Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Online ISSN : 1347-7439
Print ISSN : 0916-7250
ISSN-L : 0916-7250
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Displaying 1-48 of 48 articles from this issue
  • Noriyuki NAGATA, Hiryu SAWAMURA, Keitaro MORISHITA, Kenji HOSOYA, Nozo ...
    Article ID: 22-0131
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: May 27, 2022
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    The urinary corticoid to creatinine ratio (UCCR) is one of the most commonly used screening tests for canine hypercortisolism (HC). In this study, a reference interval was established for UCCR using IMMULITE 2000 XPi, the latest chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay. The diagnostic performance of this method for UCCR in canine HC was also evaluated. The median UCCR was 1.06 × 10–5 (range: 0.28–2.49) for 58 healthy dogs, and an upper reference limit of 1.98 × 10–5 (90% confidence interval: 1.76–2.15) was determined. The median UCCR in the 12 dogs with HC (7.38 × 10–5, range 1.86–29.98) was significantly higher than that in the 16 dogs with mimic-HC (1.59 × 10–5, range 0.47–3.42, P<0.001). The area under the curve for UCCR to differentiate HC dogs from mimic-HC dogs was 0.971, with a sensitivity of 91.7% and specificity of 100% when the cut-off value was set at 3.77 × 10–5. The UCCR of 16 paired urine samples collected at home and in hospital showed that the UCCR of samples collected in the hospital was significantly higher than that of samples collected at home (mean difference 3.30 × 10–5, 95% confidence interval: 0.70–5.90, P=0.001). In summary, we established the upper reference limit for UCCR using IMMULITE 2000 XPi in dogs and confirmed that UCCR is a useful diagnostic test for HC in dogs if urine samples are collected at home.

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  • Hock Gan HENG, Sarah M. CHURGIN, Foo Khong LEE, Russell GRAYDON, Paolo ...
    Article ID: 21-0349
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: May 26, 2022
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    A geriatric female giant panda developed grave signs of illness and was diagnosed with suspected hepatobiliary tract obstruction or other severe hepatic disease such as advanced cholangiohepatitis. The giant panda was euthanized and post mortem computed tomography was performed prior to necropsy. Common bile duct obstruction at the major duodenal papilla by a mineral attenuating calculus causing dilatation of common bile and gallbladder with concurrent multiple areas of liver abscess were detected by postmortem computed tomography. These were confirmed with gross necropsy. This is the first case report of common bile duct obstruction by mineral calculus with concurrent severe cholangiohepatitis in a giant panda.

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  • Ryuichi YONESHIGE, Mie WADA, Yusuke HONKAWA, Naoki MIURA, Noriaki MIYO ...
    Article ID: 22-0183
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: May 26, 2022
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    A 36-day-old Japanese Black calf exhibited wheezing associated with dyspnea from birth. Arterial blood gas analysis revealed a low oxygen partial pressure of 51 mmHg, low oxygen saturation of 83%, and high carbon dioxide partial pressure of 58.8 mmHg. Computed tomography, endoscopy, and ultrasonography showed cyst formation under the epiglottis. When the cyst was aspirated under ultrasonic guidance to secure the airway, 30 ml of viscous white turbid content was aspirated. The cyst shrank immediately after aspiration, but the wheezing and respiratory symptoms resumed 7 days after aspiration. Therefore, the cyst was surgically removed from the ventral side of the neck. No cyst remodeling was observed 30 days after surgical removal.

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  • Hiroshi AKAIKE, Makoto NAGAI, Alexandre Tomomitsu OKATANI, Yukio MORIT ...
    Article ID: 21-0563
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: May 23, 2022
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    This study examined the safety and productivity data analysis of a dairy farm over a 3-year period following the implementation of a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) system in 2018. The CCP was “the selection of milking cows” and the critical limit was “the withholding period has passed.” No deviation from the critical limit was observed, the safety of the milk is ensured. In addition, the average daily milk yield per cow increased, while the average number of somatic cells/ml decreased. The number of cows with newly diagnosed mastitis increased, and the product excluded. These results suggest that the HACCP system had a positive effect on milk yield per cow and led to a decrease in somatic cells.

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  • Chika SHIRAKATA, Sakura SUGAWARA, Rui KANO
    Article ID: 22-0007
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: May 20, 2022
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    In this study, we isolated eight strains of Candida albicans from the blowhole air cultures of eight dolphins (one Pacific white-sided dolphin and seven bottlenose dolphins) housed at the Enoshima Aquarium. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of antifungals for these isolates were determined by conducting E-test and broth microdilution assays using the CLSI M27-A3 protocol antifungal susceptibility testing method. Only one of the eight dolphins from which Candida had been isolated had been treated with amphotericin B (AMB), and four had been treated with itraconazole (ITZ). All isolates were identified as Candida albicans, and all were resistant to both ITZ and voriconazole, though the isolates exhibited susceptibility to AMB and micafungin. Based on our findings, we suspect that the frequency of occurrence of azole-resistant Candida species is increasing in captive dolphins as well as in their aquarium environments.

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  • Narumi OTSUKA, Kairi ISHIMARU, Mami MURAKAMI, Minami GOTO, Akihiro HIR ...
    Article ID: 22-0102
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: May 19, 2022
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    Peroxiredoxin (PRDX) is an antioxidant enzyme family with six isoforms (PRDX1-6). The main function of PRDXs is to decrease cellular oxidative stress by reducing reactive oxygen species, such as hydrogen peroxide, to H2O. Recently, it has been reported that PRDXs are overexpressed in various malignant tumors in humans, and are involved in the development, proliferation, and metastasis of tumors. However, studies on the expression of PRDXs in tumors of animals are limited. Therefore, in the present study, we immunohistochemically investigated the expression of PRDX1 and 2 in spontaneous canine hemangiosarcoma (HSA) and hemangioma (HA), as well as in selected normal tissue and granulation tissue, including newly formed blood vessels. Although there were some exceptions, immunolocalization of PRDX1 and 2 in normal canine tissues was similar to those in humans, rats, or mice. In granulation tissue, angiogenic endothelial cells were strongly positive for PRDX1 and 2, whereas quiescent endothelial cells in mature vessels were negative. Both PRDX1 and 2 were significantly highly expressed in HSA compared to HA. There were no significant differences in the expression of PRDX1 and 2 among the subtypes and primary sites of HSA. These results suggest that PRDX1 and 2 may be involved in the angiogenic phenotypes of endothelial cells in granulation tissue as well as in the behavior in the malignant endothelial tumors.

