The objective of this study was to determine if device that simulate methane capture equipment (DSMC) located in the frontal part of the head of dairy cows affect animal welfare using productive, behavioral, biochemical and physiological indicators. Twenty Holstein dairy cows were assigned to one of the two following treatments: cows with DSMC (CDSMC, n=10) and cows without methane capture devices (CC, n=10). Treatment did not affect neither milk production nor biochemical blood. The group CDSMC tended to ruminate less (p=0.06) and tended to eat more (p=0.08) frequently than the group CC. In conclusion, considering the data set, the welfare of the cows was not significantly affected by the use of DSMC located in their heads.
Granular cell tumors (GCTs) are characterized by abundant eosinophilic cytoplasmic granules. Based on the hypothesis that canine intracranial GCT is a subtype of meningioma and its cytoplasmic granules are formed through autophagy processes, histopathological and immunohistochemical examination were performed on biopsy samples from 7 cases of canine intracranial GCTs and 15 cases of conventional meningiomas. Histopathologically, 7/7 cases of GCTs involved the meninges; foci of meningothelial-like cells were observed in 3/7 cases; brain invasion was observed in 2/7 cases. Immunohistochemically, neoplastic cells of GCTs were positive for E-cadherin and negative for S100, cytokeratin, CD204, and β-catenin in 7/7 cases. Neoplastic cells of 15/15 cases of meningiomas were positive for E-cadherin, and negative for S100 and CD204. Immunoreactivity of meningiomas for cytokeratin and β-catenin was observed in 6/15 cases and 8/15 cases, respectively. Cytoplasmic granules of GCTs were positive for ubiquitin (5/7), p62 (5/7), and LC3 (7/7). Compared to GCTs, the ratios of ubiquitin (6/15) and p62 (3/15) positive cases were lower in meningiomas, and 15/15 cases were negative for LC3. These findings indicate that the biological natures of GCTs including anatomical location, histopathological features and immunoreactivity for E-cadherin are almost in conformity with those of meningiomas. The immunoreactivity for autophagy associated molecules may suggest the possible involvement of autophagy in cytoplasmic granule formation of canine intracranial GCTs.
Some filoviruses such as ebolaviruses and marburgviruses, cause hemorrhagic fever in humans and nonhuman primates. Pigs are suggested to play a potential role in the filovirus ecology. We investigated the seroprevalence of filovirus infection in pigs in Ghana. Using a viral glycoprotein (GP)-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we detected filovirus-specific immunoglobulin G antibodies in 5 of 139 samples. These positive sera showed specificities to four different filovirus species. Particularly, two of the positive sera reacted to GPs of two African ebolaviruses (i.e., Ebola virus and Taï Forest virus) in Western blotting. Our results suggest that these Ghanaian pigs were exposed to multiple filoviruses and emphasize the importance of continuous monitoring of filovirus infection in pig populations in West African countries.
American foulbrood (AFB) is a honeybee disease caused by Paenibacillus larvae, and tylosin is used as the prophylactic in Japan. Honey contains macrolide-resistant bacteria that are a potential source of genes that may confer tylosin resistance to P. larvae. To investigate the potential risk of such genes in Japanese honey, we developed real-time PCR assays for the detection of important macrolide resistance genes, ermC and ermB, and analyzed 116 Japanese honey samples with known contamination status of P. larvae. Consequently, 91.38% of samples contained ermC and/or ermB, and 71.55% of samples contained both ermC and P. larvae, suggesting the possible emergence of tylosin-resistant P. larvae in Japan. Therefore, judicious use of the prophylactic is essential in maintaining its effectiveness.
In this study, Babesia screening was conducted in 55 rodents and 160 tick samples collected from primary forests and an oil palm plantation in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. PCR targeting the 18S ribosomal DNA revealed the presence of Babesia spp. DNA detected in two questing male Haemaphysalis shimoga ticks collected from the oil palm plantation. Sequence analysis revealed that both sequences were identical and had 98.6% identity to a Babesia macropus sequence obtained from Eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) in Australia. Phylogenetic tree revealed clustering with marsupial-associated Babesia spp. in the Babesia sensu stricto clade. Whether or not H. shimoga is the competent vector and the importance of the Babesia sp. detected in this study warrants more investigation.
