Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Online ISSN : 1347-7439
Print ISSN : 0916-7250
早期公開論文
早期公開論文の57件中1~50を表示しています
  • Kartika DEWI, Hideo HASEGAWA, Mitsuhiko ASAKAWA
    論文ID: 18-0163
    発行日: 2018年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2018/08/15
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Subulura (Murisubulura) andersoni (Cobbold, 1876) (Nematoda: Subuluridae) is redescribed in detail using light and scanning electron microscopy based on materials collected from Bunomys chrycosomus and Bunomys andrewsi (Rodentia: Muridae) of Sulawesi, Indonesia, to provide basic reference data for identification. Comparison was made among congeners from adjacent areas, especially Subulura (Murisubulura) suzukii Yagi and Kamiya, 1981 of Japan. Because morphological differences distinguishing S. (M.) andersoni from S. (M.) suzukii and S. (M.) sipiroki were only the thickness of female tail and length of male tail, respectively, further study using DNA sequence analysis is necessary to prove their distinctness.

  • Tomoya YAMADA, Mituru KAMIYA, Mikito HIGUCHI, Naoto NAKANISHI
    論文ID: 18-0324
    発行日: 2018年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2018/08/15
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Obesity is associated with the chronic inflammation and senescence of adipose tissues. Macrophage is a key mediator of chronic inflammation that infiltrates obese adipose tissue and stimulates metabolic disorders. However, the fat depot-specific differences of macrophage infiltration and senescence, especially the influence on intramuscular adipose tissue, have remained unclear. We investigated the fat depot-specific differences of macrophage infiltration and senescence in obese bovine adipose tissue from three different anatomical sites (subcutaneous, intramuscular and visceral). Macrophage infiltrations and crown-like structures were observed in visceral adipose tissue, although there were few macrophages in subcutaneous and intramuscular adipose tissues. The positive reaction of senescence marker SA-βgal activity was observed in visceral adipose tissue. In contrast, the activity of SA-βgal in subcutaneous and intramuscular adipose tissues were low. The expression of p53 gene, the master regulator of cellular senescence, in visceral adipose tissue was higher than that of subcutaneous and intramuscular adipose tissue. At the cellular level, p53 gene expression was negatively correlated with the size of subcutaneous adipocytes. In contrast, p53 gene expressions were positively correlated with the size of intramuscular and visceral adipocytes. These results indicate that anatomical sites of obese adipose tissue affect macrophage infiltration and the senescent state in a fat depot-specific manner.

  • Minkyo LEE, Min-Goo SEO, Seung-Hun LEE, In-Ohk OUH, Young-Hoan KIM, Jo ...
    論文ID: 18-0307
    発行日: 2018年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2018/08/10
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    The purpose of this study was to assess tick-borne pathogenic infections in 42 wild Korean water deer (KWD) and 26 farmed elk in the Gyeongbuk and Gangwon Provinces of Korea. Among the 42 wild KWD tested, the eighteen (42.9%) and five (11.9%) samples tested positive for Anaplasma phagocytophilum and A. bovis, respectively, by PCR and DNA sequencing. All positive samples were only from wild KWD. All samples were negative for other tick-borne pathogens tested. Detected 16S rRNA sequences of A. phagocytophilum and A. bovis showed 98.6–99.8% and 94.4–100% identity to those of sequences in GenBank, respectively. Because few studies have examined tick-borne pathogens in wild animals, appropriate control programs and studies are needed to prevent pathogen transmission.

  • Hiroto MAEDA, Kaori HAYASHI, Takayuki ISHIGE, Tomohiro SUNAGAWA, Shige ...
    論文ID: 18-0145
    発行日: 2018年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2018/08/09
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    With the increasing number of cats kept as pets, opportunities to treat cats with lower urinary tract disease (LUTD) have recently increased in the clinical veterinary field. Urine samples collected from 50 cats with bacterial cystitis brought to Maeda Veterinary Hospital between August 10, 2015 and March 31, 2017 were used in the study. Sample preparation of the urine was performed using a MALDI Sepsityper kit and rapid BACpro. To identify the isolates, MALDI-TOF MS was performed on an AutoFlex TOF/TOF mass spectrometer. MALDI-TOF MS using rapid BACpro for pretreatment was found to be a quick and reliable method for identification of bacteria from infected urine, with a shortened analysis time enabling earlier and more accurate selection of antibiotics for treatment of feline LUTD.

  • Hiroyuki IMAI, Wataru FUJII, Ken Takeshi KUSAKABE, Yasuo KISO, Etsuro ...
    論文ID: 18-0352
    発行日: 2018年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2018/08/09
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Cultured cells are generally observed through the bottom of dishes or flasks using an inverted microscope. Two-dimensional and horizontal observation is insufficient for histological analysis of several cell lines, such as embryonic stem cells or cancer cells, because they form three-dimensional colonies. In the present study, we aimed to establish a more informative method for analysis of such stereoscopic cultured cells. We cultured mouse embryonic stem cells using a temperature-sensitive culture dish, embedded these cells in paraffin, and successfully observed vertical sections of embryonic stem cells. This vertical analysis of the stereoscopic colony emphasized structural features such as the dome shape of naïve pluripotent stem cells. This method could have the potential for analysis of three-dimensional structures and histological preservation in cultured cells.

  • Doyeon KIM, Daji NOH, Taeho OH, Kija LEE
    論文ID: 18-0216
    発行日: 2018年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2018/08/07
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships among body condition score (BCS), radiography, and computed tomography (CT), and to establish a method for body fat assessment on CT in dogs. 38 Beagles with 2 to 7 BCS were examined. Subcutaneous fat thickness on radiograph (ST) and body area (BA), total fat area (TA), subcutaneous fat area (SA), and visceral fat area (VA) on CT were measured at the level of L3 and L6 vertebra. Ratios of each value to the L6 length were obtained (rST, rTA, rSA, rVA) and the correlations with BCS were estimated. The value of VA/SA, VA/TA, TA/BA, VA/BA, and SA/BA were selected for measuring fat and the correlations with BCS were estimated. The rST, rTA, rSA, and rVA were significantly correlated with BCS, and the rTA and rSA were significantly correlated with rST. At the level of L3, rTA and rVA had stronger relationships with BCS than at L6 while rSA had a higher correlation with BCS at L6. TheTA/BA, VA/BA, and SA/BA were significantly correlated with BCS, and the upper limits were 15.11%, 6.31%, and 8.92%, respectively. Our results showed that CT could be useful to assess body fat and TA/BA, VA/BA, and SA/BA are suitable criteria for measuring fat on CT. In addition, L3 was a more suitable location for evaluating total and visceral fat, and L6 was more suitable for evaluating subcutaneous fat.

  • Wipaporn JARUJAREET, Yurika SHIGENOKI, Kensuke TAIRA, Hong Kean OOI
    論文ID: 18-0219
    発行日: 2018年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2018/08/07
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    The effect of riboflavin supplement in Eimeria tenella-infected chickens was evaluated. Mortality, fecal consistency, and oocysts per gram of feces were monitored for groups of E. tenella-infected chickens administered a basal diet supplemented with either riboflavin, the anti-coccidial drug amprolium, or with both compounds. The number of oocysts shed per chicken in the riboflavin-treated group was significantly higher than the positive non-treated control group. No significant difference in oocyst number between the amprolium-treated group and riboflavin plus amprolium-treated group was observed. Thus, the addition of 0.8 g/kg of riboflavin to basal diet can increase oocyst number in E. tenella-infected chicken, but has no effect on the efficacy of amprolium.

