We examined the antimicrobial susceptibility of 848 Escherichia coli isolates from 237 feces samples of wild sika deer (Cervus nippon) captured between 2016 and 2019 in 39 of the 47 prefectures of Japan. Five of the 237 wild sika deer (2.1%) carried E. coli with resistance to at least one antimicrobial, and all the resistant isolates showed resistance to tetracycline. The resistant isolates contained antimicrobial resistance genes that were similar to those in E. coli derived from humans and farm animals. Although wild sika deer are not currently likely to be a source for the transmission of antimicrobial resistance in Japan, they can potentially mediate antimicrobial resistance spread by coming into contact with humans, animals, and their surroundings.
Mammary tumors are the most common tumors in women and non-spayed female dogs. One of the reasons for mammary tumors is mutations of the tumor suppressor gene, BRCA2. BRCA2 participates in homologous recombination repair by interacting with the RAD51 recombinase. BRCA2 has two RAD51-binding domains, consisting of BRC repeats and the C-terminal RAD51-binding domain, respectively. Although several studies have addressed the function of the C-terminal RAD51-binding domain of human BRCA2, the amino acid sequences required for the RAD51-interaction activity remain unclear. In this study, the C-terminal RAD51-binding domains of canine and human BRCA2 were compared; the canine domain displayed a weaker interaction with RAD51. This difference was attributed to the C-terminal portion of the domain via a comparison between canine and human domains. Furthermore, peptides shorter than those previously reported displayed RAD51-interacting activity, and a core motif of this domain consisting of 25 amino acids was identified. Since a mutation (S3323N) was reported in the core motif of this domain, the effect of this mutation was evaluated. The mutant exhibited similar RAD51-binding activity as that of the wild-type protein, suggesting that the mutation was functionally neutral. These data suggested that the C-terminal portion of the BRCA2 C-terminal RAD51-binding domain influenced its RAD51-interaction activity, and a minimum core motif of 25 amino acids was identified in this domain. These data may help clarify BRCA2 function, as well as the tumorigenic effects of BRCA2 mutation.
Point-of-care (POC) devices that veterinary practitioners can use to easily and rapidly measure blood ionized calcium (iCa) levels in cows immediately after withdrawing a blood sample on the dairy farm are needed. Aims of present studies was to compare the commercially available ion-selective electrode handheld iCa meter (bovine blood iCa checker) with the benchtop blood gas analyzer GEM premier 3500 and handheld analyzer i-STAT 1. Sixty-two paired-point whole blood samples were obtained from three cows with hypocalcemia experimentally induced by Na2-EDTA infusion. Whole blood samples were also obtained from the 36 cows kept on a farm in field conditions. The results using the bovine blood iCa checker correlated with those using the GEM premier 3500 and i-STAT 1. Bovine blood iCa checker was “compatible” with the GEM premier 3500 and i-STAT 1 because the frequency of differences between the measurements within ± 20% of the mean were 100% (65/65, >75%) and 90.8% (59/65, >75%), respectively. In the field trial, the blood iCa concentration measured by the bovine blood Ca checker was significantly positively correlated with that measured by the i-STAT 1 portable analyzer. Bovine blood iCa checker was “compatible” with the i-STAT 1 because the frequency of differences between the measurements within ± 20% of the mean was 100% (36/36, >75%). Results from these findings, the bovine blood iCa checker may be applied as a simplified system to measure the iCa concentration in bovine whole blood.
Carboplatin is used to treat certain cancers in dogs and cats and is routinely administered via intravenous drip (IVD). Subcutaneous (SC) administration has also been described. However, the toxicity, serum concentrations, and area under blood concentration-time curves (AUCs) of SC carboplatin are unknown. This study aimed to compare serum carboplatin concentrations in dogs after SC and IVD and to monitor any adverse events. In this crossover study, five dogs received SC or IV carboplatin (300 mg/m2). After a minimum of 3 weeks, each dog received the other treatment. No gross skin toxicity or abnormal clinical signs were observed in any of the dogs. Blood test abnormalities were detected in most dogs. Decreased neutrophil and platelet counts, and increased C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were found. There was no significant difference in the neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and CRP scores between the groups. Systemic toxicities of SC carboplatin were comparable to those of IVD carboplatin. The time to maximum carboplatin concentration after SC was longer than that after IVD (P<0.001). SC carboplatin remained in the serum longer than IVD carboplatin (P=0.008). The AUC of SC was less than that of IVD (P=0.002). The AUC and time taken to reach the maximum concentration of SC carboplatin were lower than those of IVD carboplatin. This study suggests that SC carboplatin may be an efficacious option for the treatment of tumors in dogs, particularly where IVD administration is challenging.
