Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Online ISSN : 1347-7439
Print ISSN : 0916-7250
ISSN-L : 0916-7250
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Displaying 1-34 of 34 articles from this issue
  • Donghwi SHIN, Yoocheol JEONG, Seongchan YEON, Inhyung LEE, Won-gyun SO ...
    Article ID: 23-0436
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: June 25, 2024
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    Laparoscopic ovariectomy under general anesthesia was planned in a 10-year-old, 146 kg, apparently healthy female African lion (Panthera leo). The lion was immobilized via intramuscular darts containing midazolam (0.033 mg/kg), medetomidine (50 µg/kg) and ketamine (2.5 mg/kg), and intubated using an endotracheal tube (16 mm internal diameter). The anesthesia was maintained using sevoflurane (0.9–2.1% end-tidal concentration), in combination with remifentanil (0.1 µg/kg/min) and ketamine (11 µg/kg/min) at a constant rate infusion (CRI), with Hartmann’s solution (5 mL/kg/hr). Surgery was conducted with stable vital signs, but hypotension (mean arterial blood pressure 55 mmHg) developed, requiring dobutamine treatment. The hypotension was effectively controlled by adjusting dobutamine from 5 µg/kg/min to 0.2 to 0.3 µg/kg/min. This case suggests possibilities that dosages in this range can be clinically useful for peri-anesthetic hypotension in lions.

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  • Honoka NOJI, Sanae A ISHIJIMA, Mako MORIKAWA, Takaaki ITO, Rui KANO
    Article ID: 24-0032
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: June 25, 2024
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    Phytochemicals isolated from essential oils are effective alternatives for inhibiting microbial pathogens. Bovine protothecal mastitis is the cause of a reduction in milk production and the secretion of thin, watery milk with white flakes. In the present study, we performed in vitro susceptibility testing of the phytochemicals carvacrol, citral, and thymol in Prototheca strains isolated from cases of protothecosis in small animals and cow feces. The susceptibility of the algae to carvacrol, citral, and thymol was assessed using the modified CLSI M27-A3 broth microdilution method. The ranges of the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC%) of the phytochemicals in all isolates were 0.03% to 0.125% for carvacrol, 0.03% to 0.25% for citral, and 0.06% to 0.25% for thymol. Based on these results, carvacrol, citral, and thymol appear effective against Prototheca species at the tested concentrations, and may thus be useful for environmental disinfection in barns.

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  • Kei NAKAJIMA, Kazufumi KASUYA, Hironobu SENBA, Katsunori TAGAMI, Yuta ...
    Article ID: 23-0342
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: June 18, 2024
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    Strangles is a globally widespread, commonly diagnosed and important infectious disease of equids caused by Streptococcus equi subsp. equi. We performed whole genome sequencing of 19 S. equi isolates collected from imported horses at the Japanese border. Of these isolates, 15 isolates were obtained from clinical cases and 4 were from subclinical cases. The 19 isolates were grouped into 3 Bayesian analysis of population structure (BAPS) groups by the core genome single nucleotide polymorphism analysis corresponding to exporting country, SeM typing, or exporter of the horses. The 19 isolates possessed same pathogenic genes regardless of clinical status in imported horses and no antimicrobial resistance genes. The disease status of the horses may rather reflect the prior exposure of animals with sub-clinical infection to S. equi.

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  • Mizuki KUSUMOTO, Haruka NARITA, Tomoki MOTEGI, Kazuki HARADA
    Article ID: 24-0197
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: June 18, 2024
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    One of the most significant research areas in veterinary medicine is the search for carbapenem substitutes for the treatment of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacterales (ESBL-E). This study applied a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) strategy in validating optimal latamoxef (LMX) therapeutic regimens against canine ESBL-E infections. Five dogs were administered a bolus dose of 40 mg/kg LMX intravenously to measure serum drug concentrations and determine PK indices using the noncompartmental model. The highest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) with a probability of target attainment ≥90% was used to compute the PK/PD cutoff values for bacteriostatic (time for which the unbound drug concentration was above the MIC [fTAM] ≥40%) and bactericidal (fTAM ≥70%) effects when administered at 20, 30, 50, and 60 mg/kg, in addition to 40 mg/kg. The cumulative fraction of response (CFR) was determined using the MIC distribution of wild-type ESBL-E in companion animals. The PK/PD cutoff values can be increased by reducing the dosing interval rather than increasing the dose per time. Based on the calculated CFRs for ESBL-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, all LMX regimens in this study and those administered at 30–60 mg/kg every 8 and 6 hr were found to be optimal (CFR ≥90%) for exerting bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects, respectively. However, the regimens of 50 and 60 mg/kg every 6 hr may merely exert bacteriostatic effects on ESBL-producing Enterobacter cloacae. Further clinical trials are required to confirm the clinical efficacy of LMX.