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  • Siti Nurul Izzah MOHD-AZAMI, Shih Keng LOONG, Jing Jing KHOO, Norhiday ...
    Article ID: 22-0037
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: May 18, 2022
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    Rat bocavirus (RBoV) and rodent bocavirus (RoBoV) have previously been detected in Rattus norvegicus; however, these viruses have not been reported in rodent populations in Malaysia. We investigated the presence of RBoV and RoBoV in archived rodent specimens. DNA barcoding of the rodent cytochrome c oxidase gene identified five different species: Rattustanezumi R3 mitotype, Rattus tiomanicus, Rattus exulans, Rattus argentiventer, and Rattus tanezumi sensu stricto. Three spleens were positive for RBoV (1.84%; 3/163), but no RoBoV was detected. Phylogenetic analyzes of the partial non-structural protein 1 gene grouped Malaysian RBoV strains with RBoV strains from China. Further studies among rats from different geographical locations are warranted for this relatively new virus.

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  • Hieu Duc DUONG, Yuji TANIGUCHI, Yasuhiro TAKASHIMA, Satoshi SEKIGUCHI, ...
    Article ID: 22-0099
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: May 18, 2022
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    Toxoplasmosis is a widespread protozoan zoonosis. Since ingesting undercooked meat harboring Toxoplasma gondii cyst is considered one of the major transmission routes to humans, the screening of T. gondii in meat-producing animals can reduce the risk of food-borne toxoplasmosis in humans. Among serological diagnostic methods, Luciferase-linked Antibody Capture Assay (LACA) has been found to be a promising platform with high sensitivity and specificity. In this study, we aimed to evaluate recombinant nanoluciferase fused-T. gondii antigens (rNluc-GRA6, rNluc-GRA7, rNluc-GRA8 and rNluc-BAG1) for their potential use in LACA for pigs. As a result, the sensitivity of GRA6-, GRA7-, GRA8- and BAG1-LACA were 70.0%, 80.0%, 80.0% and 30.0% with specificity 87.0%, 81.5%, 74.1% and 50.0%, respectively. The cocktail LACA using a mixture of rNluc-GRA6, rNluc-GRA7 and rNluc-GRA8 indicated higher sensitivity (90.0%) and a similar specificity (96.3%) in comparison with the commercial ELISA kit. Compared to the Dye-Test as a reference test, cocktail LACA showed strong agreement (kappa value = 0.811) when we assessed pig sera collected at the slaughterhouse. In addition, we also successfully established the rapid LACA format for the detection of Toxoplasma infection in pigs (called Rapid-LACA) in which the test could be performed within 30 min. In Rapid-LACA, the protein A pre-coated/blocked plates could be preserved at -30℃, 4℃ or room temperature conditions for at least two months without compromising on the quality of assay.

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  • Shinsuke H. SAKAMOTO, Kazutoshi NISHIJIMA, Tamio OHNO, Shin TANAKA
    Article ID: 22-0111
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: May 18, 2022
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    Reproductive performance affects the efficiency of the production of animals. Therefore, knowing the reproductive properties of each species or strain of animal is important for proper management of breeding stocks. To elucidate the reproductive properties of female F344/N rats, frequently used for longevity and gerontology research, we monitored the breeding duration, number of deliveries, litter size and weaning rate of their pups. The first delivery was observed at 2.9 ± 0.1 (mean ± standard deviation) months of age (M) and the last delivery was at 15.1 ± 1.8 M. The number of deliveries was 10.4 ± 2.8 (range of 7–16) within the life span of the mother (24.7 ± 5.6 M). The litter sizes at the third (10.0 ± 3.0) or fourth (10.3 ± 2.7) deliveries were higher than for other deliveries. The breeding outcome declined after the fifth delivery yielding reduced litter size or weaning rate, number of delivered mother. These results suggests that though female F344/N rats are able to deliver more than 10 times, the reproductive performance lowered after fifth delivery.

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  • Ting HE, Changqiang ZHU, Zhiyong LI, Lele AI, Dan HU, Chunhui WANG, Fe ...
    Article ID: 22-0058
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: May 17, 2022
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    Ticks are an important group of arthropod vectors. Ticks pose a profound risk to public health by transmitting many types of microorganisms that are human and animal pathogens. With the development of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology and viral metagenomics, numerous novel viruses have been discovered in ticks and tick-related hosts. To fully understand the virus spectrum in ticks in the Zhoushan Archipelago of Zhejiang province in China, ticks were collected from Qushan Island, Zhoushan Island, and Daishan Island in the Zhoushan Archipelago in June 2016. NGS performed to investigate the diversity of tick-associated viruses identified 21 viral sequences. Twelve were pathogenic to humans and animals. Trough verification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) revealed the existence of three tick-associated viruses with extensive homology with Dabieshan, MG22, and Odaw virus. Other NGS-detected sequences that could not be amplified by PCR were highly homologous (92–100%) with known pathogenic viruses that included hepatitis B virus, papillomavirus, and human mastadenovirus C. This is the first study to systematically apply high throughput sequencing technology to explore the spectrum of viruses carried by ticks in the Zhoushan Archipelago. The findings are fundamental knowledge of the diversity of tick-associated viruses in this region and will inform strategies to monitor and prevent the spread of tick-borne diseases.

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  • Kien Trung LE, Norikazu ISODA, Lam Thanh NGUYEN, Duc-Huy CHU, Long Van ...
    Article ID: 22-0011
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: May 13, 2022
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    The impact of low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) has been confirmed mainly in farms. Unlike apparent losses caused by the high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI), the LPAI impact has been hardly evaluated due to underestimating its spread and damage. In 2019, a questionnaire study was conducted in southern Vietnam to identify the specific risk factors of LPAI virus (LPAIV) circulation and to find associations between husbandry activities and LPAI prevalence. A multilevel regression analysis indicated that keeping Muscovy ducks during farming contributed to LPAIV positivity [Odds ratio=208.2 (95% confidence interval: 13.4–1.1×104)]. In cluster analysis, farmers willing to report avian influenza (AI) events and who agreed with the local AI control policy had a slightly lower risk for LPAIV infection although there was no significance in the correlation between farmer characteristics and LPAI occurrence. These findings indicated that keeping Muscovy ducks without appropriate countermeasures might increase the risk of LPAIV infection. Furthermore, specific control measures at the local level are effective for LPAIV circulation, and the improvement of knowledge about biosecurity and attitude contributes to reducing LPAI damage.

