Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Online ISSN : 1347-7439
Print ISSN : 0916-7250
ISSN-L : 0916-7250
Advance online publication
Showing 1-50 articles out of 51 articles from Advance online publication
  • Atsuo IIDA, Hitoshi TAKEMAE, Ronald TARIGAN, Ryosuke KOBAYASHI, Hiroka ...
    Article ID: 21-0115
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: May 14, 2021
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    Supplementary material

    Here, we performed next-generation sequencing (NGS) on six large flying foxes (Pteropus vampyrus) collected in Indonesia. Seventy-five virus species in the liver tissue of each specimen were listed. Viral homologous sequences in the bat genome were identified from the listed viruses. This finding provides collateral evidence of viral endogenization into the host genome. We found that two of the six specimens bore partial sequences that were homologous to the plant pathogens Geminiviridae and Luteoviridae. These sequences were absent in the P. vampyrus chromosomal sequences. Hence, plant viral homologous sequences were localized to the hepatocytes as extrachromosomal DNA fragments. Therefore, this suggests that the bat is a potential carrier or vector of plant viruses. The present investigation on wild animals offered novel perspectives on viral invasion, variation, and host interaction.

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  • Do Na LEE, Minjong HA, Insik KWAK, Sohail AMHED, Kyuyong KANG, Sang-Ho ...
    Article ID: 20-0607
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: May 13, 2021
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    Hydrocephalus is one of the most common central nervous system malformations in domestic dogs, yet they are poorly documented and studied in wild carnivoran mammals. A pup of raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) was rescued and brought to Wildlife Center. The pup showed generalized ataxia, a domed skull, and an open bregmatic fontanelle. Ultrasound and MRI showed severe enlargement of the lateral ventricle with the loss of septum pellucidum resulting in a single large ventricle and cervical syringohydromyelia. Although treatment was attempted, the animal was euthanized due to poor prognosis. At necropsy, macroscopic findings were identical to the diagnostic imaging, where marked enlargement of the calvarium, and attenuated gyri and sulci were observed. Finally, hydrocephalus was confirmed. Here, we describe a case of hydrocephalus in a raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides).

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  • Rattanatrai CHAIYASING, Takuro ISHIKAWA, Katsuhiko WARITA, Yoshinao Z. ...
    Article ID: 20-0696
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: May 10, 2021
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    This study aimed to investigate the function of estrogen receptors (ERs) in myoregeneration and intermuscular adipogenesis. Ovariectomized (OVX) ERα knockout (KO) mice and ERβ KO mice were used to assess the effect of estrogen on the myoregenerative process. Tibialis anterior muscle was collected on days 7, 10, and 14 after cardiotoxin injection to assess myotube morphology and adipogenesis area. Regenerated myotubes from OVX-ERβ KO mice were consistently smaller in diameter than those from OVX-ERα KO and OVX-wild-type mice, whereas the adipogenesis area of OVX-ERβ KO mice was consistently greater than that of the other types. Therefore, ERβ may be an influential factor in promoting myoregeneration and adipogenesis inhibition compared to ERα.

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  • Joon Hyuk SOHN, Shota YAMANE, Yukiko SAITOH, Ken Takashi KUSAKABE, Jun ...
    Article ID: 21-0158
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: May 10, 2021
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    The placenta of the Korean water deer was anatomically examined to accumulate basic information regarding its reproductive system. The convex placentomes with five to nine well-developed pedicles were observed in the whole uterine horns, and therefore, the placenta was classified as oligocotyledonary. The evidence indicating the migration of binucleate cells (BNCs) from trophectoderm to the uterine epithelium led to the histological classification of the placenta as synepitheliochorial. The number of fetuses was markedly higher than that in other ruminant species. However, the number of placentomes was found to be similar to the other Cervidae species. Therefore, these results suggest that the Korean water deer may possess special mechanisms or structures at the fetus attachment site to maintain this unusally high number of fetuses.

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  • Sayaka TSUCHIDA, Takanari HATTORI, Akiko SAWADA, Koretsugu OGATA, Jun ...
    Article ID: 21-0076
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: May 03, 2021
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    We performed a comprehensive fecal metabolite analysis using LC-MS/MS and LC-QTOF-MS approaches as a preliminary study. Feces of Japanese macaques on Yakushima Island were collected from five monkeys at two separate locations. Using the former methodology, 59 substances such as free amino acids, nucleotides, nucleosides and nucleic acid bases, and organic acids in the citrate cycle were quantitatively detected and successfully differentiated in two different monkey groups by the concentrations of nucleic acid metabolites and free amino acids. In the latter, around 12,000 substances were detected both by positive and negative mode in each sample. Differences in signal intensities were observed between two monkey groups in the concentrations of plant secondary metabolites such as cyanogenic glycosides, flavonoids, and phenolics.

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  • Ayano SATO, Toshihide KATO, Motoshi TAJIMA
    Article ID: 20-0615
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: April 30, 2021
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    Flexural and hyperextension deformities are congenital problems in calves. We, therefore, aimed to investigate the distal limb conformation in 1 day- and 28-day-old female Holstein-Friesian (HF) calves (n=21), male Japanese Black (JB) calves (n=15), and female JB calves (n=15). The claw angle of the forelimb dorsal claw wall in a standing position and recorded other parameters, including body weight, withers height, circumference of forelimbs, and flexor tendon thickness in the forelimbs, were measured and compared these between the three groups. At 1 day old, the mean claw angles were 51.1° in female HF calves, 47.0° in male JB calves, and 41.8° in female JB calves; the 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of the claw angles showed large distributions in all three groups. One female HF and one male JB calves showed mild flexural deformity, whereas four JB calves showed hyperextension deformity. At 28 days old, the mean claw angles were 51.7° in female HF calves, 51.2° in male JB calves, and 48.4° in female JB calves; the 95% CIs of the claw angles showed smaller distributions than those at 1 day old in all groups. For all groups, the limb deformities had improved without treatment at 28 days old. As a feature of the breed, female JB calves were apt to show hyperextended deformities inversely proportional to the body weight. These limb deformities healed spontaneously and were thought to be physiological.