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  • Sakuya INANAGA, Hiroshi SHIMODA, Masaya IGASE, Hirotaka KONDO, Iori KO ...
    Article ID: 23-0426
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: June 14, 2024
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    The African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) is known to have a high incidence of tumor. However, investigating the tumors of this species has been constrained by the limited availability of research materials such as cell lines and genome information. In this study, we successfully established a novel cell line from a histiocytic sarcoma (HS) of an African pygmy hedgehog, allowing us to conduct a drug screening. We investigated using FDA-approved drug library screening to determine which anticancer drug this tumor cell line is sensitive to, and as a result of apoptosis experiments, bortezomib among the three proteasome inhibitors was found to induce cell death of cancer cells by significantly increasing caspase-3 cleavage (P<0.01). Thus, we elucidated that the proteasome inhibitors, particularly bortezomib, exhibit anti-tumor effects on a cell line derived from an HS in an African pygmy hedgehog through a mechanism comparable to that described in human tumors. This study reports the first characterized cell line from the African pygmy hedgehog and also highlights the potential utility of bortezomib as an anti-tumor treatment for HS in this species.

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  • Mihyun CHOI, Namsoon LEE
    Article ID: 23-0451
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: June 14, 2024
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    A 2-year-old castrated Russian Blue cat presented with inappetence, depression, and labored respirations. Radiography findings suggested left lung atelectasis; however, the ultrasonography findings did not indicate lung atelectasis. The left pulmonary artery (PA) was abnormally small on echocardiography; further, there were no other cardiac anomalies. Computed tomography revealed an abnormally small left PA and left lung. Furthermore, bronchiectasis and tree-in-bud patterns were observed in the lung lobes. Based on these findings, the cat was diagnosed with isolated left PA hypoplasia, presumed left lung hypoplasia, and feline chronic bronchial disease. Early diagnosis of this disease is important because it can cause serious complications, including recurrent respiratory infection, bronchiectasis, massive hemoptysis, and pulmonary hypertension.

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  • Ryo MATSUMURA, Daisuke KOBAYASHI, Kyo ITOYAMA, Haruhiko ISAWA
    Article ID: 24-0124
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: June 14, 2024
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    Coltiviruses, belonging to the genus Coltivirus within the family Spinareoviridae, are predominantly tick-borne viruses. Some of these species have been implicated in human diseases; however, their diversity, geographical distribution, and evolutionary dynamics remain inadequately. Therefore, this study was undertaken to explore the phylogenetic evolution of coltiviruses and related viruses. Our results revealed the detection of novel coltivirus-related sequences in adult female Haemaphysalis megaspinosa ticks collected from Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. Molecular phylogenetic analysis revealed a close association between the sequences and the genome sequences of known coltivirus-related viruses, namely Qinghe tick reovirus and Fennes virus. The putative coltivirus-related virus was tentatively designated the Nakatsu tick virus. This study provides insights into the phylogenetic evolution of coltiviruses and related viruses.

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  • Ren KIMURA, Reeko UEDA, Hisashi TSUJIMURA, Takeshi BAN, Atsushi TANAKA
    Article ID: 24-0023
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: June 07, 2024
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    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is highly prevalent in domestic cats. This study aimed to compare urinary D-amino acid levels between control and CKD-afflicted cats as a novel noninvasive method for assessing CKD.Cats were divided into control and CKD stage II groups in accordance with the International Renal Interest Society guidelines. The urinary DL-amino acid levels of the cats were analyzed using chiral tandem liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and their medical records were investigated. The CKD group had considerably lower urinary D-amino acid concentrations and enantiomeric ratios than the control group. The total urinary D-amino acid contents significantly correlated with blood parameters (creatinine and urea nitrogen). These findings may contribute towards the detection of CKD stage II in domestic cats.

