Wound healing in the Sunda porcupine is believed to occur quickly, although the wound is large and severe. Wound enclosure involves many processes to restore the lost or damaged skin structure where conjugated polysaccharide-protein and collagen, as the main components deposited in wound tissue to restore it. The aim of this study was to evaluate alteration of polysaccharide contents and collagen in untreated full-thickness wound healing in the thoracodorsal and lumbosacral regions in the Sunda porcupines. Histological analysis was performed by periodic acid Schiff, alcian blue pH 2.5, picrosirius red staining method and Low Vacuum Scanning Electron Microscope (LV-SEM) imaging to obtain the fundamental data of healing process. Wound healing began with re-epithelization followed by progressive wound contraction with 4 overlapping stages in about 30–50 days until the wound closed (21–30 days in thoracodorsal and 30–50 days in lumbosacral). Neutral polysaccharide was more widely distributed compared to the acid polysaccharide in almost all stages of wound healing. The ratio of collagen I to III appeared to be higher in the thoracodorsal region than the lumbosacral region during healing process. LV-SEM imaging showed changes in connective tissue structure in the wound border and granulation tissue which appeared abundant and mixed of thin and thick fiber. In conclusion, cutaneous full thickness wound healing in the Sunda porcupine occurred faster in the thoracodorsal region, which might be correlated to the role of neutral polysaccharide and a high ratio of collagen I to III.
There have been no reports of the prevalence of Eimeria spp. in poultry breeding farms in Japan unlike those of broiler farms. From 2017 to 2018, we examined the prevalence of Eimeria spp. on breeding farms in Japan by oocyst morphology and PCR analyses. A total of 143 samples was collected from 37 breeding farms in 21 prefectures of Japan. We detected oocysts of seven species at 34 of 37 breeding farms by PCR, and we identified E. brunetti at 51.5% of farms found to be positive for Eimeria. The differences in the identification of Eimeria spp. between the morphology and PCR assay methods of oocysts were pronounced for E. maxima and E. necatrix. We confirmed that molecular tools were more suitable for accurately estimating prevalence of Eimeria spp., and these findings suggest that E. brunetti could be widespread in Japan.
Three strains of chicken anemia virus (CAV) were detected in 11 to 14-weeks old chickens, showing depression, wasting, and increased mortality, from three farms in eastern Japan. Another strain was detected in 12-weeks old chickens from one farm without clinical signs. Bacterial infections were suggested in three farms with clinical signs and its involvement in the occurrence of the diseases might be suspected. Sequence analysis of the VP1, VP2, and VP3 genes of four CAV strains revealed that the three from farms with clinical signs belonged to genotype A2, whereas that from the apparently-normal farm belonged to A3. This may be a rare case report about the diseases suspected of the involvement of the CAV infection in older birds.
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of Johne’s disease (JD), a chronic infectious disease that causes intractable diarrhea in ruminants. To control the occurrence of JD in cattle, a national surveillance is conducted in Japan. Since 2013, real-time quantitative PCR has been used for definite diagnosis. In this study, we compared the amount of fecal MAP DNA with histopathological classification of ileocecal lesions. Multinomial logistic regression models enabled us to predict the probability of finding the histopathological classification from the amount of fecal MAP DNA. These results suggest that shedding level of MAP DNA could act as an indicator of JD progression.
We investigated the hemolytic properties, biochemical properties, and possession of virulence factor genes of Trueperella pyogenes isolated from cattle and pigs with septicemia. The porcine strains showed significantly stronger hemolyticity than the bovine strains. In addition, T. pyogenes from cattle and pigs also differed in biochemical properties. Virulence factor genes (nanP, cbpA, fimC, and fimE) were more prevalent in bovine strains, whereas other virulence factor genes (nanH and fimG) were more prevalent in porcine strains. T. pyogenes isolated from pig and cattle with septis cases in Japanese meat inspection showed variability in biochemical and genetic properties. Differences were observed between porcine and bovine strain in term of the hemolytic strength and possession of genes for factors promoting adhesions which are considered pathogenic.