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  • Tsukasa WAKI, Yuma OHARI, Kei HAYASHI, Junji MORIBE, Kayoko MATSUO, Ya ...
    Article ID: 21-0012
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: April 30, 2021
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    Trematodes of the genus Dicrocoelium are one of the most common parasites in ruminant animals; however, their life cycles in Japan are unclear. To find the sporocysts of D. chinensis in the natural field, we sampled 269 land snails (14 species) at a location with high level infection of sika deer in Gifu Prefecture, Honshu Island, Japan in autumn between 2017 and 2019. During the sampling period, we found mother sporocysts in the hepatopancreas of Aegista vulgivaga and Cyclophorus herklotsi. DNA barcoding based on the sequences of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 showed that the sporocysts from A. vulgivaga belonged to D. chinensis, indicating that this snail has potential as the first intermediate host of D. chinensis at this location.

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  • Jun LI, Tong-Dong SHI, Jun-Feng HAN, Xing-Guang ZENG, Cui-Li FAN, Chao ...
    Article ID: 21-0026
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: April 29, 2021
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    The molecular features of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, eradication, and pathogenesis are poorly understood, partly due to the lack of an adequate animal model that faithfully reproduces the course of infection. Although Tupaia belangeri were previously recognized as HBV-susceptible animals, the course of infection in adult tupaias remains obscure. Herein, we performed a longitudinal study and demonstrated that adult tupaias were efficiently infected (90% infection rate) with 108 copies of the HBV genome. HBV replicated vigorously, produced high levels of covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) in hepatocytes, and released hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis Be antigen (HBeAg), and HBV DNA into the serum at day 9 post-inoculation (p.i.), which then decreased on day 15 p.i. The kinetics were consistent with the expression of liver HBsAg and HBeAg, as determined with immunohistochemistry. The viral products in serum at day 9 and 15 p.i. represented de novo synthesized viral products, as treatment with a viral entry inhibitor completely abolished these products from the serum. Viral clearance and serological conversion occurred at day 21 p.i. and were accompanied by elevated alanine transaminase (ALT) levels and liver pathology, such as inflammatory infiltration and hepatocyte ballooning degeneration. Although ALT levels eventually returned to normal levels by day 42 p.i., the liver pathology persisted until at least day 120 p.i. The HBV infection process in tupaia, therefore, exhibits features similar to that of human acute HBV infection, including viral replication, viral eradication, ALT elevation, and liver pathology. Thus, adopting the tupaia model to study host-HBV interactions presents an important advance which could facilitate further investigation and understanding of human HBV infection, especially for features like cccDNA that current small-animal models cannot effectively model.

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  • Keisuke IMOTO, Yuho SAKAI, Muneyoshi OKADA, Kosuke OTANI, Hideyuki YAM ...
    Article ID: 21-0040
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: April 29, 2021
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    Changes in electrophysiological properties, such as ion channel expression and activity, are closely related to arrhythmogenesis during heart failure (HF). However, a causative factor for the electrical remodeling in HF has not been determined. Periostin (POSTN), a matricellular protein, is increased in heart tissues of patients with HF. In the present study, we investigated whether a single injection of POSTN affects the electrophysiological properties in rat ventricles. After male Wistar rats were intravenously injected with recombinant rat POSTN (64 μg/kg, 24 hr), electrocardiogram (ECG) was recorded. Whole-cell patch clamp was performed to measure action potential (AP) and Na+ current (INa) in isolated ventricular myocytes. Protein expression of cardiac voltage-gated Na+ channel (NaV1.5) in isolated ventricles was examined by Western blotting. In ECG, POSTN-injection significantly increased RS height. POSTN-injection significantly delayed time to peak in AP and decreased INa in the isolated ventricular myocytes. POSTN-injection decreased NaV1.5 expression in the isolated ventricles. It was confirmed that POSTN (1 μg/ml, 24 hr) decreased INa and NaV1.5 protein expression in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes. This study for the first time demonstrated that a single injection of POSTN in rats decreased INa by suppressing NaV1.5 expression in the ventricular myocytes, which was accompanied by a prolongation of time to peak in AP and an increase of RS height in ECG.

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  • Susumu IWAIDE, Naoki UJIKE, Kyoko KOBAYASHI, Yukiko SASSA, Tomoaki MUR ...
    Article ID: 20-0713
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: April 28, 2021
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    In AA amyloidosis, cross-species oral transmission has been demonstrated in several animal models. While it is known that the transmission efficiency of AA amyloidosis between different species is lower than that among the same species, the mechanism of this species-barrier is unclear. In this study, we found at first that mice orally given a large amount of bovine AA simultaneously with inflammatory stimulation did not develop AA amyloidosis. Therefore, we hypothesized that the low efficiency of the cross-species oral transmission of AA amyloidosis might be due to the low absorption rate in Peyer's patches. To evaluate the hypothesis, we next investigated whether bovine AA was taken up by Peyer's patches and translocated to other organs in vivo and ex vivo models. The direct absorption of bovine AA by Peyer’s patches was not observed. Besides, translocation of bovine AA to the mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen, liver, or kidney was not observed except the mesenteric lymph node of a single mouse. Thus, absorption of bovine AA by Peyer's patches occurred much less efficiently in mouse models of cross-species oral transmission of AA amyloidosis. The present study suggests that the less efficient amyloid uptake by Peyer’s patches may be involved in the species-barrier of oral transmission of AA amyloidosis.

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  • Yuki IWATA, Hirotaka KONDO, Iori KOIZUMI, Hisashi SHIBUYA
    Article ID: 21-0145
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: April 28, 2021
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    An 8-year-and-1-month-old female blue tegu (Salvator merianae) was brought to a clinician with severe cough. The patient died 11 days later despite supportive care, and necropsy was performed by a clinician. The lumen of the distal trachea was almost completely occluded by a milk-white, hard mass measuring 1 cm in diameter. Histopathologically, the mass comprised spindle-shaped to polygonal cells arranged in a loose sheet with abundant production of basophilic cartilaginous matrix, consistent with chondrosarcoma. Reports of tracheal neoplasms in reptiles are limited, and to the best of our knowledge this represents the first pathological documentation of tracheal chondrosarcoma in a reptile.