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  • Ryota MATSUYAMA, Noritsugu ABE, Ayano SATO, Yui ISHIKURA, Takaaki ISHI ...
    Article ID: 23-0442
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: June 05, 2024
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    The control of digital dermatitis (DD) among cattle is crucial; however, effective and environmentally-sound control measures have yet to be identified. From the monitoring data of DD which were recorded during regular hoof trimmings in a farm in Hokkaido, Japan, we detected a decrease in the DD prevalence in a herd where an anaerobic bacterial fermentation enhancer (ABFE) was distributed. The possible effect of ABFE was analyzed using a retrospective repeated cross-sectional design. The prevalence of DD decreased over time in the ABFE-distributed group. Furthermore, a selected regression model indicated the time-dependent enhancement of the decreasing trend. While potential coincidental factors may influence, this study provides a basis for further research on the preventive effect of ABFE against DD.

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  • Saeka KOYAMA, Kaori ITO, Katsuki USAMI, Shino WADA, Tsukasa YAMASHITA, ...
    Article ID: 23-0441
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: June 04, 2024
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    Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is notable for its broad specificity toward multiple bacteria. Phosphorylcholine (PC) plays a role in the infection of pathogenic bacteria carrying PC and in the induction of IgA responses in the host immune system. The commercially available mouse monoclonal IgA, TEPC15-IgA, is a distinctive antibody with specificity for PC, warranting further exploration of its response to PC-bearing enteric bacteria. In this study, using 17 different enteric bacteria, including 3 aerobic and 14 anerobic bacteria that could be cultured in vitro, we confirmed that TEPC15-IgA recognizes 4 bacterial species: Lactobacillus taiwanensis, Limosilactobacillus frumenti, Streptococcus infantis, and Escherichia coli, although reactivity varied. Interestingly, TEPC15-IgA did not react with four of six Lactobacillus species used. Moreover, distinct target molecules associated with PC in L. taiwanensis and L. frumenti were evident, differing in molecular weight. These findings suggest that the natural generation of PC-specific IgA could prevent PC-mediated infections and potentially facilitate the formation of a microflora rich in indigenous bacteria with PC, particularly in the gastrointestinal tract.

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  • Shuhei YAMASHITA, Kento MIURA, Anna MATSUURA, Norimasa YAMASAKI, Naoto ...
    Article ID: 24-0033
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: June 04, 2024
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    The expression of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits on various immune cells suggests their involvement in allergic rhinitis. However, how exactly they contribute to this pathogenesis is not yet confirmed. Our present study examined the therapeutic potential of GTS-21, an α7 nAChR agonist, for treating allergic rhinitis by employing its mouse models. GTS-21 treatment reduced allergen-induced immediate nasal response in ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized model. However, nasal hyperresponsiveness or eosinophil infiltration elicited in either the OVA-sensitized or T helper 2 cell-transplanted model was not affected by GTS-21. GTS-21 did not alter allergen-induced passive cutaneous anaphylaxis response in anti-dinitrophenyl IgE-sensitized mice. This evidence implies GTS-21’s potential to alleviate allergic rhinitis without perturbing T cells or mast cells.

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  • Akiyoshi TANI, Kota NAKASE, Hirotaka TOMIYASU, Sakurako NEO, Aki OHMI, ...
    Article ID: 23-0371
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: June 03, 2024
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    Non-neoplastic bone marrow disorders are main causes of non-regenerative anemia in dogs. Despite the high incidence of the diseases, their molecular pathophysiology has not been elucidated. We previously reported that Miniature Dachshund (MD) was a predisposed breed to be diagnosed with non-neoplastic bone marrow disorders in Japan, and immunosuppressive treatment-resistant MDs showed higher number of platelets and morphological abnormalities in peripheral blood cells. These data implied that treatment-resistant MDs might possess distinct pathophysiological features from treatment-responsive MDs. Therefore, we conducted transcriptomic analysis of bone marrow specimens to investigate the pathophysiology of treatment-resistant MDs. Transcriptomic analysis comparing treatment-resistant MDs and healthy control dogs identified 179 differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Pathway analysis using these DEGs showed that “Wnt signaling pathway” was a significantly enriched pathway. We further examined the expression levels of DEGs associated with Wnt signaling pathway and confirmed the upregulation of AXIN2 and CCND2 and the downregulation of SFRP2 in treatment-resistant MDs compared with treatment-responsive MDs and healthy control dogs. This alteration implied the activation of Wnt signaling pathway in treatment-resistant MDs. The activation of Wnt signaling pathway has been reported in human patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), which is characterized by dysplastic features of blood cells. Therefore, the results of this study implied that treatment-resistant MDs have distinct molecular pathological features from treatment-responsive MDs and the pathophysiology of treatment-resistant MDs might be similar to that of human MDS patients.