  • Takuya KANAZAWA, Takahiro TAKEZAWA, Junichi IWAMOTO, Yoshikazu ADACHI
    論文ID: 18-0220
    発行日: 2018年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2018/08/07
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    We succeeded in the simultaneous isolation of Brachyspira (B.) aalborgi and B. pilosicoli from a patient with ulcerative colitis. B. pilosicoli grew quickly and formed colonies within 7 days, while the growth of B. aalborgi was very slow and took over 21 days. Simultaneous isolation of B. pilosicoli and B. aalborgi from a common specimen is generally recognized to be difficult, mainly due to differences in their growth requirements and the growth rates. However, we succeeded in isolating both species from a patient with ulcerative colitis and this is first evidence. The present results suggest that ulcerative colitis may be caused by simultaneous infection with B. pilosicoli and B. aalborgi.

  • Kazuki OKADA, Hirotaka KONDO, Ayumi SUMI, Yumiko KAGAWA
    論文ID: 18-0238
    発行日: 2018年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2018/08/07
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    The African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) is becoming a popular pet in Japan. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of various diseases in African pygmy hedgehogs. We histologically investigated 105 samples from 100 privately-owned pet African pygmy hedgehogs that were submitted to two laboratories (North Lab and Patho Labo) between 2012 and 2017. Tissues submitted for this study were taken from female reproductive organs (33 cases; 31.43%), skin (20 cases; 19.05%), and the oral mucosa (19 cases; 18.1%). The most common histological diagnoses included endometrial stromal nodules identified as benign uterine neoplasia (14 cases; 13.33%); endometrial polyps identified as non-neoplastic polyps (7 cases; 6.67%), gingival hyperplasia and chronic suppurative inflammation in the oral mucosa (11 cases; 10.48%), fibrosarcomas in the skin (8 cases; 7.62%), and mammary tumors (8 cases; 7.62%). In this study, lymphoma and oral squamous cell carcinoma were less common than in the previous reports. The present study revealed the disease prevalence in captive African pygmy hedghogs that were histopathologically examined.

  • Nobuhide KIDO, Sohei TANAKA, Tomoko OMIYA, Yuko WADA, Mina SHIGENARI, ...
    論文ID: 18-0267
    発行日: 2018年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2018/08/07
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    The giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) is a difficult animal to keep in captivity as it has high mortality due to nutrition-related disorders, perhaps because the giraffe’s condition is difficult to evaluate. Image analysis techniques have recently become popular and may be useful for evaluating the giraffe’s somatotype. The present study aimed to evaluate the giraffe somatotype using a three-dimensional laser measurement device, and to examine the usefulness of this method. First, ten zoo staff members visually evaluated the somatotypes of three giraffes housed at Kanazawa Zoological Gardens, Japan. Next, three-dimensional point cloud datasets were obtained from these giraffes using the device. The point cloud datasets indicated that the cross-sectional area and width of the largest giraffe’s body were large in the abdominal region in the transverse sections. However, by visual examination, the ten zoo staff members deemed a different giraffe to be the largest. These results indicated that the three-dimensional laser measurement device could be used to evaluate giraffe somatotype in detail, and that this method may be an alternative to visual evaluation.

  • Shizuka HAYASHI, Yoshiyuki OHSHIMA, Yoshiaki FURUYA, Aki NAGAO, Kazuki ...
    論文ID: 18-0079
    発行日: 2018年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2018/08/06
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Porcine circovirus associated diseases (PCVAD) have multiple manifestations that have been attributed to porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2). Recently, a novel porcine circovirus, PCV type 3 (PCV3), was identified in pigs with systemic inflammation of unknown etiology. In this study, we tried to detect the PCV3 genome in tissue samples collected from Japanese pig herds in 2016. The PCV3 genome was detected by PCR in 7 of 73 samples. The homology between each Japanese strain was 99.5% for the full-length sequence and 98.9 to 99.2% for the open reading frame 2. These results suggest that PCV3 has already invaded Japanese pig farms.

  • Norihiko OYAMA, Tadashi SANO, Mizuki YAMAMORI, Jun TAMURA, Mohammed Ah ...
    論文ID: 17-0356
    発行日: 2018年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2018/08/03
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Robenacoxib is a novel nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug approved for dogs. The present study aimed to evaluate influences of sevoflurane anesthesia on the distribution of robenacoxib in dogs. Ten healthy beagle dogs (1 to 11 years old, 9.3 to 14.3 kg body weight, 6 males and 4 females) were subcutaneously administered robenacoxib (2 mg/kg) under conscious condition or sevoflurane anesthesia inhaled a 1.3-fold predetermined individual minimum alveolar concentration of sevoflurane at a 28-day interval. The dogs under sevoflurane anesthesia were also mechanically ventilated and received fluid-therapy. On each occasion, serum samples were collected from the dogs before and at 5, 15, 30, 60, 120, 180 and 240 min after the robenacoxib administration. Serum robenacoxib concentration was measured by a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Maximum serum concentration of robenacoxib (Cmax) was 2.2 μg/ml [range: 1.2–4.6] (median [range: minimum–maximum]) and time of Cmax (Tmax) was 90 min [range: 60–120] in the conscious dogs. In the sevoflurane-anesthetized dogs, the Cmax significantly declined (1.3 μg/ml [range: 0.8–1.4], P=0.008) and Tmax was delayed (120 min [range: 120–240], P=0.018) compared with those in the conscious dogs. The serum robenacoxib concentration at 240 min (C240) decreased to 0.5 μg/ml [range: 0.2–0.9] in the conscious dogs, while it remained higher in the sevoflurane-anesthetized dogs (1.0 μg/ml [range: 0.3–1.4], P=0.011). In conclusion, the anesthetic procedure with sevoflurane, mechanically ventilated, and received fluid-therapy might affect the pharmacokinetics of subcutaneously administered robenacoxib in dogs.

  • Teppei NAKAMURA, Yaser Hosny Ali ELEWA, Osamu ICHII, Marina HOSOTANI, ...
    論文ID: 18-0298
    発行日: 2018年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2018/08/01
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Parafollicular cells (C-cells) exist within the thyroid glands and display different distributions within the glands among mammalian species. In the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius), localization of the C-cells remains under debate. We herein investigated appearance of C-cells and the remnants of the ultimobranchial body, origin of C-cells, in the thyroid glands of one-humped camels. Macroscopically, a white mass was present at one-third the length from the cranial end of the thyroid glands where the cranial thyroid artery entered. In addition, large fossae were frequently found adjacent to the white mass. Histologically, the mass was mainly composed of connective tissues, thyroid follicles, and two types of cell clusters: one was composed of cells with clear cytoplasm and the other was composed of non-keratinized epidermoid cells. The mass and the fossae contained p63-positive cells, indicating that they consisted of ultimobranchial body remnants. Calcitonin was expressed in cells with clear cytoplasm, which were localized just beneath the fossae and in the cell clusters of the white mass. C-cells also resided in both subfollicular and interfollicular spaces adjacent to the white mass, but gradually decreased toward the periphery. C-cells tended to display round shapes in the ultimobranchial body remnants and subfollicular spaces, and spindle shapes in interfollicular spaces. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the ultimobranchial body remnants were limited to the region around the entrance of cranial thyroid artery and vein, and C-cells were mainly concentrated within and around the ultimobranchial body remnants.