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  • Kikumi OGIHARA, Akikazu ISHIHARA, Makoto NAGAI, Kazutaka YAMADA, Testu ...
    Article ID: 21-0170
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: April 28, 2021
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    A 23-year-old Falabella gelding kept in Tochigi, Japan, for more than 20 years presented with a recurrent mass of the glans penis that was first noticed about a year earlier. Partial phallectomy was performed with no adjunctive therapy for local regrowth of the mass. The horse was euthanized 3 months after surgery for urinary retention due to suspected regrowth. The resected mass affected the genital and urethral mucosa of the glans penis, and was diagnosed as equine sarcoid by histopathology and identification of bovine papillomavirus (BPV) DNA. Phylogenetic analysis of the BPV genome of the sarcoid showed high sequence homology to BPV type 1 (BPV-1) from Hokkaido, Japan, suggesting a geographical relationship for BPV-1 in Japan.

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  • Mio KOBAYASHI, Toshinori YOSHIDA, Risako YAMASHITA, Rho ICHIKAWA, Naka ...
    Article ID: 20-0709
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: April 26, 2021
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    We encountered a case of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in a 17-year-old female koala at a zoo. A fragile, papillary, elevated mass was found on the third digit of the right hind limb. SCC was identified histopathologically: squamous cell-like polygonal tumor cells showed a nest-like growth pattern with epidermal down growth, central keratinization and necrotic foci, and invaded dermal connective tissues. Metastatic lesions were observed in various organs, including the lung and axillary lymph node: in the lung, multiple metastatic foci similar to the primary lesion, and in the axillary lymph node, individual polygonal tumor cells infiltrated the sinusoids. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the tumor cells were positive for proliferating cell nuclear antigen, which exhibited 32–33% of labeling indices in the tumor cells. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a case of SCC in a digit of a koala.

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  • Koji SUGITA, Ayaka SHIMA, Kaho TAKAHASHI, Yasuyoshi MATSUDA, Masaki MI ...
    Article ID: 21-0063
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: April 26, 2021
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    A 7-year 6-month-old, castrated male Shiba dog presented with a 1-month history of lethargy, anorexia, vomiting, and frequent watery diarrhea. Weight loss, hypoalbuminemia, anemia, and leukocytosis were detected at the first visit. The dog was diagnosed with non-responsive enteropathy (NRE) based on clinical and histopathological examinations. Since the dog did not respond to the immunosuppressive drugs, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) was performed during the treatment with chlorambucil. A single endoscopic FMT into the cecum and colon drastically recovered clinical signs and clinicopathological abnormalities and corrected dysbiosis in the dog. No recurrence or adverse events were observed. The present case report suggests that FMT, possibly together with chlorambucil, might be a treatment option for NRE in Shiba dogs that have poorer prognosis compared with other dog breeds.

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  • Seonggyu BANG, Ahmad Yar QAMAR, Bereket Molla TANGA, Xun FANG, Jongki ...
    Article ID: 21-0125
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: April 26, 2021
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    Antioxidants have multiple protective roles in cells and can be used to protect cells against cryo-damage during sperm freezing affecting fertility. The antioxidant resveratrol (3,5,4-trihydroxytrans-stilbene; RSV) has been reported to protect the animal sperm during cryopreservation, including human sperm. In this study, we assessed the protective effects of RSV supplementation on dog sperm cryopreservation. Semen was collected from four dogs and the effect of different concentrations of RSV (0, 100, 200, and 400 µM) on post-thaw sperm quality was examined. After thawing, sperm motility was assessed using computer-aided sperm analysis, and the structural integrity of the plasma membrane, acrosome, and chromatin was examined, as well as mitochondrial activity and gene expression were assessed. Dog sperm cryopreserved with 200 µM RSV showed significant improvement in post-thaw sperm motility and viability compared with that of the control group (P<0.05). Moreover, RSV-supplemented samples showed significantly higher numbers of sperm with an intact plasma membrane, active mitochondria, and structural integrity of acrosomes and chromatin than that of control samples (P<0.05). Furthermore, gene expression showed that RSV supplemented samples showed lower expression of pro-apoptotic (BAX) reactive oxygen species (ROS) modulator oxidative stress-related (ROMO1) and oxidative induced DNA damage repair (OGG1) whereas higher expression levels of anti‐apoptotic (BCL2), protamine-2 (PRM2), protamine-3 (PRM3) and sperm acrosome‐associated (SPACA3) genes than control. Our results suggest that RSV, at its optimum concentration, can be efficiently used as an antioxidant in the cryopreservation of dog sperm.

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  • Hitoshi MIZUGUCHI, Tomoki IKEDA, Yumi WATANABE, Shiro KUSHIBIKI, Kenta ...
    Article ID: 21-0037
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: April 21, 2021
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The effects of anti-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) antibody on rumen fermentation and LPS activity were investigated during subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) challenge. Eleven Holstein cattle (164 ± 14 kg) were used in a 3 × 3 Latin square design. Cattle were fed a roughage diet on days -11 to -1 (pre-challenge) and day 2 (post-challenge), and a high-grain diet on days 0 and 1 (SARA challenge). For 14 days, 0-, 2-, or 4-g of anti-LPS antibody was administered once daily through a rumen fistula. Ruminal pH was measured continuously, and rumen fluid and blood samples were collected on days -1, 0, 1, and 2. Significantly lower ruminal LPS activity on day 1 was observed in the 2- and 4-g groups than those in the 0-g group. In addition, significantly higher 1-hr mean ruminal pH on SARA challenge period (days 0 and 1) was identified in the 4-g group than in the 0-g group. However, rumen fermentation measurements (total VFA, VFA components, NH3-N and lactic acid) and peripheral blood metabolites (GLU, FFA, BHB, T-CHO, BUN, AST and GGT) were not different among the groups during the experimental periods. Therefore, anti-LPS antibody administration mitigates LPS release and pH depression without the depression of rumen fermentation and peripheral blood metabolites during SARA challenge in Holsteincattle.