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  • Rasha M. ELKENANY, Rasha ELTAYSH, Mona ELSAYED, Mohamed ABDEL-DAIM, Ra ...
    Article ID: 22-0018
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: May 06, 2022
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    This study was organized to investigate the prevalence, antibiotic and disinfectant resistance phenotypes and genotypes as well as plasmid profiles of Shigella species isolated from raw cow milk and milk products in Egypt. Genotypic analysis was performed to determine the presence of β-lactamase encoding genes(blaTEM, blaCTX-M, blaOXA-1 and blaSHV), tet(A) and qacE∆.Forty-two (7%) Shigella isolates (S. dysenteriae, S. flexneri, and S. sonnei) were recovered, with S. dysenteriae as the predominant type. Antibiotic sensitivity tests showed that 71.4% of Shigella isolates were resistant to three or more antibiotic classes (multidrug-resistant). High resistance rates were observed against tetracyclines (100%), ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate (90.5%, each) and cefaclor (66.7%), while no resistance was detected against imipenem, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, and azithromycin. Disinfectant susceptibility test of Shigella isolates revealed resistance to phenolic compound (vanillic acid), while 85.7% of the Shigella isolates were resistant to benzalkonium chloride. Uniplex PCR analysis declared the existence of β-lactamase encoding genes(blaTEM in all isolates and blaCTX-M in 28.6% of isolates) and, tet(A) in all isolates and 85.7% of the isolates were positive for qacE∆1, while all isolates were negative for blaOXA-1 and blaSHV. All Shigella extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) producers (12, 100%) were positive for the blaTEM, blaCTX-M, and qacE∆1 genes. Furthermore, plasmid profiling revealed seven distinct plasmid patterns (P1-P7), ranging from 1.26 to 33.61 kb, among all the Shigella strains; S. dysenteriae exhibited the greatest variance. The co-transfer of β-lactamase genes (blaTEM and blaCTX-M) and qacE∆1 geneswas observed by conjugation from all ESBL producers to a recipient strain.These findings indicate the emergence of Shigella species in Egypt that exhibited multi-resistance to either antibiotics (particularly ESBL producer strains) or disinfectants. Thus, the resistance of Shigella species should regularly be monitored and appropriate measures should be taken to manage this problem.

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  • Naoko YAYOSHI, Yuji HAMAMOTO, Hitomi ODA, Aiko HAGA, Kaoru KOYAMA, Tos ...
    Article ID: 22-0021
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: May 05, 2022
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    A 10-year-old castrated male cat showing behavioral (irritation, prowling, and tumbling) and cutaneous abnormalities such as dermal fragility was diagnosed as hyperadrenocorticismwith pituitary macroadenoma, concurrent with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Pituitary enlargement (18.0 mm) was observed during magnetic resonance imaging. High endogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone levels (>2,500 pg/ml) were also observed.Although trilostane treatment (5–10 mg/head, daily) was commenced, the clinical signs did not disappear. Insulin and trilostane treatment were discontinued on day 86 after first day of radiation therapy (4 Gy/12 fractions). After radiation therapy, a decreased pituitary tumor size (10.7 mm) was observed on day 301; neurological and dermatological signs exhibited remission. Radiation therapy is the treatment of choice for feline hyperadrenocorticismwith pituitary macroadenoma with neurological signs.

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  • Noriyuki NAGATA, Hiroshi OHTA, Nozomu YOKOYAMA, Yong Bin TEOH, Noboru ...
    Article ID: 22-0076
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: May 05, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Hyperplastic goblet cells and abundant mucus are significant characteristics of inflammatory colorectal polyps (ICRPs) in miniature dachshunds. In this study, selected mucin gene expressions and goblet cell proportions were evaluated in miniature dachshunds with ICRPs and in healthy dogs. Mucin 2 (MUC2) gene expression was not significantly different among the groups, whereas mucin 5AC (MUC5AC) gene expression was significantly higher in the polypoid lesions than in healthy colonic mucosa. Although the percentage of goblet cells in the upper crypt regions did not significantly differ between the groups, that in the lower crypt regions was significantly decreased in polypoid lesions. In conclusion, increased MUC5AC gene expression and goblet cell proportion changes may be associated with the pathogenesis of ICRPs.

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  • Shoko NAKAMUTA, Yoshio YAMAMOTO, Nobuaki NAKAMUTA
    Article ID: 22-0173
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: May 05, 2022
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    In the olfactory organ of lungfish, recesses at the bases of lamellae comprise sensory and nonsensory epithelia. The sensory epithelium of the recesses, the recess epithelium, is distinguished from the olfactory epithelium covering the lamella by the absence of ciliated olfactory receptor cells. Therefore, it has been suggested that the recess epithelium is a primordium of the vomeronasal organ of tetrapods. However, developmental changes in the number and distribution of recesses in the olfactory organ of lungfish were unknown. We examined four Protopterus aethiopicus specimens of body lengths 215–800 mm to determine the localization of recesses in their olfactory organs. Histological examination showed recesses at the bases of lamellae in all individuals examined. The recesses were localized mainly in the medial and caudal parts of the olfactory organs, especially in juveniles. Compared to smaller fish, larger fish had a larger number of recesses, distributed more broadly in their olfactory organs. Significance of the recess localization and its relationship to the function of lungfish olfactory organ warrants further investigation.