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  • Haruka INAZUMI, Hiroto TOYODA, Shotaro SHIMANO, Hiroki SAKUMA, Megumi ...
    Article ID: 23-0453
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: June 03, 2024
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    L-Asparaginase (L-Asp) is often used to induce remission in feline large-cell gastrointestinal lymphoma (LCGIL). However, no study has evaluated the efficacy and adverse events following the initial use of this drug as a first-line treatment in feline LCGIL. We retrospectively reviewed medical records of cats with LCGIL treated with L-Asp to induce remission. This study included 43 cats. The response rate (RR) after the first administration of L-Asp was 37.2% (Complete remission: 7.0 %, partial remission: 30.2%). RR was significantly higher in cases with primary gastric lesions (64.3%) than in those with primary intestinal lesions (24.1%) (P=0.018), and it was also higher in cases without anemia (57.1%) than those with anemia (15.0%) (P=0.009). The most common adverse event was hyperammonemia, which occurred in 10 of 12 cases where we could compare plasma ammonia concentrations before and after the first dose of L-Asp. Plasma phosphate concentrations were also significantly increased (P<0.001) within 24 hr after the first dose. Decreased appetite, vomiting, and diarrhea were also observed in five, three, and seven cases, respectively, and Grade 3 or higher gastrointestinal signs were observed as adverse events in three cases. The median overall survival of all cats was 150 days (range, 5–1,065 days), and the median progression-free survival was 104 days (range, 2–978 days). In conclusion, L-Asp was effective to induce remission, and severe adverse events were uncommon in feline LCGIL.

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  • Shuji KAYASAKI, Hitomi SATOH, Keitaro OGUCHI, Kyoko CHISATO, Rika FUKU ...
    Article ID: 24-0054
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: May 31, 2024
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    The objectives of this study were to conduct a survey of failure-of-passive-transfer (FPT) in eastern Hokkaido Japan, to evaluate the association between herd-level FPT and death and culling or treatment, and to test the effectiveness of monitoring using herd-level FPT. A total of 4,411 Holstein and Holstein-Wagyu crossbreds calves born from Holstein dams during the year beginning April 2, 2019 on 39 dairy farms were included in the study to investigate death-and-culling and the treatment rate during the first month of life, as well as rearing management up to 3 weeks of age. A subset of Holsteins (n=381) was included in the study for passive transfer and farms were diagnosed as having FPT if more than 20% of newborn calves had serum IgG levels below 10 g/L at the herd level. The prevalence of FPT (< IgG 10 g/L) on farms was significantly correlated (r=0.27, P<0.05) with the death-and-culling rate. Binomial logistic regression analysis showed that FPT farms had a significantly higher risk of being high death-and-culling farms than non-FPT farms (odds ratio: 5.20, P<0.05), emphasizing the importance of colostrum feeding. Farms not using frozen stored colostrum had a significantly higher risk of being FPT farms than those that did (odds ratio: 4.13, P<0.05), emphasizing the importance of feeding colostrum from the dam. Monitoring herd-level FPT was useful in assessing whether the problem of calf death and culling lies in passive transfer.

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  • Kento ISHIKAWA, James K CHAMBERS, Kazuyuki UCHIDA
    Article ID: 24-0125
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: May 29, 2024
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    Nuclear expression of β-catenin has been reported in canine intestinal epithelial tumors (IETs) and colorectal inflammatory polyps (CIPs) with dysplastic epithelia. However, the role of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in these lesions remains unclear. To investigate the association between the nuclear β-catenin expression and the activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, immunohistochemistry and mutation analyses were conducted on 64 IETs and 20 CIPs. IETs and CIPs with β-catenin nuclear and/or cytoplasm immunolabeling were classified as β-catenin (+). The immunostaining scores of c-Myc and Cyclin D1 and Ki-67 index were significantly higher in β-catenin (+) cases than in β-catenin (−) cases. Identical APC mutations (p.E154D and p.K155X) were detected in 6/41 β-catenin (+) IETs; all 6 of IETs with APC mutations were Jack Russell Terriers. CTNNB1 mutations were detected in 29/42 β-catenin (+) IETs, 3/11 β-catenin (+) CIPs, and 2/22 β-catenin (–) IETs, most of which were hotspots associated with human colorectal carcinoma. In one Miniature Dachshund diagnosed with a CIP that subsequently developed into an IET, the same CTNNB1 mutation was detected in both lesions. The immunohistochemical results suggest that cell proliferative activity in β-catenin (+) cases may be associated with activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. The mutation analysis results suggest that CTNNB1 mutations may be associated with cytoplasmic β-catenin accumulation in IET and CIP. Furthermore, the dysplastic epithelium in CIP may progress to IET through the activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway by the CTNNB1 mutation.