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  • Dong-Ju PARK, Ju-Bin KANG, Phil-Ok KOH
    Article ID: 21-0089
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: April 21, 2021
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    Ischemic stroke is a fatal disease that has long-term disability. It induces excessive oxidative stress generation and cellular metabolic disorders, result in tissue damage. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is a naturally derived flavonoid with strong antioxidant property. We previously reported the neuroprotective effect of EGCG in ischemic stroke. The defensive mechanisms of stroke are very diverse and complex. This study investigated specific proteins that are regulated by EGCG treatment in the ischemic brain damage. Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was performed to induce focal cerebral ischemia. EGCG (50 mg/kg) or vehicle was intraperitoneally administered just prior to MCAO. MCAO induced severe neurological deficits and disorders. EGCG treatment alleviated these neurological disorder and damage. Cerebral cortex was used for this study. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry were performed to detect the proteins altered by EGCG. We identified various proteins that were changed between vehicle- and EGCG-treated animals. Among these proteins, isocitrate dehydrogenase, dynamin-like protein 1, and γ-enolase were decreased in vehicle-treated animals, while EGCG treatment prevented these decreases. However, pyridoxal-5'-phosphate phosphatase and 60 kDa heat shock protein were increased in vehicle-treated animals with MCAO injury. EGCG treatment attenuated these increases. The changes in these proteins were confirmed by Western blot and reverse transcription-PCR analyses. These proteins were associated with cellular metabolism and neuronal regeneration. Thus, these findings can suggest that EGCG performs a defensive mechanism in ischemic damage by regulating specific proteins related to energy metabolism and neuronal protection.

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  • Hiroto KOBAYASHI, Susumu IWAIDE, Naoki UJIKE, Tomoaki MURAKAMI
    Article ID: 21-0022
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: April 20, 2021
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    Amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis is a lethal disease characterized by systemic AA amyloid deposition, and it reported in many animal species. Despite experiments have shown that AA amyloidosis can be transmitted orally, horizontal transmission and cross-species transmission are concerns, the transmission mechanism has been unknown. In this study, we examined the oral transmission efficiency of AA amyloidosis using oxazolone-induced gastrointestinal disorder mice. As a result, the upper or lower gastrointestinal disorder groups developed more severe amyloid deposition in systemic tissues than the group without gastrointestinal disorders. The results of this study suggest that gastrointestinal damage promotes the oral transmission of AA amyloidosis.

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  • Md SALAHUDDIN, Kohzy HIRAMATSU, Kento TAMURA, Kazumi KITA
    Article ID: 21-0157
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: April 20, 2021
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    White Leghorn chickens were divided into the control, low-carbohydrate (CHO), and CHO-free groups to investigate dietary CHO’s significance on histological features of chicken ileal mucosa. Paraffin sections of distal ileum from each chicken were stained by periodic acid-Schiff reaction and subjected to morphometrical analysis. Most villi in the control group had a fingerlike shape but those of the experimental groups showed irregular shapes. Villus height, crypt depth and the number of mitotic cells per crypt were significantly lower in the CHO-free group than in the control group. The density of goblet cells also showed a significant decreasing trend with a reduction in dietary CHO level. In conclusion, dietary CHO positively affects the proliferation of epithelial cells in the chicken ileum.

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  • Kasumi SUDO, Manabu YAMADA, Mariko OCHIAI, Shoko IWAMOTO, Hajime SAKAK ...
    Article ID: 20-0654
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: April 19, 2021
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    We evaluated the role of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) in the formation of button ulcers in the mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract. Histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses of pigs experimentally infected with a subgenotype 2.1 isolate of CSFV, which was isolated in Japan in 2019, revealed follicular necrosis in the submucosal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue and herniation of crypts as factors that contribute to the development of button ulcers during CSFV infection. These findings indicate that CSFV induces follicular necrosis and is one of the causative agents of button ulcers in pigs.

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  • Rathanon KHEMGAEW, Mari OMACHI, Tomoe TAKESADA, Torrung VETCHAPITAK, H ...
    Article ID: 21-0034
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: April 14, 2021
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Papillomatous digital dermatitis (PDD) is a polymicrobial infection causing lameness in dairy cattle. Culture-independent analysis has shown that Treponema phagedenis is present consistently and predominantly in the lesions. However, the pathogenesis of PDD, especially the tissue penetration pathway, has not been examined. In the present study, we investigated whether T. phagedenis strains isolated from PDD produce proteolytic enzyme(s) for disruption of the epithelial cell barrier and have the ability to translocate in polarized normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) in vitro. Ten strains of T. phagedenis isolated from lesions did not show proteolytic activity on modified skim milk agar, although a human strain of T. denticola used as a control showed such activity. The integrity of tight junctions was monitored by measurement of transepithelial electrical resistance (TER). The TER values after inoculation of the T. phagedenis strains examined did not change during the experimental period; however, apical to basolateral translocation of T. phagedenis was confirmed after 24 hr by microscopy and Treponema-specific PCR. We further confirmed that translocation of T. phagedenis was accelerated by co-inoculation with live T. denticola, but not with heat-killed organisms. Furthermore, tight junction ZO-1 protein was not lost intensity after inoculation with T. phagedenis and the organism was observed in NHEK cells using a florescence microscope. These results suggest that T. phagedenis strains may translocate via a transcellular route in vitro and that the invasion is accelerated by other bacteria, such as T. denticola, producing proteolytic activity.