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  • Md. Amirul HASAN, Md. Humayun KABIR, Yu MIYAOKA, Makiko YAMAGUCHI, Kaz ...
    Article ID: 22-0026
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: May 04, 2022
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    After improvement of hygiene protocols on boots in a bovine operation (farm A) in Ibaraki, Japan in September 2017, mortality of calves and the detection of 4 viral pathogen indicators, including bovine rotavirus A (RVA), became significantly low for one year. Subsequently, in the present study, these indicators and mortality were monitored and confirmed all were still low, except for the detection rate of bovine RVA in calves less than 3 weeks old. The present study aimed to investigate G and P genotypic profiles of RVAs in farm A from 2018 to 2020. Molecular analysis using semi-nested multiplex RT-PCR of positive RVAs (n = 122) and sequencing of selected samples revealed the presence of G6, G8, G10, P[1], P[5] and P[11] genotypes and the prevalence of G and/or P combination and mixed infections. The most common combination of G and P types was G10P[11] (41.8%), followed by mixed infection with G6+G10 P[5] (11.5%). Phylogenetic analysis of RVAs showed clustering with bovine and other animal-derived RVA strains, suggesting the possibility of multiple reassortant events with strains of bovine and others animal origins. Noteworthy as well is that vaccinated cattle might fail to provide their offspring with maternal immunity against RVA infections, due to insufficient colostrum feeding. Our findings further highlight the importance of RVA surveillance in bovine populations, which may be useful to improving effective routine vaccination and hygiene practices on bovine farms.

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  • Ai GOTO, Ryuichi KAMBAYASHI, Hiroko IZUMI-NAKASEKO, Yoshinori TAKEI, S ...
    Article ID: 21-0583
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: May 03, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    Supplementary material

    Motion of mitral valve during cardiac massage was examined using beagle dogs with ventricular fibrillation (n=4). Active compression-decompression cardiac massage (ACD-CM) exhibited greater peak aortic pressure than standard cardiac massage (S-CM), reverse of which was true for peak pulmonary capillary wedge pressure in each animal. Accordingly, peak aortic pressure was greater than peak pulmonary capillary wedge pressure with ACD-CM, whereas its reverse was true with S-CM. Transesophageal echocardiography revealed that mitral valve was incompletely closed with S-CM with showing regurgitation. The valve was more effectively closed during ACD-CM. These results indicate that effective closure of mitral valve during cardiac massage may increase forward blood flow, supporting “cardiac pump theory” rather than “thoracic pump theory” as a principle in dogs.

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  • Yong WANG, Xuling QIN, Xiuguo DIAO, Yongxia LIU, Jianzhu LIU
    Article ID: 21-0660
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: April 29, 2022
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    Encephalitozoon cuniculi (E. cuniculi) is a microsporidian parasite commonly detected in rabbits and can infect humans and cause encephalitozoonosis. And Toxoplasma gondii is a prevalent parasite distributed worldwide and can infect almost all warm-blooded animals, including humans. The aim of the current study was to investigate the seroprevalence of E. cuniculi and Toxoplasma gondii, and risk factors of infection in pet rabbits reared in eastern coastal areas of China (Tianjin, Shandong, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Shanghai and Fujian). Total 222 blood samples of pet rabbits were collected from local veterinary hospitals. The seropositivity rates of E. cuniculi were 16.22% (36/222) according to an Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Female pet rabbits was significantly higher than that in males (P=0.002), Zhejiang were markedly higher than those in Jiangsu and Shanghai (P=0.017, P=0.022), and cross-breed rabbits were dramatically higher than those in Chinchilla, New Zealand white, Rex (P=0.02, P=0.006, P=0.008). The seroprevalence of T. gondii was 13.06% (29/222) by the method of ELISA. The seroprevalence in Zhejiang was significantly higher than that in Shanghai (P=0.017). No difference in seroprevalence was detected with respect to the gender, age, species, health status, or season. These findings show that E. cuniculi and T. gondii are present and spread in pet rabbits. Therefore, pet rabbits should be considered as an important reservoir of encephalitozoonosis for humans and maybe important implication for public health in eastern coastal areas of China.

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  • Yukiko SASSA-O’BRIEN, Kenji OHYA, Saori YASUDA-KOGA, Rajesh CHAHOTA, S ...
    Article ID: 21-0600
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: April 28, 2022
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    The members of family Chlamydiaceae have a broad host range and cause many kinds of diseases in humans and animals. Several cases of Chlamydiaceae being detected in atypical hosts have been reported recently. Consequently, cross-species monitoring of Chlamydia in wildlife and livestock is pertinent for public health, animal hygiene and wildlife conservation. In this study, we conducted molecular surveillance of Chlamydia in wild birds and livestock around a small village in the foothills of Mt. Afadjato, Ghana where direct contact between wildlife and livestock occurs. Among 29 captured wild birds and 63 livestock, 5 sheep, 30 goats and 28 chickens, the positive ratios of Chlamydia were 24.1%, 40.0%, 43.3% and 26.9%, respectively. Chlamydia pecorum was detected in wild birds, goats, sheep and chickens. On the basis of the variable domain 2 region of ompA, several samples from different hosts showed identical sequences and were phylogenetically located to the same clusters. In addition, using ompA, C. psittaci, C. abortus and C. gallinacea were also detected in this small habitat. Further genetic and pathogenic analyses of the chlamydial distribution in this area, which represents the interface of wild and domestic animal interactions, may improve our knowledge of their transmission among different hosts.

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  • Felipe ROMANO, José Guilherme XAVIER, Ronalda Silva DE ARAÚJO, Selene ...
    Article ID: 22-0045
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: April 28, 2022
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    Enterocytozoon bieneusi, also known as microsporidia, is an obligate, opportunistic, and neglected intracellular pathogen that causes diarrhea in humans. Although identified in the cat feces by epidemiological studies, no association with diarrhea has been demonstrated. We demonstrated a case of chronic enteritis by E. bieneusi in a 1-year-old male Maine Coon cat, neutered with diarrhea for nine months, by histopathological analysis of gastrointestinal biopsies and PCR of feces. The treatment with albendazole (10 days) followed by fenbendazole (5 days) proved to be effective and safe after diagnosis. This description highlights the need to investigate these pathogens in cases of diarrhea due to their importance in public health since they are zoonotic agents.