  • Valeria PASCIU, Elena BARALLA, Maria NIEDDU, Sara SUCCU, Cristian PORC ...
    論文ID: 18-0356
    発行日: 2018年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2018/08/01
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Currently, several commercially available biochemical kits are validated for their use in human but not in animals. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate the applicability of human kits for alanine-aminotransferase, aspartato-aminotransferase, albumin, total protein, total cholesterol, and triglycerides in ovine plasma. Assays were validated according to international guidelines and stability was explored. Accuracy values were between 67 and 100%, and intra and interday precisions (%RSD) were < 15% for all studied parameters. These results confirm the suitability of the studied human kits for their use in ovine plasma and they were used in plasma collected from pregnant ewes.

  • Ha-Hyun KIM, Dong-Kun YANG, Bo-Hyun SEO, In-Soo CHO
    論文ID: 18-0012
    発行日: 2018年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2018/07/31
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Rabies virus (RABV), canine distemper virus (CDV), canine parvovirus type-2 (CPV-2), and canine influenza A virus (CIV) are important contagious pathogens in canine populations. To assess post-vaccination immunity against RABV, CDV and CPV-2, and serological evidence of exposure to influenza A virus in military working dogs (MWDs) in Korea, we tested blood samples of 78 MWDs by fluorescent antibody virus neutralization (FAVN) for RABV, and by commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for CDV, CPV-2, and CIV. Korean MWDs had high antibody-positive rates against RABV (97.4%, ≥0.5 IU/ml), CDV (94.8%), and CPV (100%). All dogs tested seronegative (0/78; 0%) for influenza A virus. Two 1-year-old dogs stationed in known rabies outbreak areas (Gangwon and Gyeonggi) exhibited VNA titers below the protective level (0.06 and 0.29 IU/ml, respectively). The breed and sex of MWDs were not significantly associated with antibody titers for RABV, CDV, or CPV; however, age was significantly associated with CPV antibody titers, while region of residence was associated with CDV antibody titer. Taken together, the data presented here provide important insights necessary for post-vaccination management and control of infectious diseases in MWDs.

  • Won Kyong KIM, Ja Young MOON, Jeong Sang CHO, Byung Yong PARK, Jin HUR
    論文ID: 18-0136
    発行日: 2018年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2018/07/31
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    The aim of this study was to establish a proof-of-concept of protective efficacy of Salmonella-based B. abortus vaccine candidate in Beagles. Group A Beagles (n=10) were subcutaneously (SC) inoculated with S. Typhimurium delivery strain containing pMMP65 (vector to deliver antigens) only as vector control. Group B Beagles (n=10) were SC vaccinated with the mixture of the three Salmonella delivery strains expressing the recombinant B. abortus BCSP31, Omp3b, and SOD proteins, respectively. No Salmonella delivery strains were isolated from all tissues tested. Serum IgG, interleukin-4, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interferon-gamma concentrations were significantly higher in group B than in group A. Following intraconjunctival challenge with B. abortus 544, among 5 group B Beagles, the challenge strain was isolated from mandibular, and retropharyngeal lymph nodes of three Beagles, and no isolates were observed from all tissues of two Beagle. However, the challenge strains were detected from spleen, uterus (except two Beagles), and mandibular, prescapular, retropharyngeal, and superficial inguinal lymph nodes of all group A Beagles. These results suggest that the mixture of three S. Typhimurium delivery strains be a good vaccine candidate against brucellosis by B. abortus in dogs. Further investigations are needed to improve the protective efficacy of the Salmonella-based B. abortus vaccine candidate and explore its practical application in dogs.

  • Do Tien DUY, Hanjin KIM, Jiwoon JEONG, Kee Hwan PARK, Siyeon YANG, Tae ...
    論文ID: 17-0583
    発行日: 2018年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2018/07/18
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of a commercial porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) subunit vaccine and a prototype PRRS II subunit vaccine against a highly pathogenic PRRS virus (HP-PRRSV) in pigs. Both vaccines were administered intramuscularly in 2 doses at 21 and 42 days of age, and the pigs were challenged intranasally with HP-PRRSV at 63 days of age. Pigs vaccinated with the prototype PRRS II subunit vaccine had significantly higher anti-PRRSV antibody titers, a greater number of interferon-γ-secreting cells, and a greater reduction in lung lesion scores compared to pigs vaccinated with the commercial PRRS subunit vaccine. Therefore, the commercial PRRS subunit and prototype PRRS II subunit vaccines are efficacious against HP-PRRSV.

  • Nabil MISK, Tarik MISK, Ahmed EL-KHAMARY, Mohamed SEMEIKA
    論文ID: 17-0586
    発行日: 2018年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2018/07/18
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    The present retrospective study was conducted from 2003 to 2015 in Egypt to document common surgical affections of the udder and teat in cattle and buffaloes, and determine medical and surgical treatment options that are feasible in a field setting. We diagnosed 19 different surgical affections and classified them into 4 groups according to their location. Teat orifice affections (12.41%) included imperforate teat, contracted teat orifice, enlarged teat orifice, and black spot. Teat cistern affections (23.76%) included teat fistula, dilated teat cistern, teat polypi, and webbed teat. Teat surface affections (50.35%) included sore teat, supernumerary teat, sloughed teat, teat papilloma and fibropapilloma, teat wounds, and teat viral lesions. Udder affections (13.48%) included hypermastia, udder wounds, and suppurative and gangrenous mastitis. In cattle, the number of surgical affections located on the teat surface (20 ± 5.4) was significantly higher compared with other locations as well as compared with buffaloes (P<0.05). No treatment was indicated in 24% of recorded cases. Medical and surgical treatment was indicated in 73.75% of affected animals. Favorable results were achieved with the recommended treatments when applied in the field.

  • Noriko FUNASAKA, Motoi YOSHIOKA, Keiichi UEDA, Haruka KOGA, Makio YANA ...
    論文ID: 18-0075
    発行日: 2018年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2018/07/18
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Long-term monitoring of circulating progesterone levels in three captive female false killer whales, Pseudorca crassidens, was conducted to characterize their reproductive events and to reveal the relationship between their estrous cycles or pregnancies and peripheral white blood cell (WBC) counts. Blood samples were collected at 2–3-day intervals or on a weekly-to-monthly basis for up to 10 years, from 2006 to 2017. In two mature females (initial body lengths of 4.22 and 4.07 m), some cyclic progesterone elevations were detected during the study period; the estimated mean (± SE) estrous cycle length was 40.5 ± 0.7 days (n=12). The seasonality of ovulation, estimated from the elevation of progesterone levels, varied among individuals or years, and ovulation did not occur every year. The third female (3.26 m) showed progesterone elevations, despite irregular cycles after sexual maturity, and became pregnant. The progesterone levels during pregnancy ranged from 7.3 to 42.2 ng/ml, and the gestation period lasted for 14 months until parturition. The mean WBC counts during estrous cycles were the lowest before the progesterone levels began to increase and then gradually increased toward the luteal phase. The WBC counts were significantly higher during pregnancy than before and were particularly high in early pregnancy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the relationship between the estrous cycle or pregnancy and WBC counts in cetaceans.