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  • Jun HAKOZAKI, Sho KUZUKAMI, Asako HARAGUCHI, Kazuhiko NAKAYAMA, Kodai ...
    Article ID: 20-0700
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: April 12, 2021
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    The definitive hosts of Metagonimus hakubaensis are reported to be hamsters, rats, mice, dogs, cats, chickens, and quails in experimental infection and Japanese water shrews in natural infection. Here we report that raccoon dogs are new natural definitive hosts of M. hakubaensis, based on morphological and molecular analyses of Metagonimus flukes collected from the host species from Aomori Prefecture, Japan. Moreover, M. hakubaensis recovered from raccoon dogs showed higher fecundity than those recovered from Japanese water shrews. Therefore, raccoon dogs were considered as a more suitable natural definitive host of M. hakubaensis than Japanese water shrews.

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  • Masaki MAEZAWA, Ken-ichi WATANABE, Kotaro MATSUMOTO, Yoshiyasu KOBAYAS ...
    Article ID: 20-0663
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: April 09, 2021
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    Enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) is typically observed in cattle over 3 years old. However, some cases of EBL onset in young beef cattle have been reported in Japan. The mechanism for early EBL onset is unclear. In Japan, beef cattle are given large amounts of concentrated feed with low vitamin A. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are regulators of cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis, and thought to represent one of the key players in tumor malignancy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the differences in BMP-6 methylation status between EBL beef cattle under 3 years old and other cattle. We investigated the methylation status of the BMP-6 promoter region in 32 EBL beef cattle under 3 years old. We also compared the methylation status of EBL dairy cattle to that of healthy cattle. Median methylation rate of the BMP-6 promoter region in EBL beef cattle under 3 years old was 8.9%, which was significantly higher than that of other groups. Hypermethylation of the BMP-6 promoter region might contribute to early onset of EBL in beef cattle under 3 years old, and animal feeding management practices specific to beef cattle may affect the methylation status of the BMP-6 promoter region.

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  • Kenji KUTARA, Sho KADEKARU, Reiko SUGISAWA, Yumi UNE
    Article ID: 21-0029
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: April 09, 2021
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    An adult female red deer died of a severe seizure and dysbasia. Postmortem computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed. On CT, deciduous right maxillary second and third premolar teeth were observed, and the right infraorbital canal was disrupted. MRI showed that the right trigeminal nerve was enlarged and the right subarachnoid cavity was occupied by fluid and gas. On gross examination, the right paranasal sinus, swollen muscles of the orbit and tonsils, right trigeminal nerve, and right cerebrum surface contained a yellowish-white, cheese-like pus. Based on these findings, the deer was believed to have developed pyogenic meningitis caused by a neuropathic infection secondary to periodontogenic paranasal sinusitis.

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  • Munekazu NAKAICHI, Toshie ISERI, Hiro HORIKIRIZONO, Misa KOMINE, Harum ...
    Article ID: 21-0061
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: April 09, 2021
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    A male 25-month-old Dalmatian dog attended our veterinary hospital because of anorexia and high circulating liver enzyme activities. Abdominal computed tomography showed a slightly small liver with rounded edges, and laparoscopic examination showed that the liver was yellowish. Histopathological examination revealed multifocal necrosis of hepatocytes and severe chronic hepatitis. Rhodanine staining showed severe copper accumulation in hepatocytes and a quantitative analysis of the copper content of the liver showed substantial accumulation (10.3 mg/g dry mass), suggesting a diagnosis of copper-associated hepatitis. Previously reported canine mutation in the COMMD1, the gene responsible for the copper-associated hepatitis in the Bedlington terrier, was not identified. To our knowledge, this is the first report of copper-associated hepatitis in a Dalmatian in Japan.

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  • Akiho KATAYAMA, Ayako MIYAZAKI, Naohito OKAZAKI, Teruko NAKAYAMA, Osam ...
    Article ID: 21-0128
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: April 09, 2021
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    A total of ten 1–2-year-old rabbits died within 2 weeks at a facility in Ehime prefecture in May 2019. Necropsy revealed liver discoloration and fragility, hemorrhage of some organs and blood coagulation failure. On histopathologic examination, necrotizing hepatitis was a common finding, together with fibrin thrombi in the small vessels and hemorrhage in some organs. Rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHD) virus gene was detected in liver samples, and viral particles of approximately 32 nm in diameter were found in the cytoplasm of degenerated hepatocytes by electron microscopy. Phylogenetic analysis based on the partial VP60 gene sequence classified it as Lagovirus europaeus GI.2/RHDV2. This is the first confirmed outbreak of RHD caused by globally emerging GI.2/RHDV2 in Japan.

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  • Hiroto FUKUI, Hiroshi SHIMODA, Sho KADEKARU, Chizuka HENMI, Yumi UNE
    Article ID: 21-0007
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: April 08, 2021
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Twenty-three of 42 European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), belonging to the same rabbit colony, died in March 2020 (55% mortality) in Chiba prefecture, Japan. The disease course was extremely acute without indicators of death or hemorrhage. Necropsy revealed liver swelling, discoloration, cloudiness and fragility, and pulmonary edema. Histologically, severe hepatocellular necrosis (mainly peripheral) and intra-glomerular capillary hyalin thrombi were observed. On molecular-biological examination, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis of RNA from tissues detected a rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus, confirmed as a RHDV-2 VP60 fragment, which shared 99.42% nucleotide identity with the homologous fragment of RHDV-2 German isolate by nucleotide sequence analysis. This report shows the outbreak of rabbit hemorrhagic disease caused by RHDV-2, an emerging infectious disease, in Japan.

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  • Yuto SANO, Kanae SEKI, Kenjirou MIYOSHI, Toshikazu SAKAI, Tsuyoshi KAD ...
    Article ID: 20-0518
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: April 05, 2021
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Mediastinal masses in dogs were diagnosed as basaloid carcinoma associated with multiple thymic cysts (MTCs). The masses were composed of MTCs and proliferating intracystic neoplastic basaloid cells, which immunohistochemically diffusely expressed p63 and cytokeratin 19. A gradual transition from the basal cell layers lining the cysts walls to the neoplastic cells was seen, and it was indicated that the neoplastic cells had originated from the basal cell layers of the cysts. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of basaloid carcinoma occurring in the mediastinal cavity in dogs. Although these tumors were demonstrated to be rare origins, basaloid carcinoma should be included in the differential diagnoses for canine mediastinal tumors.