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  • Ryo SAITO, James K CHAMBERS, Yoshiki SUGIYAMA, Kazuyuki UCHIDA
    Article ID: 22-0074
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: April 28, 2022
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    A 13-year-old female Miniature Dachshund showed seizures and an intracranial mass was seen in the left temporal lobe. Three months after first surgical resection, a recurrence lesion was recognized. Histopathologically, proliferation of spindle cells with diffuse rosette-like eosinophilic deposits, which stained blue with Masson’s trichrome stain, was observed. In electron microscopy, the rosette-like deposits were consisted of bundles of minute filaments which were assumed to be collagenous fibrils. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells were positive for vimentin and cytokeratin, and negative for E-cadherin, S100, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), oligodendrocyte transcription factor (Olig2), and CD204. The rosette-like collagen deposits were positive for type 4 collagen and negative for type 1 collagen. In this report, we describe histopathological features of a canine meningioma with the rosette-like collagen deposits.

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  • Yuta SHINOHARA, Mohamed ELBADAWY, Megumi YAMANAKA, Haru YAMAMOTO, Amir ...
    Article ID: 21-0644
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: April 27, 2022
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    Juzen-taiho-to, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, is used for patients with anorexia and fatigue in human medicine. In our previous study, granulated Juzen-taiho-to improved vincristine-induced gastrointestinal adverse effects through increasing gastric motility in dogs. As the effect of Hozen-S, the sweet liquid form of Juzen-taiho-to, on dog gastric motility has not been investigated, we examined the effect of administration of Hozen-S on gastric motility. Furthermore, we assessed dog plasma ghrelin level to further elucidate the mechanism of the effect of Hozen-S on gastric contraction. Finally, we assessed the palatability of Hozen-S compared to granulated Juzen-taiho-to and its effect on body weight in dogs. Administration of Hozen-S significantly increased gastric motility, plasma ghrelin concentration, and body weight. A palatability evaluation revealed that the dogs preferred Hozen-S to granulated Juzen-taiho-to. In conclusion, Hozen-S administration to dogs promoted gastric motility by raising plasma ghrelin levels. Considering these functional and palatability data, Hozen-S may replace granulated type Juzen-taiho-to and become a prominent traditional Chinese veterinary medicament.

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  • Sakulchit WICHIANCHOT, Nuttanan HONGSRICHAN, Cherdsak MANEERUTTANARUNG ...
    Article ID: 22-0086
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: April 27, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis caused by Ehrlichia canis infection is a life-threatening vector-borne disease in dogs worldwide. Routine blood smear has very low sensitivity and cannot accurately provide a quantitative result. Conventional PCR (cPCR) and real-time PCR (qPCR) are widely used as molecular methods for E. canis detection. qPCR is quantitative but relies on standard curves of known samples. To overcome this difficulty, this study developed a new E. canis quantitative detection method, using droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR). ddPCR was evaluated against cPCR and blood smears. PCR amplicons and genomic DNA (gDNA) from 12 microscopic positive samples were used to identify the limits of detection (LODs) in ddPCR and cPCR. Our ddPCR was assessed in 92 field samples, it was compared with cPCR and blood smears. ddPCR showed LOD = 1.6 copies/reaction, or 78 times more sensitive than cPCR (LOD = 126 copies/reaction), using PCR amplicons as a template, whereas both ddPCR and cPCR had equal LODs at 0.02 ng gDNA/reaction. In addition, ddPCR had 100% sensitivity and 75% specificity for E. canis detection compared to cPCR and no cross-reaction with other blood pathogens was observed. ddPCR identified more positive samples than cPCR and blood smear. ddPCR improved the overall performance of E. canis detection, with a better LOD and comparable sensitivity and specificity to cPCR. The technique might be helpful for diagnosis of E. canis in light infection, evaluating the number of E. canis and follow-up after treatment.

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  • Shun OGURA, Hisanori YAMAZAKI, Katsumasa KURE, Itsuro YAMANE
    Article ID: 21-0575
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: April 26, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Improving productivity is an urgent issue in the swine industry if it is to compete internationally. However, lack of data about recent productivity transition obstructs stakeholder planning. This study investigated the yearly productivity trends among farrow-to-finish swine farms in Japan using annual productivity data from 2013–2018 obtained for 70 farms in Japan. The productivity parameters analyzed were pigs born alive per litter (PBA), preweaning mortality (PRWM), pigs weaned per litter (PWL), litters per mated female per year (LMFY), pigs weaned per mated female per year (PWMFY), post-weaning mortality (POWM) and marketed pigs per mated female per year (MP). Data were classified into three groups based on the size of the average female inventory and compared among groups. Results presented the mean PBA increased continuously over the 6-year period (P<0.001), and the PWL, PWMFY, and MP means began increasing after 2015 (P<0.001). These upward trends were particularly remarkable on large farms. The mean PRWM increased sharply in 2014, thus inhibiting the increases in PWL, PWMFY, and MP for the same year. The LMFY and POWM means did not change during the study period. Altogether, productivity in Japan improved markedly during the study period, indicating highly prolific sows were well utilized with suitable breeding techniques among farmers these days. Continued genetic improvement and sow management would aid further development in Japan.

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  • Yoshimasa SASAKI, Taketoshi IWATA, Masashi UEMA, Kenzo YONEMITSU, Shiz ...
    Article ID: 22-0047
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: April 26, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Chicken is a major source of human campylobacteriosis. Chicken meat originates not only from broilers but also from spent layers; however, few reports have reported the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter spp. in layers in Japan. Therefore, we investigated the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter spp. in 47 layer farms in Japan. Fecal samples were collected from the youngest and oldest flocks on the farm, and Campylobacter spp. was isolated from 46/47 (97.9%) farms. Among the C. jejuni isolates, the resistance rates to ampicillin, tetracycline, and ciprofloxacin were 29.6%, 22.2%, and 19.8%, respectively. The ciprofloxacin resistance rate (7.3%) in C. jejuni isolated from old flocks was significantly (P<0.01) lower than that in young flocks (32.5%).