  • Wen-Sheng FAN, He-Ming LI, Yi-Ning HE, Ning TANG, Li-Hua ZHANG, Hai-Yo ...
    論文ID: 18-0249
    発行日: 2018年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2018/07/18
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Live attenuated vaccines are critical in the control of avian infectious bronchitis. It is necessary to know the protection conferred by commonly used commercial live vaccines. In this study, specific pathogen-free chicks were vaccinated with the commercial live vaccines H120, 4/91 and LDT3-A. Blood samples were collected at weekly intervals for the detection of IBV-specific antibodies and quantification of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes. At 21 days post-inoculation the vaccinated birds were challenged with the IBV prevalent local strains GX-YL5, GX-GL11079 and GX-NN09032, respectively. Trachea and kidney samples were collected at 5 days post-challenge for the detection of the virus. The results showed that the H120 group exhibited medium antibody levels, the lowest percentages of CD4+, CD8+ T lymphocytes and the highest viral loads. The 4/91 group showed the lowest antibody levels, but the highest percentages of CD4+, CD8+ T lymphocytes and the lowest viral loads. The LDT3-A group showed the highest antibody levels, the medium percentages of CD4+, CD8+ T lymphocytes and the medium viral loads. The protection rates of H120, 4/91 and LDT3-A groups were 41.7–58.3%, 75.0–83.7% and 66.7–75.0%, respectively. The present study demonstrated that the vaccines H120, 4/91 and LDT3-A could stimulate the immunized chicks to produce different levels of humoral and cellular immunity to resist the infection of IBV, but couldn’t provide complete protection against the prevalent local strains of IBV in southern China. Also, the vaccine 4/91 offered the best immune protection among the three vaccines.

  • Tomoya IIZUKA, Kenichi MASUI, Hideko KANAZAWA, Ryohei NISHIMURA
    論文ID: 17-0468
    発行日: 2018年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2018/07/17
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    The relationships between propofol plasma concentrations and the pharmacodynamic endpoints may differ according to a type of airway device. To clarify these relationships in different airway devices would be useful to avoid the complication such as apnea and intraoperative awareness. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of difference of airway device on propofol requirement during maintenance of anesthesia in dogs. We compared the influence of airway devices on the plasma propofol concentrations for apnea, response to mechanical ventilation, and response to airway device between endotracheal tube (ETT) and supraglottic airway device (SGAD) in Beagles. The pharmacodynamic effects were repeatedly assessed at varying propofol concentrations. The plasma concentrations (mean ± SD) of propofol in the ETT and SGAD groups were 10.2 ± 1.8 and 10.9 ± 2.4 μg/ml for apnea (P=0.438), 7.9 ± 1.2 and 7.4 ± 1.5 μg/ml for response to mechanical ventilation (P=0.268), and 5.2 ± 0.7 and 5.4 ± 1.5 μg/ml for response to airway device (P=0.580), respectively. Required propofol concentration during maintenance of anesthesia may be similar between ETT and SGAD. Without moderate to strong stimuli such as airway device insertion or painful stimulation during surgery, the type of airway device may have little impact on required propofol concentration during maintenance of anesthesia in dogs.

  • Tatsuya MAEKAWA, Takeshi OHTA, Shinichi KUME
    論文ID: 18-0296
    発行日: 2018年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2018/07/17
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    In recent years, a relationship between diabetes and neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer disease or depression, has been proposed. In this study, pathophysiological changes in the brain, especially in the hippocampus, of male SDT fatty rats with obesity and hyperglycemia were investigated. Brains of SD rats and SDT fatty rats were collected at 32 and 58 weeks of age, and parietal cortical thickness and number of pyramidal cells in the hippocampal cornu ammonis 1 and 3 (CA1 and CA3) regions were measured. At 58 weeks of age, the parietal cortical thickness and number of pyramidal cells in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 regions were lower in SDT fatty rats than in age-matched SD rats. Measurements of mRNA in rat brains at 58 weeks of age showed that the expression of genes related to inflammatory responses (S100a9, TNFα, NF-κB) was elevated in SDT fatty rats. From the aforementioned results, changes suggestive of brain atrophy and impairment in cognitive function were observed in male SDT fatty rat brains.

  • Miyuu TANAKA, Mizuki KURAMOCHI, Satoshi NAKANISHI, Mitsuru KUWAMURA, T ...
    論文ID: 18-0107
    発行日: 2018年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2018/07/16
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Polyomaviruses (PyVs) infect a wide range of animals and provoke wasting diseases, particularly in immunosuppressed hosts. Recently, a novel Rattus norvegicus polyomavirus 2 (RatPyV2) has been identified in a colony of X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (X-SCID) rats in the United States. Here, we describe the first report of the RatPyV2 infection in an X-SCID rat colony in Japan. The affected rats exhibited adult-onset wasting. Histologically, we observed large basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies within the hyperplastic or dysplastic epithelial cells in the salivary glands, Harderian glands, extraorbital lacrimal glands, and in respiratory and reproductive tissues. Among these organs, the parotid salivary, Harderian, and extraorbital lacrimal glands were most obviously affected. In particular, the parotid salivary glands were the most severely and diffusely affected and atrophic lesions were prominent even at 1 month of age, which suggested that the parotid salivary glands would be highly susceptible to RatPyV2 in X-SCID rats. RatPyV2 inclusion bodies were also detected in the tail of the epididymis and deferent duct. Such reproductive lesions developed significantly in the later stage of breeding age, and therefore may be associated with the reduced fecundity observed in the infected X-SCID rats. We also established a simple, rapid, and non-invasive diagnostic method based on the Amp-FTA method, using buccal swabs for the detection of RatPyV2 in immunodeficient rats. Our findings contribute to the early detection and diagnosis of RatPyV2 infections.

  • Fumi MURAKOSHI, Kenji KOYAMA, Takumi AKASAKA, Noriyuki HORIUCHI, Kenta ...
    論文ID: 18-0130
    発行日: 2018年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2018/07/16
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Bats are potential reservoirs of Cryptosporidium and Eimeria. The genus Cryptosporidium infects various vertebrates and causes a diarrheal disease known as cryptosporidiosis. Many epidemiological studies in wild animals have been performed; however, most of them relied on only PCR-based detection because of the difficulty of performing pathological analyses. Accordingly, the natural host and pathogenicity of Cryptosporidium bat genotypes remain unclear. In this study, we captured Eptesicus nilssonii (Northern bats) in Hokkaido, Japan. Of the three intestinal samples obtained, two were positive for Cryptosporidium spp. and one was positive for Eimeria spp.. The corresponding microorganisms were also confirmed histopathologically. We detected the novel Cryptosporidium bat genotype XII and Eimeria rioarribaensis in bat intestine.