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  • Fumi MATSUMOTO, Mariko SHIMA-SAWA, Yu FURUSAWA, Osamu YAMATO, Akira YA ...
    Article ID: 20-0597
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: April 05, 2021
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    CD20 and CD3 are considered reliable markers for B and T cells, respectively. This study aimed to develop a rapid multiple immunofluorescence (RMIF) method for the detection of CD20 and CD3 on a single cytology slide. Air-dried smears were prepared using samples collected from dogs (n=26) and cats (n=6). Immunosignal detection using the newly developed method required 60 min. Clear immunosignals for CD20 and CD3 were detected in 24 of 26 samples in dogs and in all 6 cats. As the RMIF (CD20/CD3) method can detect markers of both B and T cells simultaneously on a single cytology smear, it would be an efficient tool for the immunophenotyping of canine and feline lymphoma samples.

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  • Hiroki HIGASHIYAMA, Yoshiakira KANAI
    Article ID: 20-0669
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: April 05, 2021
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Although the gallbladder is one of the characteristic component of the vertebrate body, it has been independently lost in several lineages of mammals and birds. Gallbladder loss is a widely reported phenomenon; however, there have been few descriptive comparisons of entire hepatobiliary structures between birds with and without a gallbladder. Here, we discuss the evolution of avian hepatobiliary morphology by describing the gross anatomy of the hepatobiliary system in the quail and pigeon. Quails have two major extrahepatic bile ducts: the right cystic-enteric duct, which has a gallbladder, and the left hepatic-enteric duct, which does not. Together with two pancreatic ducts, they share one opening to the ascending part of duodenum. Pigeons lack a gallbladder, but also have two extrahepatic ducts similar to those of quails. However, the hepatic-enteric duct opens solely to the descending part of the duodenum close to the stomach. The pancreatic duct opens to the very posterior part of the duodenum independent from the biliary tracts, giving rise to three separate openings in the duodenum. The hepatobiliary anatomy of the pigeon represents a highly derived condition not only because of gallbladder loss. Avian gallbladder loss may be related to remodeling of the entire hepatobiliary system, and may have occurred via a different mechanism from that of mammals, which can be explained simply by the disappearance of the gallbladder primordium.

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  • Celina Emiko OKAMOTO-OKUBO, Renata Navarro CASSU, Jean Guilherme JOAQU ...
    Article ID: 20-0730
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: April 05, 2021
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    This prospective, comparative, randomized, horizontal, and double-blind clinical study investigated the clinical efficacy of leucocyte-poor platelet-rich plasma (PRP, n=8) or allogeneic adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC, n=8) in dogs with bilateral degenerative hip joint disease (DHJD). Sixteen dogs were treated with two intra-articular injections of PRP or ADSCs, within a 30-day interval. The Canine Brief Pain Inventory (CBPI), the Helsinki Chronic Pain Index (HCPI), and Visual Analogue Scales for pain (VAS-pain) and locomotion (VAS-loc) were assessed by the dog owners. Analysis-of-gait using a force plate, response to palpation (VAS-palp), and the descriptive numerical scale for pain (DNS) were measured by a veterinarian. The assessments were performed before (baseline), 30 and 60 days after the first treatment. Data were analyzed using the unpaired-t test, paired Wilcoxon test, Fisher´s exact test, and Mann-Whitney and Friedman tests (P<0.05). Compared with baseline HCPI, CBPI, VAS-pain, and VAS-palp scores reduced 41%, 52%, 51%, and 48% (P=0.0001–0.03) at 60 days in the ADSC group. In PRP-treated dogs, CBPI, VAS-loc, and DNS scores decreased by 43%, 43%, and 33% at 60 days, respectively (P=0.0003–0.011). Based on CBPI data, the rate of success at 60 days was 75% and 25% in the ADSC and PRP groups (P=0.13), respectively. Both therapies were apparently safe and effective to reduce chronic pain in dogs with bilateral DHJD during a 60-day period. However, a trend towards greater improvement was provided by the ADSC treatment.

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  • Akira YABUKI, Yu FURUSAWA, Noriaki MIYOSHI, Kazuyuki TANIGUCHI, Osamu ...
    Article ID: 21-0074
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: April 05, 2021
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Renin and neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the kidney control the renin-angiotensin and tubuloglomerular feedback systems. The present study investigated the expression of renin and neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the dysplastic kidneys of three young dogs. Renin-immunoreactivity, which occurs in the juxtaglomerular and tubular cells of dysplastic kidneys, did not differ from that in the normal kidneys of young dogs. Macula densa cells in the normal kidneys showed neuronal nitric oxide synthase -immunoreactivity, but those in the dysplastic kidneys showed no apparent signals. This observation may be correlated with the pathological mechanisms of renal failure in young dogs.

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  • Yusuke IRIE, Mamiko ONO, Manami ARITSUNE, Yamato IMAMURA, Shinobu NISH ...
    Article ID: 20-0432
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: March 30, 2021
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Cleanliness of milking equipment is known to be important for the safety of dairy products and to prevent the spread of diseases among cows. We investigated the cleaning procedures of milking equipment and suckling equipment on Japanese dairy farms, and the cleanliness of bucket milkers, suckling buckets, milk receivers, and bulk tanks, using adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence test. Bulk tanks (except one bulk tank) and milk receivers were washed by automated cleaning, but all bucket milkers and suckling buckets were washed by manual cleaning. Detergents were often not used to clean bucket milkers and suckling buckets. The log10 transformed relative luminescence units (LRLU) of equipment washed by manual cleaning was higher than equipment washed by automated cleaning. Clean surfaces (≤2.2 LRLU) were only observed on the bulk tank and the milk receiver. More than 50% of the LRLU of the mouthpiece, the rubber packing of claw, and the nipple of the suckling bucket were determined dirty. These results suggest that the cleanliness of the bucket milkers and the suckling buckets washed by manual cleaning was lower than that of the equipment washed by automated cleaning, and may be due to insufficient cleaning procedures.