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  • Kouki TAKEICHI, Akira FUKUDA, Chika SHONO, Noriyasu OTA, Chie NAKAJIMA ...
    Article ID: 24-0051
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: May 27, 2024
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    The pathogenicity of Clostridioides difficile in piglets remains controversial. It is unknown whether C. difficile control helps protect piglet health. To clarify the association between C. difficile presence and piglet diarrhea, isolates were obtained from piglets with and without diarrhea. In addition, to determine the genetic relationship of C. difficile from pigs and humans, we performed whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of C. difficile isolates. Diarrheal and non-diarrheal stool samples were collected from neonatal piglets from five farms in Japan in 2021. To clarify the relationship between C. difficile derived from pigs and those from human clinical cases, WGS of C. difficile isolates was performed. Toxin-positive C. difficile were significantly more prevalent in piglets with diarrhea, although the overall frequency of C. difficile did not differ between piglets with and without diarrhea. This observation indicates an association between toxin-positive C. difficile and diarrhea in piglets. However, further studies are needed to establish a direct causal relationship and to explore other contributing factors to diarrhea in piglets. WGS results showed that C. difficile sequence type (ST)11 including the hypervirulent PCR ribotype 078 isolates derived from Japanese pigs were closely related to ST11 of overseas strains (human clinical and animal-derived) and a Japanese human clinical strain. Toxin-positive C. difficile may cause diarrhea in piglets and hypervirulent C. difficile are spreading among pigs and human populations worldwide.

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  • Kenji TSUKANO, Shohei YAMAKAWA, Kazuyuki SUZUKI
    Article ID: 24-0089
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: May 27, 2024
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    The present study investigated the prevalence of blood chloride (Cl) abnormalities in diarrheic neonatal calves with metabolic acidosis and attempted to identify the most relevant electrolyte abnormality to these abnormalities. A retrospective analysis was conducted on the medical records of 157 diarrheic neonatal calves aged 10.3 ± 4.2 days old with metabolic acidosis. Hypochloremia, normochloremia, and hyperchloremia were observed in 8.9% (14/157), 43.3% (68/157), and 47.8% (68/157), respectively, of diarrheic calves with metabolic acidosis. This distribution remained similar regardless of age (under 8 days or 8 days and older). Furthermore, a multiple logistic regression analysis showed that variations in values for blood sodium [Na (regression coefficients 0.877; 95% confidence interval (CI) 13.977 – 134.195; P<0.01)], pH (regression coefficients –10.719; 95% CI –19.076 – –2.362; P<0.05), and bicarbonate [HCO3 (regression coefficients –0.555; 95% CI –0.820 – –0.290; P<0.01)] were associated with blood Cl abnormalities. The present results revealed that blood Na concentrations were more strongly associated with blood Cl concentrations than blood pH and HCO3values. In the present study, diarrheic calves with hyperchloremia were characterized by normonatremia and extremely severe metabolic acidosis.