  • Satoshi TAKAGI, Yumiko KAGAWA, Kiwamu HANAZONO, Shoko MURAKAMI, Tatsuy ...
    論文ID: 18-0148
    発行日: 2018年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2018/07/13
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    A 10-year-old cat presented for evaluation with a 1-month history of salivation and oral bleeding. A right mandibular mass was palpated and computed tomography examination revealed entire bone proliferation. Mandibular bone biopsy was performed, and histopathological diagnosis was vascular hamartoma. The cat suddenly died on day 140.

  • Ye-In OH, Doo-Sung CHEON, Jung-Keun LEE, Mi-Hyun CHOI, Sun-Young HWANG ...
    論文ID: 17-0702
    発行日: 2018年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2018/07/11
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    A 12-year-old neutered male domestic shorthair cat was presented with a 3-year history of multiple nonpruritic, ulcerated, plaque-like skin lesions but no other clinical signs. A systemic examination revealed mild lymphadenopathy. Histopathologic analysis of the skin lesions revealed multicentric basosquamous carcinoma (BSC). Immunohistochemical analysis, PCR, and sequencing detected Felis catus papillomavirus type 2 (FcaPV-2) within the tumors. As BSC is rare in cats, clinical behavior has not been established. To our knowledge, this is the first case report to demonstrate detection of FcaPV-2 within a BSC in a domestic cat.

  • Kazunori UEDA, Tomoyuki KAWAI, Haruki SENNO, Atsushi SHIMIZU, Akira IS ...
    論文ID: 18-0115
    発行日: 2018年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2018/07/06
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Patellar luxation is abnormal displacement of the patella from the femoral trochlear groove. It is seen primarily in small breed dogs and causes pain and limited mobility of the stifle joint. This study aimed to investigate the relationship among patellar luxation, skin extension, and skin collagen fibril diameter. Nine dogs with patellar luxation and five clinically normal dogs were enrolled in the study. We measured the skin extension and investigated the ultrastructure of the skin and patellofemoral ligament by histopathology and transmission electron microscopy. The mean skin extension in dogs with patellar luxation was 18.5 ± 5.5% which is greater than the reference value (14.5%). Mean skin extension in controls was 8.8 ± 1.7% and was within the normal range. In dogs with patellar luxation, histopathology of the skin and patellofemoral ligament showed sparse and unevenly distributed collagen fibers. Transmission electron microscopy identified poorly organized, irregularly shaped, thin collagen fibrils. Collagen fibril thickness in dogs with patellar luxation was significantly less than fibril thickness in controls (P<0.001). There was a significant negative correlation (ρ= −0.863; P<0.001) between skin collagen fibril diameter and skin extension. Skin extension was correlated with patellar luxation and disease severity. Dogs with patellar luxation, joint dysplasia, and hyperextensible skin appear to be pathologically related. This might represent a phenotype of the Ehlers–Danlos syndrome, a hereditary connective tissue disorder in humans.

  • Firoj ALOM, Masumi MIYAKAWA, Hayato MATSUYAMA, Hiroshi NAGANO, Yasuyuk ...
    論文ID: 18-0197
    発行日: 2018年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2018/07/05
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    ML204, a potent transient receptor potential canonical 4 (TRPC4) channel blocker, is often used to elucidate the involvement of TRPC4 channels in receptor-operated signaling processes in visceral smooth muscles. In the present study, we investigated the possible antagonistic actions of ML204 on M2 and M3 muscarinic receptors, which mediate contractions in mouse ileal and detrusor smooth muscles. In ileal and detrusor smooth muscle preparations, ML204 (3 or 10 µM) significantly inhibited electrical field stimulation (EFS)-evoked cholinergic contractions. However, it did not significantly inhibit high K+-induced and EFS-evoked non-cholinergic contractions in the ileal preparations. When the muscarinic agonist, carbachol was cumulatively applied, ML204 (1, 3 and 10 µM) caused a rightward parallel shift of the concentration-response curves of carbachol. Additionally, ML204 (1, 3 and 10 µM) inhibited carbachol-induced negative chronotropic response in atrial preparations, which is mediated by M2 muscarinic receptors. Furthermore, ML204 significantly inhibited the contractions evoked by carbachol-induced intracellular Ca2+ release, which is mediated by M3 muscarinic receptors. These results suggested that ML204 might exhibit antagonistic actions on M2 and M3 muscarinic receptors; in addition, the inhibitory effects of ML204 against EFS-induced cholinergic contractions might be attributed to this receptor antagonism rather than inhibition of TRPC4 channel activity. Therefore, these effects should be considered when ML204 is used as a TRPC4 channel blocker.

  • Yahiro MUKAI, Masayuki HORIE, Keizo TOMONAGA
    論文ID: 18-0211
    発行日: 2018年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2018/07/05
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Endogenous bornavirus-like elements (EBLs) are sequences derived from bornaviruses (the family Bornaviridae) that are integrated into animal genomes. They are formed through germline insertions of segments of bornaviral transcripts into animal genomes. Because EBLs are molecular fossils of bornaviruses, they serve as precious sources of information to understand the evolutionary history of bornaviruses. Previous studies revealed the presence of many EBLs in bat genomes, especially in vesper bats, and suggested the long-term association between bats and bornaviruses. However, insertion dates of EBLs are largely unknown because of the limitations of available bat genome sequences in the public database. In this study, through a combination of database searches, PCR, and sequencing approaches, we systematically determined the gene orthologies of 13 lineages of EBLs in bats of the genus Myotis and Eptesicus and family Vespertilionidae. Using the above data, we estimated their insertion dates: the EBLs in vesper bats were inserted approximately 14.2 to 53 million years ago. These results suggest that vesper bats have been repeatedly infected by bornaviruses at different points in time during evolution. This study provides novel insights into the evolutionary history of bornaviruses and demonstrates the robustness of combining database searches, PCR, and sequencing approaches to estimate insertion dates of bornaviruses.

  • Makoto NAKATA, Yasutsugu MIWA, James K. CHAMBERS, Tsubasa SAITO, Kazuy ...
    論文ID: 18-0215
    発行日: 2018年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2018/07/05
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    A 14-month-old, female mini rex was referred for a detailed examination because of exercise intolerance with associated dyspnea. The thoracic radiograph demonstrated severe cardiac enlargement and elevation of the trachea. The echocardiography revealed dilatations of the right-side heart and pulmonary artery, and the color flow Doppler echocardiography demonstrated an atrial septum defect with left to right shunt, resulting in a disturbed flow. The rabbit died 19 days after the initial presentation, and a necropsy was performed. At the necropsy, a defect, 5 mm in diameter, was detected in the atrial septum. Based on the location of the defect, an ostium secundum type atrial septal defect was diagnosed. This is the first clinical report of atrial septal defect in rabbits.