This study aimed to assess the effects of atenolol on left ventricular (LV) and left atrial (LA) function in healthy cats and investigate the relationship between atenolol administration and LA enlargement (LAE) in cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). In study 1, nine experimental cats were used to assess the effects of atenolol in healthy subjects. Cats were administered one of three medication protocols for 7 days: atenolol 6.25 mg/cat twice daily, 12.5 mg/cat twice daily, or placebo (biofermin) 1 tab/cat twice daily. In study 2, cats with HCM were retrospectively recruited and divided into four groups according to atenolol administration [(control group (Cont) or atenolol administration group (Ate)] and the presence or absence of LAE as follows: Cont LAE (−) group (n=42), Cont LAE (+) group (n=20), Ate LAE (−) group (n=17), and Ate LAE (+) group (n=12). LV and LA functions were compared in both studies. LV and LA functions were decreased by atenolol administration in study 1. In study 2, the peak myocardial velocity during early diastole (E’) was significantly decreased in the Cont LAE (+), Ate LAE (−), and Ate LAE (+) groups compared to that in the Cont LAE (−) group, but there were no significant differences between LAE (+) groups. Multivariate logistic analysis revealed that atenolol administration was not associated with LAE. Diastolic dysfunction may be associated with LAE; however, atenolol administration did not affect LAE in cats with HCM.
To evaluate the localization of functional deficit area in epileptogenic zones of the brain in seven refractory and seven non-refractory epilepsy dogs using technetium 99m labeled with ethyl cysteinate dimer and interictal single photon emission computed tomography [99mTc-ECD SPECT] co-registration with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Regions showing perfusion deficits in the SPECT images were analyzed by using the standard semiquantitative evaluation method to compare the level of cortical perfusion to the maximum number of counts within the cerebellum (max C), considered the area of reference. This study showed that SPECT imaging revealed abnormalities in several regions of the brain in both epilepsy groups. The refractory epilepsy dogs showed more frequency area of hypoperfusion in temporal lobe than non-refractory group with not statistically significance (P=0.28). The result suggests the lesion in temporal might be relevance with refractory epilepsy in canine patients.
This study investigated the use of transient elastography (TE) as a tool for the non-invasive evaluation of liver stiffness and controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) in cows. A total of 85 cows were used for this study. After the liver was located and subcutaneous tissue thickness was checked by means of ultrasonography, liver stiffness and CAP were measured using TE. At least 10 measurements were taken per individual cow. In addition, intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated for intra-rater and two-rater inter-rater reliability of liver stiffness and CAP measurement, and were evaluated. Of the 85 cows, 61 (71.8%) were measurable owing to their significantly less body weight and subcutaneous tissue thickness compared with those of unmeasurable cows. Liver stiffness showed no significant differences among sexes, ages, or breeds. CAP showed no significant differences among sexes and breeds. Intra- and inter-rater reliabilities for liver stiffness and CAP were almost perfect. Both liver stiffness and CAP could be quantitatively evaluated with good reproducibility in cows using TE, and CAP increased with the growth of the cows. However, evaluation was not possible in obese cows or cows with high values for subcutaneous tissue thickness or body weight.
DNA methylation is the covalent modification of methyl groups to DNA mostly at CpG dinucleotides and one of the most studied epigenetic mechanisms that leads to gene expression variability without affecting the DNA sequence. Genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation identified the signatures that could define subtypes of human lymphoma patients. The objective of this study was to conduct the genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation in dogs with gastrointestinal lymphoma (GIL). Genomic DNA was extracted from endoscopic biopsies from 10 dogs with GIL. We performed Digital Restriction Enzyme Assay of DNA Methylation (DREAM) for genome-wide DNA methylation analysis that could provide highly quantitative information on DNA methylation levels of CpG sites across the dog genome. We successfully obtained data of quantitative DNA methylation level for 148,601–162,364 CpG sites per GIL sample. Next, we analyzed 83,132 CpG sites to dissect the differences in DNA methylation between GIL and normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). We found 383–3,054 CpG sites that were hypermethylated in GIL cases compared to PBMCs. Interestingly, 773 CpG sites including promoter regions of 61 genes were identified to be commonly hypermethylated in more than half of the cases, suggesting conserved DNA methylation patterns that are abnormal in GIL. This study revealed that there was a large number of hypermethylated sites that are common in most of canine GIL. These abnormal DNA methylation could be involved in tumorigenesis of the canine GIL.