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  • Hyunkyoung LEE, Hyeshin HWANG, Younghye RO, Ji-Hyeon KIM, Kyunghyun LE ...
    Article ID: 20-0741
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: March 29, 2021
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    This study was performed to examine and clarify the cause of hindlimb ataxia and neuropathy seen in the South Korean horse population. Fifty horses diagnosed with hindlimb ataxia and neuropathy were referred for this study. Neurological examination was performed on 47 horses while necropsy was performed in all 50 animals. The occurrence of neurological diseases increased rapidly in the summer and 47 out of 50 horses were referred after the end of July. The incidence of neurological diseases started from the southern part of Korea in July and proceeded northward in August and September. Although there was no correlation with age, Thoroughbred and Warmblood horses showed a higher incidence rate than Halla and Jeju horses. The incidence rate was 5 times higher in geldings than in mares and stallions. Of the 20 cases, 16 were diagnosed with eosinophilic meningoencephalomyelitis in 2015. The most common lesions observed in 2016 were parasitic meningoencephalomyelitis (10 cases, 33%) and eosinophilic meningomyelitis (7 cases, 23%). Histopathological analysis of the brain and spinal cord revealed nematodes of approximately 100–200 μm in diameter, microcavitation and infiltrates of eosinophils, and brown pigmented macrophage infiltrates. The nematodes were identified as Setaria digitata via DNA sequencing, performed subsequent to polymerase chain reaction using DNA isolated from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections of the spinal cord. These results show that aberrant migration of Setaria digitata larva in the brain and spinal cord was a major cause for neurological signs in horses.

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  • Atsushi KIMURA, Yo-Han KIM, Kazuyoshi HASHIZUME, Akira ITO, Katsuyuki ...
    Article ID: 21-0054
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: March 29, 2021
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    We investigated the effect of oral administration of β-cryptoxanthin (β-CRX) on its serum concentration and peripheral neutrophil functions by the chemiluminescence (CL) response in Holstein cattle. A single oral administration of β-CRX was performed for serum β-CRX concentration (0, 0.05, 0.1, or 0.2 mg/kg body weight [BW]) and for peak CL response of peripheral neutrophils (0.2 mg/kg BW). The serum β-CRX concentration was peaked on 2 days after, similar to peak CL response on 3 days after β-CRX administration. Therefore, a single oral administration of β-CRX (0.2 mg/kg BW) induces higher serum concentration and concurrently enhances bactericidal ability of peripheral neutrophils in Holstein cattle.

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  • Priyanka KUMARI, Kyung Yeon EO, Woo-Shin LEE, Junpei KIMURA, Naomichi ...
    Article ID: 20-0596
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: March 26, 2021
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Leptospira, Giardia intestinalis and Toxoplasma gondii infections are reported in humans and animals worldwide, but molecular surveillance of these pathogens in Korean wildlife is still limited. Here, we examined the prevalence of these pathogens in environmental feces of Eurasian otters, leopard cats and raccoon dogs using nested PCR followed by DNA sequencing. G. intestinalis was detected in all of three animals, while T. gondii was detected only in leopard cats. Leptospira wolffii was detected in raccoon dog and Eurasian otter. Our results suggest that these animals can act as a reservoir of these zoonotic pathogens. Consistent monitoring of these pathogens in wildlife is needed to prevent from their infections in humans and livestock in Korea.

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  • Takashi IKEDA, Makoto ASANO, Masatsugu SUZUKI
    Article ID: 20-0675
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: March 26, 2021
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    There is a possibility that classical swine fever virus outbreak has negative impacts on wild boar. To adequately manage native wild boar populations, wildlife managers need to gather the field data on wild boar and implement population management practices. We aimed to report the relative abundance index of wild boar before and after this outbreak. Our results showed that relative abundance index declined from 2017 (8.88 wild boars/100 trap days) to 2019 (2.03 wild boars/100 trap days), because of the negative impact of this virus and continuous culling programs. Although the eradication risk from the synergistic effect is low, wildlife managers need to consider the relationship between the trade-off between the risk of CSF and the conservation ecology risk of native species eradication.

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  • Kaoru SATO, Eiichi OHASHI, Kenji TSUKANO, Keiko IKEDA, Tadaharu AJITO, ...
    Article ID: 20-0716
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: March 26, 2021
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The aims of studies were to estimate the withdrawal period of antibiotic from milk after the intramammary infusion of cefazolin sodium (CEZ) in cows with difficulties in frequent milk discharge due to disease such as teat injury. The period was compared among cows milked twice a day after 150 or 450 mg of CEZ were administered to all quarters (Study 1, 2) and the cows in which milking of front-right quarter was ceased for five days after administration of these infusions to only that quarter (Study 3). In Studies 1 and 2, the median of 17.66 µg/ml and 83.18 µg/ml of CEZ were detected in the samples of first milking after intramammary administration, respectively; however, there was no residual antibiotic by 72 hr in all cows. In Study 3, the median of 1.96 µg/ml of CEZ was detected in the sample after the resumption of milking at 120 hr, and the residual was eliminated by 174 hr. The withdrawal period may be prolonged by the cessation of milking after administration, and the period is the total time from cessation to 72 hr after the resumption of milking.