Uncovering radiation toxicity is critical for the adaptation and expansion of advanced radiation therapies and for the development of novel cancer radiotherapy. In the near future, advanced radiotherapies, including heavy ion beam treatment, are expected to be applied in the treatment of dogs, but further basic research on the effects of radiation using canine normal and cancer cells is necessary to actually apply these techniques and achieve high therapeutic efficacy. The radiation sensitivity is varied by the activities of DNA damage response (DDR) and DNA repair. The development of radiosensitizers that target DDR- and DNA repair-kinases, like ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), is progressing and is expected to be introduced into canine radiotherapy. However, there are no cytotoxicity reports on using the combination of radiation and these sensitizers as treatment in canine cells. In this study, we examined the cytotoxic effects of X-rays and/or radiosensitizers on the Madin–Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cell line. Our results show that X-rays suppress MDCK cell colony formation and proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, our observations imply that the combination treatment with ATM inhibitor KU-55933 and DNA-PK inhibitor NU7441 significantly increased X-ray cytotoxicity in MDCK cells compared with the drugs alone. Furthermore, our findings further suggest that MDCK cells might be useful in clarifying the cytotoxicity in canine epithelial cells due to radiation and/or radiosensitizers, such as molecule-targeted drugs.
The associations of diet compositions with mucin secretion in gallbladder have not been investigated in dogs. This study aimed to examine the effects of a low-carbohydrate diet (LC) and a low-fat diet (LF) on bile mucin concentration and composition of gallbladder bile in six clinically healthy beagle dogs. After feeding of both diets, the bile mucin concentration was significantly decreased. In addition, there were significant decreases in the concentrations of taurochenodeoxycholic acid in bile, which is considered to promote mucin secretion, after feeding of both diets. The present study suggested that the proportions of carbohydrate and fat in diet affect the composition of gallbladder bile in dogs.
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), including arachidonic acid (AA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), are metabolized to various lipid mediators. The profile of these lipid metabolites excreted into the urine reflects inflammatory state of the body and disease conditions. In this study, we quantified 156 types of lipids in urine samples of dogs with splenic mass, using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. We found that metabolites of prostaglandin (PG) E2, F2α, and D2, 8-iso-PGF3α, lyso-platelet activating factor, and 14,15-leukotrien C4 significantly increased in urine samples of dogs with splenic mass compared to that of healthy dogs. These observations may reflect general inflammatory responses and will help better understanding of the canine splenic mass.
Cryptorchidism is defined as the failure of the testis to descend into the scrotal position. Bulls with cryptorchidism have problems in both meat quality and husbandry management; thus, it is greatly important to accurately identify the retained testis and remove it during the early stage. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) was performed under general anesthesia in 34 bulls aged 3–9 months with cryptorchidism. All bulls underwent laparoscopic or incision approach for cryptorchidectomy, and 40 testes were dissected. The detection rates of retained testes were 64.5% in the abdominal cavity and 100% in the subcutaneous inguinal region, and the total detection rate was 72.5%. Furthermore, all cases in this study were suspected to have intra-abdominal cryptorchidism in primary care, but CT revealed that 22.5% of cases had cryptorchidism in the subcutaneous inguinal region. The CT value (mean ± standard deviation) of the retained testes was 20.96 ± 7.41 Hounsfield Unit, and the CT value and size of the retained testes showed a positive weak correlation with bovine age. Therefore, there is the demerit that general anesthesia and a huge device are necessary; nevertheless, CT is suggested to be useful in identifying the location of retained testes and selecting an appropriate surgical approach in bulls with cryptorchidism. Moreover, CT findings suggested that the maturation of the retained testes might depend not on the descending process but on age.