An oral paclitaxel formulation that overcomes the hypersensitivity reaction of paclitaxel has been evaluated for safety and efficacy in humans, but not in dogs. We present the first case report on the use of oral paclitaxel in dogs. In this study, oral paclitaxel was well-tolerated in four dogs with either transitional cell carcinoma or prostate cancer; adverse effects were limited to mild neutropenia. Each of the dogs had progressive disease at the end, but clinical responses, including changes in mass size and improvement of clinical symptoms, were confirmed in some of the animals following oral paclitaxel chemotherapy. Although this study is somewhat limited by a small sample size, it suggests that oral paclitaxel may be a chemotherapeutic option for malignant tumors in dogs.
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) frequently results in several serious complications, such as cerebral vasospasm. We previously reported the effect of trehalose on vasospasm, inflammatory responses, and lipid peroxidation induced by blood exposure. Herein, to further elucidate the mechanism of action of trehalose, we investigated whether or not post-administration of trehalose can directly influence blood clotting in the cistern. As a result of trehalose injection after the onset of experimental SAH, blood clotting around the basilar artery was clearly inhibited. We also found that trehalose positively impacted coagulation and fibrinolysis parameters in rat, rabbit and human plasma in vitro. These findings suggest that trehalose has suppressive effects on blood clotting in addition to vasospasm, inflammatory responses, and lipid peroxidation after SAH.
Cerebral ischemia is a neurological disorder that causes permanent disability and is sometimes fatal. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is a natural polyphenol that exerts beneficial antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of EGCG against cerebral ischemia. Middle cerebral artery occlusion was surgically initiated to induce focal cerebral ischemia in adult male rats. EGCG (50 mg/kg) or vehicle was intraperitoneally injected just prior to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) induction. Neuronal behavior tests were performed 24 hr after MCAO. Brain tissues were isolated to evaluate infarct volume, histological changes, apoptotic cell death, and caspase-3 and poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) levels. MCAO injury led to serious functional neurological deficits and increased infarct volume. Moreover, it induced histopathological lesions and increased the numbers of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells in the cerebral cortex. However, EGCG improved MCAO-induced neurological deficits and reduced infarct volume, alleviated histopathological changes, and decreased TUNEL-positive cells in the cerebral cortex of MCAO rats. Western blot analysis showed increases of caspase-3 and PARP expression levels in MCAO rats with vehicle, whereas EGCG administration alleviated these increases after MCAO injury. These results demonstrate that EGCG exerts a neuroprotective effect by regulating caspase-3 and PARP proteins during cerebral ischemia. In conclusion, we suggest that EGCG acts as a potent neuroprotective agent by modulating the apoptotic signaling pathway.
Cryptosporidium, a waterborne protozoan parasite, has a substantial veterinary and medical impact worldwide. This parasite is more often recognized during waterborne outbreaks because of its resistance to chlorine disinfection, small size making it difficult to inactivate/eliminate through filtration, and presence in many animal species including humans. Migratory waterfowl, in addition to acting as mechanical carriers of Cryptosporidium oocysts, can also serve as natural reservoirs of infection by host-specific Cryptosporidium species. For better understanding of the extent of genetic diversity and inter-relationships among avian isolates of Cryptosporidium, 200 fecal samples of migratory ducks from the Tokachi subprefecture, Hokkaido, Japan were collected and analyzed by nested PCR (N-PCR) at the 18S rRNA gene. N-PCR revealed that 11.5% (23/200) were positive for Cryptosporidium spp. Among all samples, sequence analysis identified that 10% (20/200) were 98–100% identical to Cryptosporidium avian genotype III. On the other hand, 1.5% (3/200) were 99–100% identical to C. baileyi. This is the first molecular study reporting the prevalence of Cryptosporidium in migratory ducks in Japan. Genetic diversity among Cryptosporidium isolates from humans and birds has been reported worldwide. Nevertheless, further studies are important to assess genetic variety and to elucidate the transmission dynamics of Cryptosporidium parasites.