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  • Mutsuki ISHIMARU, Takeru TSUCHIYA, Yoshiro ENDO, Akira MATSUI, Hajime ...
    Article ID: 24-0083
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: May 23, 2024
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    Effects of different winter paddock management of Thoroughbred weanlings and yearlings in Hokkaido, Japan, which is extremely cold in winter, on physiological function, endocrine function and growth were investigated. They were divided into two groups; those kept outdoors for 22 hr in the paddock (22hr group) and those kept outdoors for 7 hr in daytime with walking exercise for 1 hr using the horse-walker (7hr +W group), and the changes in daily distance travelled, body temperature (BT), heart rate (HR), HR variability (HRV), endocrine function and growth parameters were compared between the two groups from November at the year of birth to January at1 year of age. The 7hr+W group could travel almost the same distance as the 22hr group by using the horse-walker. The 22hr group had a lower rate of increase in body weight than the 7hr+W group in January. In addition, lower in BT and HR were observed, and HRV analysis showed an increase in high frequency power spectral density, indicating that parasympathetic nervous activity was dominant. And also, changes in circulating cortisol and thyroxine were not observed despite cold environment. On the other hand, the 7hr+W group had higher prolactin and insulin like growth factor than the 22hr group in January, and cortisol and thyroxine were also increased. Physiological and endocrinological findings from the present study indicate that the management of the 7hr+W group is effective in promoting growth and maintaining metabolism during the winter season.

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  • Keishi OWAKI, Mami MURAKAMI, Kana KATO, Akihiro HIRATA, Hiroki SAKAI
    Article ID: 23-0470
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: May 21, 2024
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    Signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) is a family of transcription factors involved in various normal physiological cellular processes. Moreover, STATs have been recently identified as novel therapeutic targets for various human tumors. STAT3, STAT5a, and STAT6 have been suggested to be involved in tumorigenesis in human breast cancer. Owing to the similarity between feline mammary carcinomas (FMCs) and human breast cancers, these factors may play an important role in FMCs. However, studies on the expression of STATs in animal tumors are limited. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to characterize the expression of total STAT5 (tSTAT5) and phosphorylated STAT5 (pSTAT5) in FMCs, feline mammary adenomas, non-neoplastic proliferative mammary gland lesions, and normal feline mammary glands using immunohistochemistry. High expression of tSTAT5 was observed in the cytoplasm of all the samples assessed in this study. Moreover, high expression of tSTAT5 was observed in the nucleus; however, its levels varied depending on the lesion. The percentage of pSTAT5-nuclear positive cells varied among normal feline mammary glands (40.1 ± 25.1%), and non-neoplastic lesions, including mammary hyperplasia (43.2 ± 28.6%) and fibroadenomatous changes (18.0 ± 13.6%). Moreover, the percentage of pSTAT5-nuclear-positive cells in feline mammary adenomas was 24.5 ± 19.2%, which was significantly reduced in feline mammary carcinomas (2.4 ± 5.6%), regardless of histopathological subtype. This study suggests that decreased STAT5 activity may be involved in the development and malignant progression of feline mammary carcinomas.

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  • Lita Rakhma YUSTINASARI, Muneyoshi HYOTO, Hiroyuki IMAI, Ken Takeshi K ...
    Article ID: 24-0047
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: May 15, 2024
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    Exosomes or small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) are present in the blood of pregnant mice and considered to be involved in pregnancy physiology. Although sEVs in pregnant periods are proposed to be derived from placentas, sEVs-producing cells are not well known in mouse placentas. We studied the dynamics and localization of sEVs in pregnant serum and placentas, and examined gestational variation of microRNA (miRNA). Serums and placentas were collected from non-pregnant (NP) and pregnant mice throughout the entire gestational day (Gd). EVs were purified from serums and total RNA was isolated from EVs. Nanoparticle-tracking assay (NTA) revealed that the rates of sEVs in EVs are 53% at NP, and increased to 80.1% at Gd 14.5 and 97.5% at Gd 18.5. Western blotting on EVs showed positive reactivity to the tetraspanin markers and clarified that the results using anti-CD63 antibody were most consistent with the sEVs appearance detected by NTA. Serum EVs also showed a positive reaction to the syncytiotrophoblast marker, syncytin-1. Immunohistostaining using anti-CD63 antibody showed positive reactions in mouse placentas at the syncytiotrophoblasts and endothelial cells of the fetal capillaries. Quantitative PCR revealed that significantly higher amounts of miRNAs were included in the sEVs of Gd 18.5. Our results suggested that sEVs are produced in the mouse placenta and transferred to maternal or fetal bloodstreams. sEVs are expected to have a miRNA-mediated physiological effect and become useful biomarkers reflecting the pregnancy status.