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  • Masaki MAEZAWA, Nao AKIYAMA, Michihito TAGAWA, Ken-ichi WATANABE, Kota ...
    Article ID: 20-0618
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: March 22, 2021
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    A 2-year, 3-month-old Holstein cow presented with anorexia and enlarged superficial lymph nodes. Fine needle aspiration cytology of the superficial lymph nodes revealed large blast cells. Hematological examination revealed anemia, neutropenia, and blast cells in peripheral blood. Blast cells were the predominant cell type in bone marrow aspirates. Of the non-erythroid cells, 26%, 58%, and 18% were positive for myeloperoxidase, α-naphthyl acetate esterase, and naphthol AS-D chloroacetate esterase, respectively. Pathological examination revealed the proliferation of neoplastic cells, which were positive for monocytic markers, in the affected lymph nodes. The cow was diagnosed with acute myelomonocytic leukemia based on these findings. This report highlights the importance of performing bone marrow aspiration cytology and cytochemical staining when diagnosing bovine myeloid leukemia.

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  • Kenji TSUKANO, Tatsuya FUKUDA, Keiko IKEDA, Kaoru SATO, Kazuyuki SUZUK ...
    Article ID: 21-0051
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: March 18, 2021
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    We hypothesized that the serum iron (Fe) concentration in cows with respiratory diseases is a satisfactory substitute for major inflammatory markers such as haptoglobin (HPT) and serum amyloid A (SAA). Twenty Japanese Black cows aged 279.6 ± 120.0 days were enrolled, and divided into respiratory diseases and control groups based on the presence of clinical findings of respiratory diseases. As a result, area under the receiver operating characteristic curves for plasma HPT, SAA and serum Fe concentrations for respiratory disease-associated systemic inflammation were excellent, at 1.00, 0.96 and 0.97, respectively. Therefore we confirmed that the serum Fe concentration is a satisfactory substitute for HPT and SAA in beef cows with respiratory diseases.

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  • Takumi KOMIYA, Akihiro MORI, Naohito NISHII, Hitomi ODA, Eri ONOZAWA, ...
    Article ID: 2-0345
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: March 05, 2021
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    A 5-year-old castrated male domestic shorthair cat was diagnosed with diabetic ketoacidosis and severe insulin resistance. Although the conventional treatment for diabetic ketoacidosis was provided, the cat required frequent hospitalization because of severe dehydration and repeated diabetic ketoacidosis. We detected anti-insulin antibodies for human in this cat. Serum insulin-binding IgG levels were markedly elevated compared with those in healthy cats and other diabetic cats. We initiated prednisolone to suppress the effects of anti-insulin antibodies. After initiation of prednisolone, the cat was gradually recovered with increasing activity and appetite. Furthermore, satisfactory glycemic control was achieved with combined subcutaneous injection of insulin detemir and insulin degludec.

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  • Linjie LI, Xiaoling SHI, Derong ZHANG, Xin CAO, Amjad ALI, Jialin BAI
    Article ID: 20-0487
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: November 13, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
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  • Mario DOLERA, Luca MALFASSI, Simone PAVESI, Sara FINESSO, Giovanni MAZ ...
    Article ID: 16-0077
    Published: 2017
    [Advance publication] Released: November 15, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Atlanto-axial (AA) instability due to ligament insufficiency is a common cause of cervical spinal cord compression in toy breeds. However, in some dogs a difference in size between the atlas and the axis leads to joint incongruence that exacerbates AA subluxation and makes surgical treatment challenging. Twelve dogs with AA instability with incongruence were enrolled in a single institution prospective observational study. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the AA joint were compared to a retrospectively reviewed control group. A novel surgical approach consisting of a dorsal internal fixation technique was performed in six dogs. For affected dogs, the mean normalised difference between the dorso-ventral atlas canal and the dorso-ventral axis canal was 29.67% (median of 35.07%, standard deviation 25.64%), while in normal dogs a mean difference of 4.67% (median of 3.95%, standard deviation 5.21%) was observed. On MRI, 12/12 affected dogs had spinal cord compression, which was classified as reducible (3/12), partially reducible (6/12) and non-reducible (3/12). In surgically operated dogs, follow-up CT showed a partial or complete reduction of the previous spinal cord compression with a consistent amelioration or resolution of the presenting complaints. The proposed surgical technique was safe and effective in dogs with partially or completely reducible spinal cord compression.

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  • Mohamed ABDO, Khaled SHOGHY, Yoshinao Z. HOSAKA, Tomohiro IMAGAWA, Saf ...
    Article ID: 14-0225e
    Published: 2014
    [Advance publication] Released: August 20, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    This article released online on July 30, 2014 as advance publication has been retracted by the Editorial Board of Journal of Veterinary Medical Science due to a violation of the journal’s “Information for Authors”.
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  • Mohamed ABDO, Khaled SHOGHY, Yoshinao Z. HOSAKA, Tomohiro IMAGAWA, Saf ...
    Article ID: 14-0225
    Published: 2014
    [Advance publication] Released: July 30, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    This article has been retracted by the Editorial Board of Journal of Veterinary Medical Science due to a violation of the journal's “Information for Authors”.
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  • Article ID: 13-0051e
    Published: 2013
    [Advance publication] Released: November 30, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    This article released online on August 9, 2013 as advance publication was withdrawn from consideration for publication in The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science at author's request.
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  • Hui LI, Guoquan WU, Jiancheng LI, Shusheng TANG, Xilong XIAO, Yanan XU ...
    Article ID: 13-0051
    Published: 2013
    [Advance publication] Released: August 09, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    This article released online on August 9, 2013 as advance publication was withdrawn from consideration for publication in The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science at author's request.
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  • Article ID: 11-0339e
    Published: 2012
    [Advance publication] Released: December 25, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    This article released online on September 26, 2012 as advance publication was withdrawn from consideration for publication in The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science at author's request.
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  • Farhad SAFARPOOR DEHKORDI
    Article ID: 11-0580e
    Published: 2012
    [Advance publication] Released: November 01, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    This article released online on August 3, 2012 as advance publication was withdrawn from consideration for publication in The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science at author’s request.
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  • Seyedhosein JAROLMASJED, Saeed KOLAHIAN
    Article ID: 11-0339
    Published: 2012
    [Advance publication] Released: September 26, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    This article released online on September 26, 2012 as advance publication was withdrawn from consideration for publication in The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science at author's request.
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