  • Ryota KOBA, Sakurako SHOJI, Sawami YOSHIMURA, Yukinobu TOHYA
    論文ID: 17-0278
    発行日: 2018年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2018/07/03
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    The retinoic acid-inducible gene-I-like receptor (RLR) family is a group of cytosolic RNA helicase proteins that play an important role in sensing viral RNAs. Melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5), an RLR protein, recognizes viral double-stranded RNA and 5′-triphosphate single-stranded RNA in the cytoplasm for the expression of type I interferon (IFN). The expression of MDA5 is also induced by type I IFN. In the present study, we determined the complete coding sequence of the feline MDA5 gene, and analyzed its structure. In addition, we examined tissue expression patterns, inducibilities of the feline MDA5 by polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid and type I IFN, and a functional role of feline MDA5 on type I IFN expression.

  • Mioko HONDA, Mamoru SAWAYA, Kensuke TAIRA, Akiko YAMAZAKI, Yoichi KAMA ...
    論文ID: 18-0123
    発行日: 2018年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2018/07/03
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Recently, the Sarcocystis parasite in horse and deer meat has been reported to be a causative agent of acute food poisoning, inducing nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. Compared with other causative agents, such as bacteria, viruses and other parasites, in deer meat, the Sarcocystis species parasite, including its stability under various conditions, is poorly understood. In this study, we assessed the viability of Sarcocystis spp. and the activity of their diarrhea toxin (a 15-kDa protein) in deer meat under conditions of freezing, cold storage, pH change and curing. In addition, the heat tolerance was assayed using purified bradyzoites. The results showed that the species lost viability by freezing at −20°C, −30°C and −80°C for <1 hr, heating at 70°C for 1 min, alkaline treatment (pH 10.0) for 4 days and addition of salt at 2.0% for <1 day. Immunoblot assays showed that the diarrhea toxin disappeared together with the loss of viability. However, the parasite survived cooling at 0°C and 4°C and acidification (pH 3.0 and 5.0) for more than 7 days with the diarrhea toxin intact. These results provide useful information for developing practical applications for the prevention of food poisoning induced by diarrheal toxin of Sarcocystis spp. in deer meat during cooking and preservation.

  • Javier OJEDA, Miguel SALGADO, Carolina ENCINA, Camila SANTAMARIA, Gust ...
    論文ID: 16-0361
    発行日: 2018年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2018/07/02
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    A domestic cat dwelling in a dairy cattle farm with haematuria was referred for a physical examination. The examination showed no abnormalities therefore complementary exams were performed. Leukocytosis with neutrophilia, monocytosis and hyperproteinaemia were detected. The urine analysis showed a bacterial infection without ultrasound findings. Serological titers to Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona and Autumnalis were detected. Molecular analysis demonstrated the presence of Leptospira spp. in urine. The findings were consistent with subclinical leptospirosis. The cattle herd had evidence of Leptospira infection. The microbiological exams confirmed the presence of the Leptospira spp. in urine and serum. According to the evidence presented in this study, cats that dwell within a dairy farm could play a role in the Leptospira infection epidemiologically. The importance of feline leptospirosis must be evaluated with leptospirosis control in livestock.

  • Yupadee HENGJAN, Nikom SAE-KOO, Thanmaporn PHICHITRASILP, Yasushige OH ...
    論文ID: 17-0719
    発行日: 2018年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2018/07/02
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Flying foxes have been widely studied as they are well-known reservoirs of infectious agents. Understanding their population dynamics might help to explain seasonal patterns of disease prevalence, and contribute towards the conservation of flying fox populations. Therefore, this study explored the annual variation in the number of deaths in P. lylei. The study was conducted from 2015–2017, at a Buddhist temple in Thailand, which is the roosting site of P. lylei. The average total number of bat deaths in a month significantly varied between times of a year. A peak was observed during March and May, which ranged in the period of birthing and lactating. There were no significant differences in the average total number of bat deaths in a month between sexes or age classes across times of a years.

  • Yi-Ming CHEN, Chi-Chang HUANG, Chien-Yu HSIAO, Sindy HU, I-Lin WANG, H ...
    論文ID: 18-0165
    発行日: 2018年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2018/06/29
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Ludwigia octovalvis extract (LOE) is a widely used traditional Chinese herbal medicine. To date, few studies have demonstrated the effect of LOE supplementation on exercise performance, physical fatigue and biochemical profile. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the potential beneficial effects of LOE extract on fatigue and ergogenic functions following physiological challenge. Male ICR mice from 3 groups (n=8 per group) were orally administered LOE for 4 weeks at 0 (vehicle), 61.5 (LOE-1X) or 307.5 (LOE-5X) mg/kg/day. LOE supplementation was able to dose-dependently increase endurance swimming time (P<0.0001) and decrease levels of serum lactate (P=0.0022), ammonia (P<0.0001), creatine kinase (P<0.0001), blood urea nitrogen (P<0.0001) and glucose utilization (P<0.0001) after acute exercise challenge. The glycogen in gastrocnemius muscle also increased with LOE treatment in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.0001). Biochemically, AST, ALT, LDH, CK, BUN, creatinine and UA levels were decreased with LOE treatment. Our study shows that 4-week supplementation with LOE increases muscle glycogen content storage to enhance exercise performance and anti-fatigue effects.

  • Khanh Thuan NGUYEN, Mizuki HASEGAWA, Thu Tam NGUYEN, Thi Minh Tam VO, ...
    論文ID: 18-0233
    発行日: 2018年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2018/06/27
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    A total of 201 wild geckos from the region of Mekong Delta, Vietnam were collected to determine the viable number and survival period of Salmonella in their feces. Of the 101 samples examined, 24 (23.8%) were Salmonella positive. These 24 geckos excreted Salmonella in their feces in a range of 1 to 8.6 log CFU/g with a mean of 4.5 ± 3.2 log CFU/g. Among the Salmonella serovars, Salmonella Weltevreden was the most predominant serovar (37.5%). Moreover, Salmonella could survive for 6 weeks in gecko feces at room temperature in Vietnam. These results indicate that the wild gecko seems to play an important role as a reservoir for Salmonella and a source of Salmonella infection in humans in Southeast Asian countries.

  • Eliane Macedo SOBRINHO SANTOS, Anna Christina ALMEIDA, Hércules Otacíl ...
    論文ID: 16-0581
    発行日: 2018年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2018/06/25
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    We conducted an in silico analysis to search for important genes in the pathogenesis of Caseous Lymphadenitis (CL), with prospects for use in formulating effective vaccines against this disease. For this, we performed a survey of proteins expressed by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, using protein sequences collected from the NCBI GenPept database and the keywords “caseous lymphadenitis” and “Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis” and “goats”. A network was developed using the STRING 10 database, with a confidence score of 0.900. For every gene interaction identified, we summed the interaction score of each gene, generating a combined association score to obtain a single score named weighted number of links (WNL). Genes with the highest WNL were named “leader genes”. Ontological analysis was extracted from the STRING database through Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database. A search in the GenPept database revealed 2,124 proteins. By using and plotting with STRING 10, we then developed an in silico network model comprised of 1,243 genes/proteins interconnecting through 3,330 interactions. The highest WNL values were identified in the rplB gene, which was named the leader gene. Our ontological analysis shows that this protein acts effectively mainly on Metabolic pathways and Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. In conclusion, the in silico analyses showed that rplB has good potential for vaccine development. However, functional assays are needed to make sure that this protein can potentially induce both humoral and cellular immune responses against C. pseudotuberculosis in goats.