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  • Nada ARAYASKUL, Masahito ASADA, Atefeh FATHI, Nanang R. ARIEFTA, Kota ...
    Article ID: 24-0111
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: May 15, 2024
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    The red fluorescent protein(rfp)-blasticidin deaminase(bsd) fusion gene was transfected into Babesia ovata by electroporation with the plasmid DNA and selected with 15 μg/mL of blasticidin S under the in vitro culture condition. The transfected parasite with episomal DNA was selected and cultured for further analysis based on the presence of the rfp-bsd fusion gene by PCR and expression of the fusion protein by immunofluorescence antibody test under fluorescence microscopy for 2 months after the transfection. The results are the first, to our knowledge, to demonstrate the expression and stability of the episomal rfp-bsd fusion gene under the control of actin promoter as a selectable marker for the transfection system in B. ovata.

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  • Rie KAWAGUCHI, Tatsuya NISHI, Katsuhiko FUKAI, Mitsutaka IKEZAWA, Take ...
    Article ID: 24-0115
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: May 09, 2024
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    Vaccination is a feasible approach for controlling foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). In FMD-free countries, vaccines are stored as a precautionary measure to control potential outbreaks. However, the challenge lies in pre-stocking optimal vaccines against the newly emerging strains. This study examined the potency of pre-stocked vaccines administered at elevated doses during emergencies. We vaccinated the cows with either a single or double trivalent vaccine dose containing two serotype O and one serotype A strains. Subsequently, vaccinated and unvaccinated cows were exposed to virulent strains of serotype O (O/JPN/2010; topotype Southeast Asia/Mya-98 lineage) or A (A/IRN/2016; topotype ASIA/G-VII lineage), which were genetically and antigenically distinct from the vaccine strains. Following challenge infections, all cows that received a single dose vaccination exhibited vesicular lesions with excreted viruses in the oral and nasal discharges. However, a substantial reduction was observed in the total clinical scores and virus titers in the sera and nasal discharges compared to those in the unvaccinated group. Cows receiving a doubled dose vaccination were completely protected from infection with O/JPN/2010 or demonstrated a significant decrease in viral shedding and clinical scores against A/IRN/2016. To note, vesicular lesions harbor significant amounts of viruses; thus, by mitigating their formation, viral transmission can be impeded, thereby slowing viral spread in the field. Furthermore, increasing the vaccine dose induced higher neutralizing antibody titers against heterologous strains. These findings suggest an alternative strategy for the effective management of future epidemics using pre-stocked vaccines.

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  • Noriko IMAIZUMI, Satoshi GONDAIRA, Marin KAMIOKA, Tomochika SUGIURA, A ...
    Article ID: 24-0097
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: May 07, 2024
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Mycoplasma bovis mastitisis highly contagious and disrupts lactation, posing a significant threat to the dairy industry. While the mammary gland’s defence mechanism involves epithelial cells and mononuclear cells (MNC), their interaction with M. bovis remains incompletely understood. In this study, we assessed the immunological reactivity of bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC) to M. bovis through co-culture with MNC. Upon co-culture with MNC, the mRNA expression levels of interleukin (IL)-1β,IL-6, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in bMEC stimulated by M. bovis showed a significant increase compared to monoculture. Additionally, when stimulated with M. bovis, the culture supernatant exhibited significantly higher concentrations of IL-6 and interferon (IFN)-γ, while IL-1β concentration tended to be higher in co-culture with MNC than in monoculture. Furthermore, the mRNA expression levels of toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 in bMEC stimulated with M. bovis tended to increase, and TLR4 significantly increased when co-cultured with MNC compared to monocultures. However, the surface expression levels in bMEC did not exhibit significant changes between co-culture and monoculture. Overall, our research indicates that the inflammatory response of bMEC is increased during co-culture with MNC, suggesting that the interaction between bMEC and MNC in the mammary gland amplifies the immune response to M. bovis in cows affected by M. bovis mastitis.

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  • Takumi KOMIYA, Akihiro MORI, Naohito NISHII, Hitomi ODA, Eri ONOZAWA, ...
    Article ID: 2-0345
    Published: 2021
    Advance online publication: March 05, 2021
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    A 5-year-old castrated male domestic shorthair cat was diagnosed with diabetic ketoacidosis and severe insulin resistance. Although the conventional treatment for diabetic ketoacidosis was provided, the cat required frequent hospitalization because of severe dehydration and repeated diabetic ketoacidosis. We detected anti-insulin antibodies for human in this cat. Serum insulin-binding IgG levels were markedly elevated compared with those in healthy cats and other diabetic cats. We initiated prednisolone to suppress the effects of anti-insulin antibodies. After initiation of prednisolone, the cat was gradually recovered with increasing activity and appetite. Furthermore, satisfactory glycemic control was achieved with combined subcutaneous injection of insulin detemir and insulin degludec.