An 11-year-old female French Bulldog was presented with a mass at the base of the heart, detected by X-ray and echocardiography. Clinical abnormality included abdominal retention by ascites. Radiation therapy was performed for 5 weeks. The mass volume didn’t change during the radiotherapy. The condition became worse and the dog died 6 months after the initial presentation and necropsy was performed. Grossly, the mass, 12.5 × 6.5 × 6.0 cm in size, was found at the base of the heart. Histopathological examination revealed that cardiac mass was composed of alveolar, bundle and diffuse proliferation of neoplastic cells. Most of the neoplastic cells showed a spindle morphology; in some areas small round or polyhedral neoplastic cells were observed. Occasional cartilage metaplasia was seen multifocal in the mass, and it was surrounded by the sarcomatoid proliferation. Electron microscopy revealed a few neuroendocrine granules in the cytoplasm of spindle and polyhedral neoplastic cells. Metastatic cells in the lungs which had not irradiated demonstrated typical morphology of aortic body tumors. Based on these findings, the case was diagnosed as an aortic body carcinoma with sarcomatoid morphology and chondroid metaplasia.
The effects of climatic elements on Salmonella contamination of chicken meat were investigated. Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association between Salmonella isolation, for 240 chicken samples purchased from March 2015 to February 2017, and climatic elements, over 65 days of chicken rearing. Salmonella was isolated from 143 samples (59.6%), and the most dominant serovars identified were Infantis (77/240, 32.1%) and Schwarzengrund (56/240, 23.3%). Previous studies have reported S. Schwarzengrund contamination of broiler chickens only in western Japan; however, in the present study, S. Schwarzengrund was also isolated from meat produced in eastern Japan—20% (12/60) in the C prefecture to 36.4% (8/22) in the Y prefecture—suggesting that S. Schwarzengrund-contaminated areas have expanded towards eastern Japan. Air temperature showed a significant negative association with S. Schwarzengrund isolation for chicken meat produced during periods with rising temperature (spring and summer) [odds ratio (OR), 0.894 to 0.935; P<0.01]. Moreover, the risk of S. Schwarzengrund contamination of chicken meat was higher during spring (OR, 3.951; P=0.008) and winter (OR, 4.071; P=0.006) than during summer. Effects of climatic elements and differences in contamination risk across seasons were not observed for any Salmonella serovars and only S. Infantis, which could be attributed to differences in transmission patterns and vehicles among Salmonella serovars. These findings are valuable for understanding the dynamics of S. Schwarzengrund dissemination in broiler farms.
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global public health concern for both clinical and veterinary medicine. Rodent feces are one of the major infectious sources of zoonotic pathogens including AMR bacteria. So far, there are limited studies reported focused on Escherichia coli isolated in rodent feces from rural and suburban areas in Vietnam. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in E. coli isolated from feces samples of 144 urban rodents caught in Hanoi, Vietnam. A total of 59 AMR E. coli was isolated from urban rodents of which 42 were multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates (resistance to at least three classes of antimicrobial agents), four were extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing isolates and five were colistin-resistant isolates. The highest prevalence of the resistance was against ampicillin (79.7%: 47/59), followed by tetracycline (78.0%: 46/59), nalidixic acid (67.8%: 40/59), sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (59.3%: 35/59), chloramphenicol (45.8%: 27/59), ciprofloxacin (44.1%: 26/59), cefotaxime (30.5%: 18/59), cefodizime (23.7%: 14/59), amoxicillin-clavulanate (22.0%: 13/59), and gentamicin (22.0%: 13/59). With regard to the virulence genes associated with diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC), only aaiC gene found in one AMR isolate. In general, the use of antimicrobials does not aim to treat rodents except for companion animals. However, our findings show the carriage of AMR and MDR E. coli in urban rodents and highlight the potential risk of rodents in Hanoi acting as a reservoir of transferable MDR E. coli, including ESBL-producing, colistin-resistant E. coli, and virulence-associated with DEC.