In dogs, pancreatic acinar cell injury is thought to be caused by decreased pancreatic blood flow due to heart failure. In previous our report, it demonstrated that decreased heart function causes a significant decrease in pancreatic blood flow in heart failure dog model caused by rapid ventricular pacing (RVP). However, the types of histopathological changes remain unclear. We aimed to verify the types of histopathological changes occurring in the pancreatic tissue due to decreased heart function. After RVP for 4 weeks, atrophy of pancreatic acinar cells, characterized by a decrease in zymogen granules, was observed in all areas of the pancreas. In conclusion, the result of this study suggests that attention should be paid to ischemia/hypoperfusion injury in the pancreas.
Wasting marmoset syndrome (WMS) is a serious disease in captive common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) colonies. Because of the high mortality rates, elucidation of the underlying mechanisms is essential. In this study, we compared the histopathology, the number of each epithelial cell in the jejunum and colon, and the expression patterns of some molecular markers between healthy and WMS-affected marmosets. Atrophy of villi in the jejunum and mononuclear cell infiltration in the lamina propria were observed in the intestinal tract of WMS-affected marmosets. Although the numbers of transient amplifying cells and tuft cells were increased, the number of goblet cells was obviously decreased in the jejunum and colon of WMS-affected marmosets compared to healthy marmosets. In addition, the number of enterocytes in the jejunum was decreased in WMS animals. There was no apparent difference in the numbers of stem cells, enteroendocrine cells, or Paneth cells. The expression of β-catenin and Tcf7l2 was increased in WMS, and the co-existence of β-catenin and Tcf7l2/Cyclin D1 was observed around the crypts in WMS-affected marmosets. These findings suggest that cell proliferation continues, but cell differentiation is halted in the intestinal tract due to the enhanced β-catenin/Tcf7l2/Cyclin D1signaling pathway in WMS, which results in malfunction of the villus and mucosa.
A year-round molecular epidemiological survey (2017 to 2018) was conducted on three hemoplasmas and two Bartonella species with zoonotic potential in client-owned cats in Beijing and Shanghai. Among 668 specimens, the overall hemoplasma-positive rate was 4.9% (3.4% for Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum, 0.9% for Mycoplasma haemofelis and 1.2% for Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis). The overall Bartonella-positive rate was 8.5% (4.8% for B. henselae and 4.3% for B. clarridgeiae). Age, breed, ectoparasiticide use and stray history, but not city, season and gender, were significantly associated with the positive rates of one or more pathogens. This is also the first report on the prevalence of Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis in cats in China.
Radioresistance and radiotoxicity have been reported following cancer treatments in felines. Optimizing radiation doses to induce cytotoxic effects to only cancer cells and not normal cells is critical in achieving effective radiation therapy; however, the mechanisms of radiation resistance, radiotoxicity, and DNA damage response (DDR) in feline cells have not yet been elucidated. A DNA double-strand break (DSB) is the most toxic type of DNA damage induced by X-rays and heavy ion beams used in treating cancers. Crandell-Rees Feline Kidney (CRFK) cells is one of the most widely used cat cells in life science research. Here, we report that DSB-triggered senescence induced by X-rays is important in inhibiting the proliferation of CRFK cells. We demonstrated through cell proliferation assay that X-rays at doses 2 Gy and 10 Gy are toxic to CRFK cells that irradiating CRFK cells inhibits their proliferation. In X-irradiated CRFK cells, a dose-dependent increase in DSB-triggered senescence was detected according to morphological changes and using senescence-associated β galactosidase staining assay. Moreover, our data indicated that in CRFK cells, the major DDR pathway, which involves the phosphorylation of H2AX at Ser139, was normally activated by ATM kinases. Our findings are useful in the understanding of X-rays-induced cellular senescence and in elucidating biological effects of radiation, e.g., toxicity, in feline cells. Furthermore, our findings suggest that the CRFK cell line is an excellent matrix for elucidating radioresistance and radiotoxicity in cat cells.
Feline noroviruses (FNoVs) are potential clinical pathogens in cats. To perform an epidemiological study of FNoV infection, it is necessary to develop a simple and effective method for virus detection. We investigated whether a commercial human NoV quantitative RT-PCR kit for the detection of human NoVs used in medical practice can be applied for FNoV detection. This kit was capable of detecting the FNoV gene regardless of the genogroup (GIV and GVI) in experimental and field samples. Based on the above findings, it is possible to detect FNoVs using human NoV tests. The relationship between FNoV infection and gastroenteritis in cats may be clarified by applying these methods to an epidemiological survey of FNoVs.
A 13-year-old Bornean orangutan diagnosed with life threatening Streptococcus pyogenes broncho-pneumonia was kept in a state of deep sedation for 20 days via continuous intra-venous (IV) infusion of zolazepam -tiletamine and IV haloperidol to allow consistent IV administration of ceftazidime and gatifloxacine. The use of long-term deep sedation allowed carrying out a particularly demanding treatment not generally associated with zoological patients. The treatment was ultimately successful.