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  • Linjie LI, Xiaoling SHI, Derong ZHANG, Xin CAO, Amjad ALI, Jialin BAI
    Article ID: 20-0487
    Published: 2020
    Advance online publication: November 13, 2020
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
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  • Mario DOLERA, Luca MALFASSI, Simone PAVESI, Sara FINESSO, Giovanni MAZ ...
    Article ID: 16-0077
    Published: 2017
    Advance online publication: November 15, 2017
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Atlanto-axial (AA) instability due to ligament insufficiency is a common cause of cervical spinal cord compression in toy breeds. However, in some dogs a difference in size between the atlas and the axis leads to joint incongruence that exacerbates AA subluxation and makes surgical treatment challenging. Twelve dogs with AA instability with incongruence were enrolled in a single institution prospective observational study. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the AA joint were compared to a retrospectively reviewed control group. A novel surgical approach consisting of a dorsal internal fixation technique was performed in six dogs. For affected dogs, the mean normalised difference between the dorso-ventral atlas canal and the dorso-ventral axis canal was 29.67% (median of 35.07%, standard deviation 25.64%), while in normal dogs a mean difference of 4.67% (median of 3.95%, standard deviation 5.21%) was observed. On MRI, 12/12 affected dogs had spinal cord compression, which was classified as reducible (3/12), partially reducible (6/12) and non-reducible (3/12). In surgically operated dogs, follow-up CT showed a partial or complete reduction of the previous spinal cord compression with a consistent amelioration or resolution of the presenting complaints. The proposed surgical technique was safe and effective in dogs with partially or completely reducible spinal cord compression.

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  • Mohamed ABDO, Khaled SHOGHY, Yoshinao Z. HOSAKA, Tomohiro IMAGAWA, Saf ...
    Article ID: 14-0225e
    Published: 2014
    Advance online publication: August 20, 2014
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    This article released online on July 30, 2014 as advance publication has been retracted by the Editorial Board of Journal of Veterinary Medical Science due to a violation of the journal’s “Information for Authors”.
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  • Mohamed ABDO, Khaled SHOGHY, Yoshinao Z. HOSAKA, Tomohiro IMAGAWA, Saf ...
    Article ID: 14-0225
    Published: 2014
    Advance online publication: July 30, 2014
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    This article has been retracted by the Editorial Board of Journal of Veterinary Medical Science due to a violation of the journal's “Information for Authors”.
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  • Article ID: 13-0051e
    Published: 2013
    Advance online publication: November 30, 2013
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    This article released online on August 9, 2013 as advance publication was withdrawn from consideration for publication in The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science at author's request.
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  • Hui LI, Guoquan WU, Jiancheng LI, Shusheng TANG, Xilong XIAO, Yanan XU ...
    Article ID: 13-0051
    Published: 2013
    Advance online publication: August 09, 2013
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    This article released online on August 9, 2013 as advance publication was withdrawn from consideration for publication in The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science at author's request.
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  • Article ID: 11-0339e
    Published: 2012
    Advance online publication: December 25, 2012
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    This article released online on September 26, 2012 as advance publication was withdrawn from consideration for publication in The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science at author's request.
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  • Farhad SAFARPOOR DEHKORDI
    Article ID: 11-0580e
    Published: 2012
    Advance online publication: November 01, 2012
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    This article released online on August 3, 2012 as advance publication was withdrawn from consideration for publication in The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science at author’s request.
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  • Seyedhosein JAROLMASJED, Saeed KOLAHIAN
    Article ID: 11-0339
    Published: 2012
    Advance online publication: September 26, 2012
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    This article released online on September 26, 2012 as advance publication was withdrawn from consideration for publication in The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science at author's request.
    Download PDF (161K)
  • Farhad SAFARPOOR DEHKORDI
    Article ID: 11-0580
    Published: 2012
    Advance online publication: August 03, 2012
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    This article released online on August 3, 2012 as advance publication was withdrawn from consideration for publication in The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science at author's request.
    Download PDF (273K)
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