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  • Fumihiro KANEKO, Naoko KITAMURA, Kenta SUZUKI, Masaki KATO
    Article ID: 22-0035
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: April 25, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Wild boars (Sus scrofa) captured or found dead in Nagano Prefecture were surveyed for antibodies to Aujeszky’s disease virus (ADV), Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), and Toxoplasma gondii. While all 168 samples tested were negative for anti-ADV antibodies and all 140 samples tested were negative for anti-PRRSV antibodies, all 190 samples tested were positive for anti-E. rhusiopathiae antibodies and 12 of 180 samples were positive for anti-toxoplasma antibodies. These results suggest that since E. rhusiopathiae and T. gondii cause zoonotic diseases, in addition to wild boars being a potential source of infection for domestic pigs, caution should be taken when handling wild boars or eating wild boar meat because of the possibility of human infection.

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  • Ryo SATO, Kanami WATANABE, Ryo KAMATA, Kazuki TAKEDA
    Article ID: 22-0079
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: April 20, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Anticoagulant chemicals (ACCs) such as warfarin are widely used in medical applications as well as for their rodenticide properties. Their efficacy is greatly influenced by polymorphisms in the gene encoding vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR). Evaluation of the activity of ACCs toward VKOR variants is essential to determine their proper use. Presently, this is achieved by co-expressing VKOR of Rattus Norvegicus and human clotting factor IX in cultured cells and measuring inhibition of vitamin K-dependent gamma-glutamyl carboxylation of factor IX (glaFIX) activity. However, glaFIX has only been quantified using indirect methods like blood coagulation assays. We have developed a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using a glaFIX-specific antibody to quantify glaFIX and used this to analyze inhibition of VKOR activity by warfarin.

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  • Seiya NIIMI, Haruna KOBAYASHI, Yukika TAKE, Shiori IKOMA, Saki NAMIKAW ...
    Article ID: 21-0650
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: April 19, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Chihuahuas are one of the most common small breed dogs in Japan, and this breed is known to be predisposed to myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD). Echocardiographic assessment is essential for definitive diagnosis of MMVD in dogs as well as determining the stage. Because the Chihuahua’s body size is the smallest among the dog breeds and the widely used echocardiographic reference range is established on the basis of larger dogs, it is unclear whether the existing reference range can be applied to the Chihuahua breed as well. Therefore, this study aimed to determine an echocardiographic reference range for Chihuahua dogs. The left atrial short-axis diameter (LA), aortic valve short-axis diameter, interventricular septum thickness at end-diastole, left ventricular internal dimension at end-diastole (LVIDd), and left ventricular posterior wall thickness at end-diastole from 47 healthy Chihuahuas were analyzed. These parameters increased logarithmically as body weight increased. Furthermore, LA and LVIDd were within the previously established reference range generated primarily from multiple breeds of moderate to large breed dogs.

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  • Jiyoung PARK, Aryung NAM, Hae-Beom LEE, Seong Mok JEONG, Dae-Hyun KIM
    Article ID: 21-0673
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: April 15, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    A 10-year-old intact male Shih Tzu dog presented with hematuria. Double-contrast cystography revealed a polypoid filling defect at the apex of the urinary bladder. Ultrasonography revealed a heterogeneously hypoechoic intramural mass with minimal vascular flow beneath the submucosal layer. After partial cystectomy, a well-demarcated bladder leiomyosarcoma was diagnosed on histopathology. The patient was alive and well without any clinical signs, recurrence, or metastasis at the 29-month follow-up after the surgical removal of the bladder mass. Leiomyosarcoma should be considered as a differential diagnosis if mass-like lesions are observed in the urinary bladder, although this type of malignancy is rare in canines. Histopathological confirmation is important for predicting prognosis and determining further medical plans.

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  • Gennaro ALTAMURA, Bianca CUCCARO, Claudia ELENI, Carina STROHMAYER, Sa ...
    Article ID: 22-0060
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: April 15, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Recent evidence suggests a possible association of Felis catus papillomavirus type 2 (FcaPV-2) DNA with feline oral squamous cell carcinoma (FOSCC). In this study, type-specific PCR targeting two genes (L1/E6 or E1/E6) of FcaPV-1/-2/-3/-4/-5/-6 was performed to detect viral DNA in a large amount of FOSCC samples collected in Italy and Austria. FcaPV-1/-2/-3/-4/-5 were detected in 7/113 (6.2%), 7/93 (7.5%), 6/113 (5.3%), 1/113 (0.9%) and 2/113 (1.8%) specimens, respectively, with different prevalences in Italian vs Austrian samples, whilst FcaPV-6 went undetected. Our results confirms that FcaPV-2 is the most prevalent in FOSCC, followed by FcaPV-1/-3 and suggest that FcaPVs have variable circulation rates in European countries.

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  • Sachi MAKIDA, Kiyokazu KAMETANI, Marina HOSOTANI, Naoki TAKAHASHI, Tom ...
    Article ID: 22-0080
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: April 14, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    Supplementary material

    In a previous study, the three-dimensional structures of mitochondria in type I and type IIb muscle fibers of chicken were analyzed. The study reported differences in the shape of the mitochondria and the distribution of lipid droplets. In this study, we three-dimensionally analyzed mitochondria and lipid droplets of type II muscle fiber subtypes IIa, IIb, and IIc of chicken lateral iliotibial muscle in the same field of view using correlative light electron microscopy (CLEM) and array tomography methods. The reconstructed images showed that the mitochondria of type IIa muscle fiber were thick and aligned along the myofibrils, and many lipid droplets were embedded in the mitochondria. The mitochondria of type IIb muscle fibers were intermittent, aligned along the myofibrils, and showed contact between adjacent horizontal mitochondria. No lipid droplets were observed in type IIb muscle fiber. In type IIc muscle fiber, we observed irregularly shaped mitochondria with small diameters aligned along the myofibrils. Lipid droplets not only were embedded in the mitochondria but also existed independently in some cases. The combination of array tomography and CLEM methods enabled three-dimensional electron microscopic observation of mitochondria in different subtypes of type II muscle fibers. The subtypes of type II muscle fibers differed in mitochondrial occupancy and morphology and in lipid droplet distribution, and characteristics that had been demonstrated biochemically were also demonstrated ultrastructurally.