  • Ryushin MIZUTA, Yoshio KIKU, Tomohito HAYASHI
    論文ID: 17-0603
    発行日: 2018年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2018/06/25
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Cigarette smoke is a strong and independent risk factor for esophageal cancer, while the consumption of cow’s milk has been proposed as a protective factor. The mechanistic role of milk in preventing cancer, however, has not been clarified. We focused our study on acrolein, an abundant unsaturated aldehyde present in cigarette smoke. Acrolein is a highly toxic compound and a putative carcinogen. Using a cell culture system, we found that (1) acrolein caused necrosis in Ramos Burkitt’s lymphoma cells, (2) the necrosis was inhibited by preincubation of acrolein with milk, and (3) acrolein formed adducts with milk proteins. These results indicated the protective effects of cow's milk against acrolein-induced cytotoxicity via protein-acrolein adduct formation.

  • Akihisa SUWA, Tetsuya SHIMODA
    論文ID: 17-0619
    発行日: 2018年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2018/06/25
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) is a clinicopathological entity characterized by histiocytic proliferation, with marked hemophagocytosis in the reticuloendothelial organs. HPS caused by lymphoma is termed lymphoma-associated hemophagocytic syndrome (LAHS), and there are few reports on canine and feline LAHS. The objective of this study was to examine the clinical, diagnostic, and clinicopathologic features of LAHS in six dogs. The diagnostic criteria of LAHS consisted of lymphoma, bicytopenia or pancytopenia in the blood, and increased hemophagocytosis in the reticuloendothelial organs. In one dog, an ocular form of lymphoma was recognized. A splenic form was recognized in two dogs, and a hepatosplenic form was recognized in three dogs. Immunophenotyping revealed T-cell origin in five dogs and B-cell origin in one dog by polymerase chain reaction for antigen receptor rearrangement analysis. Nonspecific esterase stain was performed to differentiate between neoplastic lymphocytes and hemophagocytes. All five dogs with T-cell lymphoma were diagnosed with large granular lymphocyte (LGL) lymphoma. In three cases, palliative therapy with glucocorticoids was conducted, while the other three cases received chemotherapy as well. The survival times for the three dogs with glucocorticoids only were 6, 6, and 10 days and were 30, 54, and 68 days for the three treated with anticancer therapy. The median survival time for the dogs was 20 days. This report indicates that canine LAHS is likely to be caused by LGL lymphoma, and it has an aggressive behavior and poor general prognosis, as seen in humans.

  • Abdelghany HEFNAWY, Mahmoud Atef Youssef HELAL, Ahmed SABEK, Saad SHOU ...
    論文ID: 18-0150
    発行日: 2018年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2018/06/25
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    The effects of shearing on behavioral patterns, antioxidants, and inflammatory and stress biomarkers was investigated in Ossimi sheep. Clinical parameters and behavioral patterns were recorded, and serum samples were collected pre-shearing and 1, 5, 10, and 15 days post-shearing from 60 Ossimi sheep. The results revealed that grooming and standing idle frequencies were significantly (P<0.01) increased post-shearing. There were significant (P<0.01) increases in IL-6, cortisol, and MDA detected from the 1st to the 10th day post-shearing compared to pre-shearing values. IL-2 and TNF-α significantly (P<0.01) increased from the 1st until the 5th day post-shearing compared to pre-shearing values, while significant (P<0.01) decreases in the values of Catalase from the 1st until the 5th day post-shearing compared to pre-shearing values were recorded. Regarding to glutathione reductase, there was a significant (P<0.01) decrease from the 1st until the 10th day post-shearing compared to pre-shearing values. Shearing leads to significant changes in antioxidants, inflammatory, stress biomarkers, and some behaviors in sheep.

  • Xiao-Xing CHI, Tao ZHANG, Xiao-Li CHU, Jing-Long ZHEN, Dong-Jie ZHANG
    論文ID: 17-0001
    発行日: 2018年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2018/06/22
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    The effect of genistein on Bcl-2 and Bax protein expression in the ovarian tissue of rats with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) was evaluated. Sixty rats were divided into six groups. Rats in the Dose group received genistein at a concentration of either 5 (L-gen), 10 (M-Gen) or 20 (H-Gen) mg per kg of body weight per day. The expression of Bcl-2 mRNA and Bax mRNA was determined by in situ hybridization. Bcl-2 and Bax protein concentration was quantified by ELISA. The results showed that the expression of Bcl-2 mRNA and Bcl-2 protein was significantly higher in the high genistein Dose group (H-Gen) when compared to the Model group (MG) (P<0.05). Genistein induced higher expression of the Bcl-2 gene at the transcriptional and translational level. Treatment with genistein resulted in an improvement of ovarian function with Bcl-2 expression being enhanced and Bax expression being suppressed. These alterations may be due to the structural and functional modifications that take place in these cells, and could be related to apoptotic changes that occur in rats with PCOS.

  • Yui KOBATAKE, Hiroki SAKAI, Hidetaka NISHIDA, Yosuke UEMATSU, Sadatosh ...
    論文ID: 17-0675
    発行日: 2018年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2018/06/21
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    An 8-year-old castrated male cat presented with acute ataxia and paresis in all four limbs. The cat also exhibited signs of autonomic nervous system impairment. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed swelling of the brachial plexuses bilaterally. Despite treatment, the cat died after 10 days of treatment. A postmortem examination revealed swollen radial nerves and cervical nerve roots in which infiltration of inflammatory cells was histologically confirmed. Additionally, lymphocytic infiltration was found around the blood vessels of the sciatic nerve bundle and the vagus nerve. Histological features were comparable to previously reported brachial plexus hypertrophic neuritis in a cat. Our case was unique in that the autonomic nerves were also involved in addition to the somatic nerves in all four limbs.

  • Xiaohua LIU, Chan LUO, Kai DENG, Zhulian WU, Yingming WEI, Jianrong JI ...
    論文ID: 18-0043
    発行日: 2018年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2018/06/20
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    The present study was undertaken to examine the effects of cytoplasmic volume on nucleus reprogramming and developmental competence of buffalo handmade cloning (HMC) embryos. We found that both HMC embryos derived from ~150% cytoplasm or ~225% cytoplasm resulted in a higher blastocyst rate and total cell number of blastocyst in comparison with those from ~75% cytoplasm (25.4 ± 2.0%, 27.9 ± 1.6% vs. 17.9 ± 3.1%; 150 ± 10, 169 ± 12 vs. 85 ± 6, P<0.05). Meanwhile, the proportions of nuclear envelope breakdown (NEBD) and premature chromosome condensation (PCC) were also increased in the embryos derived from ~150% or ~225% enucleated cytoplasm compared to those from ~75% cytoplasm. Moreover, HMC embryos derived from ~225% cytoplasm showed a decrease of global DNA methylation from the 2-cell to the 4-cell stage in comparison with those of ~75% cytoplasm (P<0.05). Furthermore, the expression of embryonic genome activation (EGA) relative genes (eIF1A and U2AF) in HMC embryos derived from ~225% cytoplasm at the 8-cell stages was also found to be enhanced compared with that of the ~75% cytoplasm. Two of seven recipients were confirmed to be pregnant following transfer of blastocysts derived from ~225% cytoplasm, and one healthy cloned calf was delivered at the end of the gestation period, whereas no recipients were pregnant after the transfer of blastocysts derived from ~75% cytoplasm. These results indicate that the cytoplasmic volume of recipient oocytes affects donor nucleus reprogramming, and then further accounted for the developmental ability of the reconstructed embryos.