In Japan, only one outbreak of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Chester (S. Chester) has been confirmed in 1999. We performed a single-center retrospective case review of S. Chester infections that occurred in a rural area of Japan in 2016 (n=8). Case 5 and 6 occurred in twin infants who had contact with a pet dog. The dog’s stool culture was positive for S. Chester. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and cluster analysis of S. Chester strains revealed that all the isolates appeared to be derived from the same genetic clone. Emergence of Salmonella infection can be overlooked if cases are not reported to health authorities; therefore, core hospitals should play a role to alert the occurrence of public health issue.
This study aimed to analyze the Salmonella serovars, measure the minimum inhibitory concentration of antimicrobials, and examine the antimicrobial resistance genes of Salmonella isolated from 192 broiler flocks in Kagoshima Prefecture in Japan, from 2013 to 2016. We found that all Salmonella isolates belonged to three serovars: Salmonella Manhattan, S. Infantis, and S. Schwarzengrund. Among them, S. Schwarzengrund prevalence has recently increased annually making the main serovar. Most recovered isolates were highly resistant to streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, and oxytetracycline. We saw the reduction of third-generation cephalosporin resistance and identified the reason of increased kanamycin resistance to be the increased number of S. Schwazengrund isolates. Among the kanamycin-resistant Salmonella isolates, aphA1 constituted the main resistance gene detected.
Surgical trauma to the abdominal wall and peritoneum during celiotomy is expected to cause postoperative inflammation. However, complications after abdominal surgery are hardly detected in the early stage. Hematological analysis of blood has been considered beneficial in disease diagnosis and prognosis. This study aimed to evaluate the hematological parameters predicting peritonitis in goats and to determine the post-surgery day that hematology is significant. Six apparently healthy West African Dwarf goats were included in this study. After 2 weeks of acclimatization, blood samples were obtained daily for 3 days for hematological analyses, which served as the baseline data. The right flanks of the animals were aseptically prepared routinely for exploratory laparotomy. Restraint and anesthesia were achieved using xylazine and lignocaine using an inverted “L” block technique. Laparotomy was performed, and the incision was left for 20 min and then closed routinely. Blood samples were collected for hemogram 24 hr postoperatively and daily for 7 days. Based on the post-surgery hematology results, relative neutrophil (P=0.015) and lymphocyte (P=0.006) counts significantly increased and decreased on day 5 respectively. Significant differences were also observed for red blood cell count, hemoglobin concentration, and packed cell volume on days 5, 6, and 7 respectively. It could therefore be concluded that the diagnostic result for hematology post-laparotomy can be obtained on the fifth and sixth day.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the applicability and feasibility of a novel preoperative planning method for tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) based on the width of the proximal tibia. All TPLO procedures were performed by the same surgeon. In preoperative planning, the width of the tibial crest to the caudal edge of the medial tibial plateau (W) was measured, and the saw blade size that was closest to the distance between the point of the cranial third W and the intercondylar tubercles was selected. The postoperative tibial plateau angle (TPA), distance of eccentricity (DOE), and minimum thickness of the tibial tuberosity remaining cranial to the osteotomy (tibial tuberosity width; TTW) were documented. Complications in the perioperative and follow-up periods were documented. Thirty-one TPLO procedures were performed in 28 dogs, including both small and large breeds. The postoperative TPA was 8.4 ± 2.0° and the DOE was 3.55 ± 2.88 mm. The ratio of the TTW to the preoperative W was 0.27 ± 0.06. There were no major complications, such as fractures of the tibial tuberosity or implant breakage. This preoperative planning method allowed appropriate planning for TPLO with a clear index that was based on the size of the tibia rather than the breed or weight of the dog. This method should be of benefit to the surgeon, whether an expert or a novice, and contribute to the success of TPLO.
We examined the paracrine action of canine mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) derived from bone marrow on the survival and differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) in vitro. MSCs were collected from the proximal end of the diaphysis of femur of healthy beagle dogs. The 70–80% confluent MSCs were re-fed with serum-free DMEM. The MSCs were incubated for 48 hr and the supernatant was collected as the conditioned medium (MSC-CM). The survival rate of NSCs in MSC-CM was significantly greater than in the medium without MSC-CM. The percentage of differentiated neurons and neurite length in MSC-CM was also significantly higher than in the medium without MSC-CM. These results suggested that canine MSC-CM promotes stem cell survival and neural differentiation of NSCs.