A captive male Linnaeus’s two-toed sloth died without any obvious clinical signs. At necropsy, multifocal ulceration at the lumbar and perianal skin, mitral valve vegetation, and multifocal hemorrhage in the leptomeninges were observed. Histopathologically, suppurative meningo-ventriculitis, dermatitis, and endocarditis characterized by severe neutrophilic infiltration were observed. Gram-positive cocci arranged in pairs or chains were present in these inflammatory lesions. Streptococcus agalactiae gene was detected in the skin, heart, and brain tissues by PCR and sequence analysis. These findings may indicate that S. agalactiae primarily infected the skin and then caused septicemia resulting in endocarditis and meningo-ventriculitis. The present case suggests that S. agalactiae infection can cause severe meningo-ventriculitis in two-toed sloth without any specific clinical signs.
In this study, clinical, parasitological and histopathological findings of thirteen kelp gulls (Larus dominicanus) found infected with eyeflukes in Brazil are presented. Parasites detected in the ventral conjunctival fornix were identified as Philophthalmus lachrymosus [mean intensity of infection: 16 (5–36) worms/bird]. Eleven birds (85%) presented signs of systemic disease, such as emaciation, dehydration and depressed consciousness. Conjunctival hyperemia was observed in 22 eyes (85%). Keratitis, corneal ulcers, corneal abscess and chemosis were also detected in some eyes (4–8%). Histopathologic lesions, likely due to the parasite attachment to the conjunctiva, were found in the eyes of one infected bird that died from unrelated causes. Philophthalmosis by P. lachrymosus is here reported as a clinically relevant eye disease in kelp gulls.
The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-hepcidin effect of pentosan polysulfate (PPS) in Mongolian horses. Twenty-six healthy horses were randomly allocated in to two-groups; one group was treated with a PPS once a week for 4-weeks while another group keeping as placebo. Blood samples at day 0 (D0), before race (BR; day 28) and after race (AR; day 28) were analyzed for serum biochemistry, hepcidin and iron concentrations. Significant reduction of hepcidin was observed at AR in PPS group when compared with BR placebo (P<0.05) and AR placebo (P<0.01). Mean hepcidin concentration difference of D0-BR and BR-AR in PPS was greater than the placebo whereas the iron concentration difference is reduced compared to placebo. Results indicate a novel therapeutic application of PPS as an anti-hepcidin compound to control hepcidin in horses while emphasizing further molecular studies.
Two male cats were presented with penile part of urethra injury due to dog attacks to the perineum and genitalia area. Chronic wound around a remained penile part of urethra due to the dog bite and perineal area was evident due to urine irritation. The buccal mucosa was harvested and subsequently placed on the granulation tissue of the wound to reconstruct the urinary passage. The buccal mucosal graft completely attached to the skin and urethra without any complications. From the follow-up at 3 months, the cats were able to urinate normally and the skin irritation from urine was resolved. In summary, the buccal mucosa is a good graft source and is suitable for the reconstruction of the urinary passage in severe and complicated cases of penile part of urethra injury in male cats.
Here, we report details of a new infectious disease in wild-caught Japanese fire-bellied newts (Cynops pyrrhogaster), a Near Threatened species. Skin lesions consisting of numerous masses were found in the animals near Lake Biwa, Shiga Prefecture, Japan. The gross appearance of the skin lesions showed blister-, cyst-, and/or tumor-like morphology. Various sizes of skin lesions were observed on their entire body surface. Histologically, spherical basophilic cysts, including numerous spores, were observed in the dermis layer. Ultrastructural analysis indicated the presence of main bodies of flagellated zoospores within the spores. While 18s rRNA gene sequencing indicated that the skin lesions were due to dermocystid infection. To our knowledge, this is the first report of dermocystid infection in this amphibian in Japan. Further studies are needed to prevent epidemics and to establish diagnostic and treatment methods.