  • Daneeya EKAPOPPHAN, Athicha SRISUTTHAKARN, Walasinee MOONARMART, Ruang ...
    論文ID: 18-0045
    発行日: 2018年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2018/06/20
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    This study aims to determine the microbiological profile and risk factors associated with antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in canine severe corneal ulcers. Thirty-two corneal and conjunctival swabs were collected from dogs with diagnosed severe corneal ulcers that presented to Prasu-Arthorn veterinary teaching hospital in Nakhon Pathom, Thailand from June 2015 to June 2016. Microorganisms were identified by means of genotypic and phenotypic approaches. Of 32 ulcers sampled, 26 (81.3%) yielded culturable microorganisms with 24 bacterial isolates and 7 fungal isolates. The most commonly isolated bacteria were Staphylococcus spp. (45.8%, 11/24) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (20.8%, 5/24). Out of 11 staphylococcal isolates identified, 10 carried the mecA gene providing methicillin resistance. The extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) encoding genes blaCTX-M and blaVEB-1were found in an Acinetobacter lwoffii isolate, and blaSHV was found in a P. aeruginosa isolate. Based on the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) breakpoint criteria, minimum inhibitory concentrations values showed that all bacteria, except for staphylococci, were susceptible to current ophthalmic antibiotics. More than 50% of staphylococci were resistant to all generations of fluoroquinolones and fusidic acid. Chloramphenicol was highly active against staphylococci (81.3% susceptible). The width (P=0.02) and the depth (P=0.04) of ulcers predicted greater risk of yielding resistant bacteria. The identification of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria prompts practitioners to be prudent when choosing ophthalmic antibiotics for severe corneal ulcers.

  • Yasunori SHINOZUKA, Kazuhiro KAWAI, Reiichiro SATO, Akito HIGASHITANI, ...
    論文ID: 18-0280
    発行日: 2018年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2018/06/18
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    The change in milk composition in response to intramammary infusion of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was investigated. Four clinically healthy goats were infused with LPS (100 µg) by intramammary administration to the left udder. Clinical manifestations (rectal temperature and physical activity), selected blood parameters (pH and white blood cell count) and milk compositions (somatic cell count and pH) were evaluated at 0 hr (just before challenge) and at multiple time points over the first 24 hr post-challenge. After intramammary LPS challenge, the pH of milk from both udders increased. Thus, this study revealed that LPS-induced mastitis in goat can result in increased pH in milk from the unchallenged (contralateral) udder.

  • Xiaochuan LIU, Yuwei YANG, Ping JIANG, Xiaohui LI, Yanliang GE, Yang C ...
    論文ID: 17-0705
    発行日: 2018年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2018/05/30
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    QSOX1 (quiescin-sulfhydryl oxidase 1) is involved in various processes, including apoptosis and the development of breast diseases. Here, we investigated the effect of QSOX1 on the meat quality of Simmental cattle by analyzing the correlation between QSOX1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), I2 204 C>T and I2 378 C>T, and certain meat quality traits. The effects of QSOX1 on triglyceride synthesis and cell apoptosis were further validated by gene silencing or overexpression in bovine fetal fibroblasts and mammary epithelial cells. The results showed that I2 204 C>T and I2 378 C>T had significant correlations with loin thickness, hind hoof weight, fat coverage, liver weight, heart weight, marbling and back fat thickness (P<0.05). QSOX1 overexpression also increased triglyceride production and suppressed apoptosis. In summary, QSOX1 is an important factor for meat quality, lipid metabolism, and cell apoptosis, indicating that QSOX1 could be used as a biomarker to assist in breeding cattle with superior meat.

  • Yoshimoto TANAKA, Kan FUJINO, Gerald Andrew LARKINS, Atsushi OSAWA, Yu ...
    論文ID: 17-0695
    発行日: 2018年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2018/04/30
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Zoonosis becomes a popular word. Highly pathogenic influenza virus (HPI), Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) recently occurred at around Africa, Meddle-East and South-East Asia area, whose virus is classified as airborne. Sterilization capability was investigated by using chemical reactor of PACT device. Test on airborne infection was carried out by Feline Calicivirus Vaccine (FCV) strain F9, which is also surrogated human norovirus. It was found that PACT device could sterilize instantly FCV when passing through the plasma space of PACT device. Sterilization rate may be more than 99.99% (below the detection limit). This result may be available to sterilize various virus including human norovirus and airborne-infectious microorganisms.

  • Dafei LIU, Fei LIU, Dongchun GUO, Xiaoliang HU, Zhijie LI, Zhigang LI, ...
    論文ID: 17-0442
    発行日: 2018年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2018/01/23
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    To rapidly distinguish Canine distemper virus (CDV), canine parvovirus (CPV), and canine kobuvirus (CaKoV) in practice, a one–step multiplex PCR/RT–PCR assay was developed, with detection limits of 102.1 TCID50 for CDV, 101.9 TCID50 for CPV and 103 copies for CaKoV. This method did not amplify nonspecific DNA or RNA from other canine viruses. Therefore, the assay provides a sensitive tool for the rapid clinical detection and epidemiological surveillance of CDV, CPV and CaKoV in dogs.

  • Mario DOLERA, Luca MALFASSI, Simone PAVESI, Sara FINESSO, Giovanni MAZ ...
    論文ID: 16-0077
    発行日: 2017年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2017/11/15
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Atlanto-axial (AA) instability due to ligament insufficiency is a common cause of cervical spinal cord compression in toy breeds. However, in some dogs a difference in size between the atlas and the axis leads to joint incongruence that exacerbates AA subluxation and makes surgical treatment challenging. Twelve dogs with AA instability with incongruence were enrolled in a single institution prospective observational study. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the AA joint were compared to a retrospectively reviewed control group. A novel surgical approach consisting of a dorsal internal fixation technique was performed in six dogs. For affected dogs, the mean normalised difference between the dorso-ventral atlas canal and the dorso-ventral axis canal was 29.67% (median of 35.07%, standard deviation 25.64%), while in normal dogs a mean difference of 4.67% (median of 3.95%, standard deviation 5.21%) was observed. On MRI, 12/12 affected dogs had spinal cord compression, which was classified as reducible (3/12), partially reducible (6/12) and non-reducible (3/12). In surgically operated dogs, follow-up CT showed a partial or complete reduction of the previous spinal cord compression with a consistent amelioration or resolution of the presenting complaints. The proposed surgical technique was safe and effective in dogs with partially or completely reducible spinal cord compression.

  • Mohamed ABDO, Khaled SHOGHY, Yoshinao Z. HOSAKA, Tomohiro IMAGAWA, Saf ...
    論文ID: 14-0225e
    発行日: 2014年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2014/08/20
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開
    This article released online on July 30, 2014 as advance publication has been retracted by the Editorial Board of Journal of Veterinary Medical Science due to a violation of the journal’s “Information for Authors”.
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