The factors that affect the interval to ovulation, the type of ovulated dominant follicle (DF), and the cause of anovulation after prostaglandin (PG) treatment were investigated. Nine cows were assigned to six groups (54 cows in total) but the group size was later fixed at eight cows (48 in total). They received 25 mg tromethamine dinoprost as dinoprost on Day 6 (Group D6), Day 7 (Group D7), Day 8 (Group D8), Day 9 (Group D9), Day 10 (Group D10), or Day 11 (Group D11) after natural ovulation (Day 0). If the DF did not ovulate, then the cow was assigned to Group NO. In Group D6, the 1st DF ovulated in all cows 4 days after PG treatment, whereas in Groups D9, D10, and D11, the 2nd DF ovulated in all cows 4 to 7 days after PG treatment. In 10 cows, the DF did not ovulate, and late anovulation was significantly higher in Group D6 cows than in Group D11 cows. The progesterone (P4) levels decreased to less than 1 ng/ml in all groups on the day after PG treatment. The estradiol-17β (E2) levels began to increase after PG treatment and peaked at 2 days before ovulation in the cows that ovulated. In anovulated cows, E2 tended to be higher and there was no clear E2 peak in some cows. These results indicated that the number of days to ovulation, the type of ovulated DF, and anovulation were affected by factors that were associated with the DF when it was producing E2.
This study evaluated the effect of false mounts (FM) on quality of frozen-thawed semen in beef bulls. Five mature Brahman bulls at the Standard Semen Production Center in Thailand were subjected to semen collection. Overall, 60 ejaculates were collected over a 12-week period of which 30 were collected without, and another 30 were collected using FM. A range of quality parameters of fresh, pre-frozen, and frozen-thawed semen were evaluated. Use of FM resulted in significant improvement of most parameters of fresh semen except progressive motility and sperm viability. The quality parameters of pre-frozen and frozen-thawed semen also significantly improved with FM. Use of FM significantly improved the viability of frozen-thawed semen, possibly indicating the protective effect of seminal plasma proteins.
Four commonly used organophosphates (fenitrothion, dichlorvos, chlorpyrifos, and trichlorfon) were orally administered to male Sprague-Dawley rats for five days in order to explore their effects on the activities of liver cytochrome P450 (CYP). In addition, Michaelis-Menten kinetics of the metabolic reactions catalyzed by liver CYPs were analyzed following the addition of these compounds to the assay system to examine their potential inhibitory effects on liver CYPs activities. These reactions included ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation, midazolam 4-hydroxylation, tolbutamide hydroxylation, and bufuralol 1’-hydroxylation for CYP1A, 3A, 2C, and 2D activities, respectively. Total CYP content was also examined after oral administration of each organophosphate. Results revealed that oral giving of fenitrothion inhibited significantly CYP1A and 3A activities while elevated activity of CYP2C. Fenitrothion is a potent inhibitor for CYP1A and 2C with Ki values of 0.42 and 36.1 µM, respectively but had a weak inhibitory effect on CYP2D and 3A with Ki values of 290 and 226 µM, respectively. Chlorpyrifos is a potent inhibitor of CYP1A with Ki 0.24 µM and moderately inhibited CYP2C or 3A with Ki values of 84.8 and 77.7 µM, respectively. On the other hand, dichlorvos and trichlorfon caused extremely low or negligible inhibition of different CYP activities. From these results, it is concluded that both fenitrothion and chlorpyrifos may increase the toxicity of chemicals in environmental living organisms through their potent inhibitory effects on these CYP activities, but dichlorvos and trichlorfon may not.
