consistent amelioration or resolution of the presenting complaints. The proposed surgical technique was safe and effective in dogs with partially or completely reducible spinal cord compression.

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