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  • Kyoko FUJIMOTO, Yuko ENDO, Takashi YOKOYAMA, Hiroaki SUGINO, Takeshi S ...
    Article ID: 21-0668
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: April 13, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Electronic data collection systems are being developed in countries around the world to monitor antimicrobial use at farm level. We conducted a questionnaire survey that is destined for pig farmers who are then able to communicate what factors influence their willingness to participate in an electronic prescription system. A principal component analysis was performed on the variables that were associated with the willingness to participate in the system. Using the principal components obtained from the principal component analysis and the attributes of the farmers as explanatory variables, we performed a logistic regression analysis. The results revealed that farmers with a high level of information technology (IT) literacy and a certain degree of active business management and farmers who are not currently familiar with business management practices but who are willing to use data were more willing to participate in the electronic prescription system than those who don’t have a high level of IT literacy and/or who are not willing to use data for business management. Contrarily, farmers’ intention to manage drug usage does not contribute to the willingness to participate in the system. These results show that the farmers’ understanding of the benefits and ease of participation in the electronic prescription system is important for establishing the system, thus promoting the convenience of the system is the most effective way to gain cooperation of farmers when establishing the system.

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  • Kikumi OGIHARA, Yuko NAYA, Junichi KAMIE, Shin HISAMATSU, Michi KODAMA ...
    Article ID: 21-0508
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: April 11, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    A cell line (PL38PB) was established from blood samples of a 6-month-old pig that was diagnosed with lymphoma with CD5 expression. Histopathological examination revealed neoplastic lesions in the spleen, liver and lymph nodes. Tumor cells were immunohistochemically positive for CD20 and immunoglobulin heavy chains (μ, γ and α). Membranous CD5 and cytoplasmic Immunoglobulin M (IgM), ​Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and ​Immunoglobulin A (IgA) were detected in PL38PB cells by flow cytometry. In addition, the cytoplasm of PL38PB cells were positive for IgM, IgG and IgA by immunofluorescent. However, no Ig secretion was detected in culture supernatant by Ouchterlony gel diffusion method. Results suggest that PL38PB cells express three Ig isotypes that are produced but not secreted.

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  • Yixian WEI, Ai HORI, I-Ying CHEN, Haruka TAMOGI, Taku HIROKAWA, Keiko ...
    Article ID: 21-0648
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: April 11, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Recently, a mucosal atomization device (MAD) has been applied in veterinary medicine. In the present study, the maximum volume of nasal atomization without aspiration using MAD was examined in eight healthy female Japanese White (JW) rabbits. Each rabbit had their head and neck examined by computed tomography before and after nasal atomization with four different doses (0.15, 0.3, 0.45, and 0.6 ml per nostril) of diluted contrast medium (1:2 mixture of iohexol and saline). This was done under general anesthesia by an intramuscular administration of alfaxalone 2.5 mg/kg, medetomidine 40 μg/kg, and butorphanol 0.4 mg/kg, with a 7-day washout period between each treatment. The diluted contrast medium was distributed in the nasal cavity, external nares, and/or oral cavity in all rabbits receiving each treatment. The intranasal distribution volumes of the contrast medium were 287 (250–333) mm3 [median (interquartile range)] for 0.15 ml, 433 (243–555) mm3 for 0.3 ml, 552 (356–797) mm3 for 0.45 ml, and 529 (356–722) mm3 for 0.6 ml of treatment. The intranasal distribution volume for 0.15 ml treatment tended to be lower than that for 0.6 ml treatment (P=0.083). The contrast medium was deposited in the trachea in one rabbit (12.5%) and four rabbits (50%) receiving treatments of 0.45 and 0.6 ml per nostril, respectively. The maximum volume of nasal atomization without aspiration into the trachea was 0.3 ml per nostril for the JW rabbits.

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  • Yumi ISASHIKI, Yuki OHASHI, Shoichiro IMATAKE, Mahmoud BAAKHTARI, Aman ...
    Article ID: 22-0022
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: April 11, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The thymus is a primary lymphoid organ where the primary T cell repertoire is generated. Thymus atrophy is induced by various conditions, including infectious diseases, glucocorticoid treatment, and poor breeding management. Cattle with thymus atrophy tend to exhibit weak calf syndrome, a condition in which approximately half of neonates die shortly after birth. Calves with thymus atrophy that survive the first month typically contract chronic inflammatory diseases. In this study, we analyzed the populations of the peripheral blood mononuclear cells and thymocytes in calves with thymus atrophy. In addition, we evaluated polarization of master gene and cytokine mRNA expression in peripheral blood CD4+ cells in the calves. The population of CD4+CD8+ cells in thymus of the calves with thymus atrophy was lower than that of control calves. IL10 mRNA expression in peripheral blood CD4+ cells of calves with thymus atrophy was significantly lower than that of control calves. TBX21 mRNA expression in peripheral CD4+ cells of thymus atrophy calves was tended to be higher than that of the control group. In addition, FOXP3 mRNA expression in peripheral CD4+ cells of the thymus atrophy calves was tended to be lower than that of the control calves. Thymus atrophy calves exhibited chronic inflammatory disease leading, in severe situations, to conditions such as pneumonia with caseous necrosis. These severe inflammatory responses likely are due to decreases in IL10 mRNA expression, impairing control of macrophages, one of the main cell fractions of natural immunity.

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  • Ayano KUDO, Sho YOSHIMOTO, Hiromitsu YOSHIDA, Yusuke IZUMI, Satoshi TA ...
    Article ID: 22-0041
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: April 11, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) play an essential role in tumor invasion and metastasis. In dogs, the biological features of CAFs have not been well characterized. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in the biological activities of canine CAFs and normal fibroblasts (NFs), and their influence on the migration and invasion of cancer cells. Canine CAFs and NFs were harvested from surgically-resected malignant epithelial tumor tissues and skin tissues of dogs. A wound-healing assay was conducted to compare the migratory and invasive abilities of canine CAFs and NFs. The results of this study showed that canine CAFs have a greater migratory and invasive ability than NFs. To observe the indirect and direct interactions between fibroblasts and cancer cells, Boyden chamber assay and 3D co-culture with collagen gel were conducted. The number of migrated and infiltrated cancer cells co-cultured with canine CAFs was greater than that with NFs. In the 3D co-culture, cancer cells showed noteworthy proliferation on the surface of gels containing canine CAFs and invasion into the gel. On the other hand, no infiltration of cancer cells into the gel containing NFs was observed. It was suggested that canine CAFs activate migration and invasion of cancer cells and promote the infiltration of cancer cells into collagen gels.