The carbapenemase-producing Acinetobacter baumannii is an important opportunistic bacterium and frequently causes hospital-acquired infections in humans. It also has increasingly been reported in veterinary medicine. This study illustrates multiple clones of carbapenemase-producing A. baumannii disseminating and causing diseases in dogs and cats in Thailand. Between 2016 and 2020, 44 A. baumannii and two A. pittii isolates exhibiting imipenem resistance (MIC ≥16 μg/mL) from diagnostic samples were characterized by Pasteur multilocus sequence typing (MLST), sequence grouping (SG), repetitive extragenic palindromic element (rep)-PCR fingerprint analysis and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiling. All isolates contained blaOXA-23 in the Tn2006 family, and A. baumannii showed the sequence type (ST) 16 (14/44), ST149 (12/44), ST25 (6/44), ST2 (4/44), ST 1581 (3/44), ST23 (2/44), ST1575 (1/44) and ST1576 (1/44). DNA fingerprint analysis and SG illustrated clonal relationships in the STs and its single locus variants, and AMR gene profiles, including tetracycline and aminoglycoside resistance genes, showed minor variations in the clones. The findings suggest that blaOXA-23 has been spread in multiple clones of A. baumannii and A. pittii from canine and feline hosts. With the collection of multiple AMR genes and intrinsic resistance, antimicrobial options are limited for treatment, and pets can be a potential reservoir of extensively drug-resistant, carbapenemase-producing A. baumannii in the community. Epidemiological tracking by passive and active surveillance in animals, veterinary personnel and hospital environment and preventive measurements should be promoted to decrease the risk of infection and transmission to humans.
A 12-year-old neutered male Chihuahua was diagnosed with acute brain infarction in the right middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory. Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD) was performed to assess the local cerebral blood flow at the time of diagnosis and after 4 and 31 hr. Initially, the right MCA retained blood flow but with a lower cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV; 14.9 cm/sec) than the left MCA (27.9 cm/sec). The TCD vascular resistance variables were higher in the right than in the left MCA. An increase in the CBFV and a decrease in TCD vascular resistance variables were observed, consistent with improvements in neurological symptoms. TCD can be a non-invasive, and easy-to-use modality for bedside monitoring of cerebral edema and infarction.
Eighty strains of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7/H- were analyzed by three single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) panels using whole-genome sequencing data. The partial concordance of SNP types among the different SNP panels was observed on minimum spanning trees reconstructed with SNP data. As for lineage I/II strains, some of the clade 7 strains belonged to one unique SNP type as determined by three panels, suggesting that clade 7 should be divided into at least two genotypes, namely, the unique type and the rest. In addition, clade 8 contained two unique genotypes, which was consistent with the previous prediction. Similarly, for lineage II, clade 12 should be divided into three genotype strains. In contrast, many strains of several clades belonging to lineage I were clustered into the same node on each minimum spanning tree upon testing with the three SNP panels. Previous studies reported that lineage I diverged more recently than lineages I/II and II. Such low diversity in lineage I in this study may have arisen because this lineage has not accumulated SNPs because of its relatively recent divergence. Based on the concordance observed in this study, some of the previously published O157 genotype distribution data were successfully interpreted to clarify the clade distribution, which was well supported by previous literature.
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is an infectious swine disease caused by the PRRS virus (PRRSV) that results in economic loss to the pig-rearing industry. To study PRRSV infection in wild boars and pigs, we conducted a serological survey in Gifu Prefecture, Japan, from 2020 to 2021. Three out of 453 (0.7%) wild boar sera were positive for PRRSV antibodies in a commercial ELISA. However, given that PRRSV RNA was not detected in these three wild boars and the specificity and sensitivity of the test kit, these are considered as false positives. Although seropositive pigs were found in multiple pig farms in the study area, the role of wild boars as a source of PRRS to pig farms appeared to be minimal.