The objective of this study was to provide a screening scheme of persistently infected (PI) cattle on dairy herds by combining reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to detect bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in milk tanker samples and commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect BVDV antibodies in bulk tank milk. We conducted a pilot survey and regional survey targeting all dairy farms in Ibaraki Prefecture by using milk tanker and bulk tank milk samples to screen PI cattle. Farms with positive samples underwent a follow-up test to identify PI cattle. In the pilot study, all virus-positive samples in bulk tank milk were included in the positive milk tanker samples. The RT-PCR assay successfully detected BVDV at dilutions of 1:1,600 by using two PI cows’ milk. In the regional survey, 5 of 79 milk tanker samples were virus-positive. The virus was detected in three PI lactating cows and one PI calf on three farms. Antibody screening using bulk tank milk samples revealed 15 of 363 samples were positive, and 12 of 348 farms were BVDV antibody-positive. Follow-up tests on one farm identified three PI calves. Thus, eight PI cattle on five farms were identified in this study. In conclusion, combining BVDV detection using milk tanker samples and antibody detection using bulk tank milk is a feasible and economical method to efficiently screen PI cattle and confirm the PI-free status among dairy herds.
The prevalence of bovine foamy virus (BFV) infections in cattle on farms in the Kanto region of Japan was determined using agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Six out of 20 farms contained BFV-positive cattle. Furthermore, 16.7% (91/545) of all cattle tested positive for BFV. This suggested that BFV-infected cattle are widely prevalent in Japan. Positive results for BFV infection were consistent between AGID and PCR tests. Additionally, we tested for bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infections at nine farms, primarily those containing BFV-infected cows. At each farm, the infection rate of BFV was lower than that of BLV. Further, cattle that were PCR-positive but antibody-negative, indicating immune tolerance to BFV, were not detected.
We compared the Mx expression and anti-viral function and the 3D structure of Mx protein in four species: chicken (Gallus gallus), whooper swan (Cygnus cygnus), jungle crow (Corvus macrorhynchos), and rock dove (Columba livia). We observed different mortalities associated with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infection to understand the relationship between Mx function as an immune response factor and HPAIV proliferation in bird cells. Different levels of Mx were observed among the different bird species after virus infection. Strong Mx expression was confirmed in the rock dove and whooper swan 6 hr after viral infection. The lowest virus copy numbers were observed in rock dove. The virus infectivity was significantly reduced in the BALB/3T3 cells expressing rock dove and jungle crow Mx. These results suggested that high Mx expression and significant Mx-induced anti-viral effects might result in the rock dove primary cells having the lowest virus copy number. Comparison of the expected 3D structure of Mx protein in all four bird species demonstrated that the structure of loop L4 varied among the investigated species. It was reported that differences in amino acid sequence in loop L4 affect antiviral activity in human and mouse cells, and a significant anti-viral effect was observed in the rock dove Mx. Thus, the amino acid sequence of loop L4 in rock dove might represent relatively high anti-viral activity.
An osteoma is an infrequent tumor documented in avian species. An adult female Peach-Faced Lovebird (Agapornis roseicollis) with a history of previous trauma was examined due to the presence of bilateral hard and yellowish-white masses in the radio-cubital humerus junction. Histopathological dermal examination revealed a non-neoplastic process of mesenchymal origin, characterized by the formation of well-differentiated trabecular bone, multiple areas of medullary bone and loose connective tissue and coagulation of the necrosis foci. Based on the histological findings and the medical history, the masses were diagnosed as bilateral secondary osteoma cutis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of this pathology with an acute course in this exotic pet bird. The previous trauma could be the initiating cause.
Here, we investigated the prevalence of Salmonella enterica, with and without resistance to 17 common antimicrobial agents, in 706 green anoles (Anolis carolinensis) that were collected in Naha and Tomigusuku Cities, Okinawa Main Island, Japan, between 2009 and 2014. Salmonella strains, including S. enterica Weltevreden and Enteritidis serovars, were identified in the large intestinal content samples extracted from 15 (2.1%) of the analyzed green anoles. No antimicrobial resistance was detected. Thus, the present study demonstrates that although the prevalence of Salmonella and the risk of its transmission from the green anoles to humans or other animals on Okinawa Main Island are relatively low, the green anole population nevertheless represents a potential source of Salmonella infection that could affect human health in this region.