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  • Eiki YAMASAKI, Shinya FUKUMOTO
    Article ID: 21-0591
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: April 07, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    In food hygiene, the surveillance of foodborne pathogens in wild animals is indispensable because we cannot control hygienic status of them. Yezo sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis), which are found only on the island of Hokkaido, Japan, are the most common game animal in the country. In this study, we analyzed the incidence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in Yezo sika deer hunted in the Tokachi sub-prefecture, which is one of the densest zones for the sub-species. Real-time polymerase chain reaction testing detected STEC in 18.3% of fecal samples (59/323) collected from deer hunted between 2016 and 2017, whereas no Shigella and Salmonella markers were detected. No correlation was found between STEC detection from fecal samples and characteristics of carcasses, such as hunting area, age, and fascioliasis. From 59 STEC-positive fecal samples, we isolated 37 STEC strains, including 34 O- and H-genotyped strains, in which 16 different serogroups were detected. Genetic analysis revealed that our isolates included various stx gene types (stx1+/stx2-, stx1+/stx2+, and stx1-/stx2+) and carried eae. This study demonstrated that STEC strains with various features colonized the Yezo sika deer, similar to other subspecies of sika deer. We conclude that continuous surveillance activity is important to monitor the suitability of game animals as a food source and to assess the validity of the food safety management system for game meat production.

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  • Takumi KOMIYA, Akihiro MORI, Naohito NISHII, Hitomi ODA, Eri ONOZAWA, ...
    Article ID: 2-0345
    Published: 2021
    Advance online publication: March 05, 2021
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    A 5-year-old castrated male domestic shorthair cat was diagnosed with diabetic ketoacidosis and severe insulin resistance. Although the conventional treatment for diabetic ketoacidosis was provided, the cat required frequent hospitalization because of severe dehydration and repeated diabetic ketoacidosis. We detected anti-insulin antibodies for human in this cat. Serum insulin-binding IgG levels were markedly elevated compared with those in healthy cats and other diabetic cats. We initiated prednisolone to suppress the effects of anti-insulin antibodies. After initiation of prednisolone, the cat was gradually recovered with increasing activity and appetite. Furthermore, satisfactory glycemic control was achieved with combined subcutaneous injection of insulin detemir and insulin degludec.

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  • Linjie LI, Xiaoling SHI, Derong ZHANG, Xin CAO, Amjad ALI, Jialin BAI
    Article ID: 20-0487
    Published: 2020
    Advance online publication: November 13, 2020
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
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  • Mario DOLERA, Luca MALFASSI, Simone PAVESI, Sara FINESSO, Giovanni MAZ ...
    Article ID: 16-0077
    Published: 2017
    Advance online publication: November 15, 2017
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Atlanto-axial (AA) instability due to ligament insufficiency is a common cause of cervical spinal cord compression in toy breeds. However, in some dogs a difference in size between the atlas and the axis leads to joint incongruence that exacerbates AA subluxation and makes surgical treatment challenging. Twelve dogs with AA instability with incongruence were enrolled in a single institution prospective observational study. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the AA joint were compared to a retrospectively reviewed control group. A novel surgical approach consisting of a dorsal internal fixation technique was performed in six dogs. For affected dogs, the mean normalised difference between the dorso-ventral atlas canal and the dorso-ventral axis canal was 29.67% (median of 35.07%, standard deviation 25.64%), while in normal dogs a mean difference of 4.67% (median of 3.95%, standard deviation 5.21%) was observed. On MRI, 12/12 affected dogs had spinal cord compression, which was classified as reducible (3/12), partially reducible (6/12) and non-reducible (3/12). In surgically operated dogs, follow-up CT showed a partial or complete reduction of the previous spinal cord compression with a consistent amelioration or resolution of the presenting complaints. The proposed surgical technique was safe and effective in dogs with partially or completely reducible spinal cord compression.

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  • Mohamed ABDO, Khaled SHOGHY, Yoshinao Z. HOSAKA, Tomohiro IMAGAWA, Saf ...
    Article ID: 14-0225e
    Published: 2014
    Advance online publication: August 20, 2014
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    This article released online on July 30, 2014 as advance publication has been retracted by the Editorial Board of Journal of Veterinary Medical Science due to a violation of the journal’s “Information for Authors”.
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  • Mohamed ABDO, Khaled SHOGHY, Yoshinao Z. HOSAKA, Tomohiro IMAGAWA, Saf ...
    Article ID: 14-0225
    Published: 2014
    Advance online publication: July 30, 2014
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    This article has been retracted by the Editorial Board of Journal of Veterinary Medical Science due to a violation of the journal's “Information for Authors”.
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  • Article ID: 13-0051e
    Published: 2013
    Advance online publication: November 30, 2013
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    This article released online on August 9, 2013 as advance publication was withdrawn from consideration for publication in The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science at author's request.
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  • Hui LI, Guoquan WU, Jiancheng LI, Shusheng TANG, Xilong XIAO, Yanan XU ...
    Article ID: 13-0051
    Published: 2013
    Advance online publication: August 09, 2013
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    This article released online on August 9, 2013 as advance publication was withdrawn from consideration for publication in The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science at author's request.
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  • Article ID: 11-0339e
    Published: 2012
    Advance online publication: December 25, 2012
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    This article released online on September 26, 2012 as advance publication was withdrawn from consideration for publication in The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science at author's request.
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  • Farhad SAFARPOOR DEHKORDI
    Article ID: 11-0580e
    Published: 2012
    Advance online publication: November 01, 2012
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    This article released online on August 3, 2012 as advance publication was withdrawn from consideration for publication in The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science at author’s request.
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  • Seyedhosein JAROLMASJED, Saeed KOLAHIAN
    Article ID: 11-0339
    Published: 2012
    Advance online publication: September 26, 2012
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    This article released online on September 26, 2012 as advance publication was withdrawn from consideration for publication in The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science at author's request.
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  • Farhad SAFARPOOR DEHKORDI
    Article ID: 11-0580
    Published: 2012
    Advance online publication: August 03, 2012
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    This article released online on August 3, 2012 as advance publication was withdrawn from consideration for publication in The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science at author's request.
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