Avian malaria is a mosquito-borne disease of birds caused by avian Plasmodium spp. in worldwide scale. Some naïve birds show serious symptoms which can result in death. Surveillance of vectors and parasites are important to understand and control this disease. Although avian malaria has been found in Japan, detailed prevalence and dynamics remained understudied. We aimed to observe annual changes in the abundance of mosquitoes and the prevalence of avian Plasmodium parasites in Japan. Mosquitoes were collected using dry ice traps over a 10-year period, at a fixed research area located in Kanagawa prefecture. Collected mosquitoes were investigated for the species composition, population size and prevalence of avian Plasmodium by PCR. Mosquitoes belonging to 13 species in 7 genera were collected (n=8,965). The dominant species were Aedes (Ae.) albopictus and Culex (Cx.) pipiens group (gr.). Seven avian Plasmodium lineages, all of which were previously known, were detected from Cx. pipiens gr., Ae. albopictus, and Tripteroides bambusa. Three genetic lineages were dominant and were probably transmitted by Cx. pipiens gr. whose could be the primary vector of these parasites. Annual variations in the seasonal prevalence of mosquitoes and avian Plasmodium were revealed for the first time during recent 10 years in Japan. Namely, avian Plasmodium occurrence in the vector population peaked often in June to July and September to October when the density of the vector population was presumably high enough for the transmission of avian Plasmodium upon appearance of infected birds.
Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in blood is measured using the Japanese Society of Clinical Chemistry (JSCC) method in Japan and the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC) method in other countries. In human clinical practice, the IFCC method replaced the JSCC method due to international standardization. Moreover, veterinary LDH measurement will also eventually shift to the IFCC method. However, the relationship between the IFCC and JSCC methods for LDH in various animals and whether they can be equated or not have not yet been investigated. This study aimed to present the changes in measurements in canines and felines after switching to the IFCC method. The plasma LDH activity of canines (N=177) and felines (N=115), who visited a secondary care veterinary clinic, was measured using the JSCC and IFCC methods. The IFCC/JSCC ratio was <1.0 in 85% of canines and 88% of felines, indicating that the IFCC method tended to show lower values than the JSCC method, presumably because LDH5 is dominant among the LDH isozymes in canines and felines. The increase in the systematic errors of both assays was in the high value range, with some samples exceeding the error tolerance from near the upper end of the reference range. When switching to the IFCC method for LDH measurement in canines and felines, each institution should consider whether the reference range and clinical diagnostic values established by the JSCC method are appropriate for continued use.
A 5-year-old castrated male domestic shorthair cat was diagnosed with diabetic ketoacidosis and severe insulin resistance. Although the conventional treatment for diabetic ketoacidosis was provided, the cat required frequent hospitalization because of severe dehydration and repeated diabetic ketoacidosis. We detected anti-insulin antibodies for human in this cat. Serum insulin-binding IgG levels were markedly elevated compared with those in healthy cats and other diabetic cats. We initiated prednisolone to suppress the effects of anti-insulin antibodies. After initiation of prednisolone, the cat was gradually recovered with increasing activity and appetite. Furthermore, satisfactory glycemic control was achieved with combined subcutaneous injection of insulin detemir and insulin degludec.
Atlanto-axial (AA) instability due to ligament insufficiency is a common cause of cervical spinal cord compression in toy breeds. However, in some dogs a difference in size between the atlas and the axis leads to joint incongruence that exacerbates AA subluxation and makes surgical treatment challenging. Twelve dogs with AA instability with incongruence were enrolled in a single institution prospective observational study. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the AA joint were compared to a retrospectively reviewed control group. A novel surgical approach consisting of a dorsal internal fixation technique was performed in six dogs. For affected dogs, the mean normalised difference between the dorso-ventral atlas canal and the dorso-ventral axis canal was 29.67% (median of 35.07%, standard deviation 25.64%), while in normal dogs a mean difference of 4.67% (median of 3.95%, standard deviation 5.21%) was observed. On MRI, 12/12 affected dogs had spinal cord compression, which was classified as reducible (3/12), partially reducible (6/12) and non-reducible (3/12). In surgically operated dogs, follow-up CT showed a partial or complete reduction of the previous spinal cord compression with a consistent amelioration or resolution of the presenting complaints. The proposed surgical technique was safe and effective in dogs with partially or completely reducible spinal cord compression.
This article released online on July 30, 2014 as advance publication has been retracted by the Editorial Board of Journal of Veterinary Medical Science due to a violation of the journal’s “Information for Authors”.