Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Online ISSN : 1347-7439
Print ISSN : 0916-7250
ISSN-L : 0916-7250
早期公開論文
早期公開論文の62件中1~50を表示しています
  • Souta SUGIYAMA, Yasuhiro UNO, Tomoko AMANO, Takio KITAZAWA, Hiroki TER ...
    論文ID: 19-0106
    発行日: 2019年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2019/05/21
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Knowledge of genetic polymorphisms of metabolizing enzymes of medical drugs and xenobiotics including cytochrome P450 (CYP) is very limited in cats. We investigated polymorphisms in CYP1A2, one of the major CYP isoforms in the feline liver. Wild-type and three non-synonymous polymorphic variants, but no synonymous variant, were identified in feline CYP1A2 in 50 alleles of domestic cats in Japan. Metabolic parameters, Km and Vmax, of ethoxyresorufin hydroxylation by CYP1A2 were shown to range within two times for identified non-synonymous variants by using a heterologous coexpression system. The results confirmed the polymorphic nature of CYP1A2 as a basis for effective application of medicines and prevention of adverse reactions in the treatment of domestic cats as well as for hereditary disorders.

  • Souta SUGIYAMA, Yasuhiro UNO, Tomoko AMANO, Takio KITAZAWA, Hiroki TER ...
    論文ID: 19-0107
    発行日: 2019年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2019/05/21
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Knowledge of genetic polymorphisms of cytochrome P450 (CYP), the most important xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme, is very limited in cats. Preliminarily, we investigated genetic polymorphisms in CYP2A13, one of the major CYP isoforms in the liver and lung. Four synonymous and three non-synonymous polymorphic variants were identified in feline CYP2A13 in domestic cats in Japan, without an obvious major type. Metabolic parameters, Km and Vmax, of coumarin hydroxylation of CYP2A13 were shown to range within two times for the identified non-synonymous polymorphic variants by using heterologous coexpression system in Escherichia coli. The results confirmed the polymorphic nature of CYP2A13 as a basis for effective application of medicines and prevention of adverse reactions in treatment of domestic cats.

  • Riki SISWANDI, Ayako YOSHIDA, Hiroyuki SATOH, Nariaki NONAKA
    論文ID: 19-0137
    発行日: 2019年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2019/05/21
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    This study was conducted to elucidate the intestinal dysmotility during coccidiosis. C57BL/6 male mice at seven weeks of age were inoculated with Eimeria pragensis sporulated oocysts (100 to 1,000 oocysts). The intestinal motility was evaluated by observing discharging time of barium sulfate (Ba2SO4) after oral administration (WITT: the whole intestinal transit time). The exact location of the dysmotility was analyzed by intermittent barium gastrography. Upper intestinal dysmotility was evaluated by charcoal propulsion study. Additionally, the occurrence of dysmotility was observed at different post-infection times (4, 7, and 14 days post-infection (d.p.i.)) and in infection-dose dependent manner (100, 300, and 1,000 oocysts). As the E. pragensis infected mice had significantly lower feed intake compared to the control group, we designed a feed apprehension study to evaluate the effect of low feed intake on the intestinal dysmotility. The WITT of infected mice at 7 d.p.i. was significantly longer (6 hr) than the uninfected mice (2.5 hr). Intestinal dysmotility was observed in the small intestine, caecum, and colorectum in the infected mice. Charcoal propulsion was slower in infected group (reaching to 40.4% of the whole small intestine) compared to control group (68.0%). The dysmotility was observed at the beginning of the patent period (7 d.p.i.) and subsided as the patency ended (14 d.p.i.). Mice with lower feed intake appeared to have similar intestinal motility as control mice. In summary, this study revealed the evidence of intestinal hypomotility during E. pragensis infection.

  • Keita IYORI, Kiyohiko INAI, Hidekatsu SHIMAKURA, Takeshi HAGA, Hiromi ...
    論文ID: 19-0136
    発行日: 2019年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2019/05/20
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Persistent papillomatosis on footpads related to canine papillomavirus type 2 (CPV-2) infection has been described in dogs with immunocompromised condition. A 9−year-old, male French bulldog was presented with cauliflower-like nodules on the footpads of his left front leg. Histopathological examination revealed multiple finger-like projections of squamous epithelium with intranuclear inclusion bodies. Immunohistochemistry using an anti-bovine papillomavirus antibody demonstrated immunostaining in the keratinocytes. Partial genome DNA of CPV-2 was amplified from the lesion. Full genome sequence of CPV-2 in the subject showed 99.95% nucleotide identity with that of CPV-2 from the reference data. Two weeks after a biopsy, the skin lesion spontaneously regressed without any specific treatment. In non-immunocompromised dogs, CPV-2-related footpad papillomatosis could spontaneously resolve after a biopsy.

  • Wenchao LI, Xinchao LIU, Youfang GU, Junlong LIU, Jianxun LUO
    論文ID: 19-0111
    発行日: 2019年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2019/05/17
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    The cat is a reported reservoir for several zoonotic pathogens, including Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, and Blastocystis sp. These parasites represent a significant, but often neglected, threat to humans and animals. Furthermore, Tritrichomonas foetus has been described inhabiting the digestive tract of cats, and may be causative agents of gastrointestinal symptoms. However, scant data are available concerning the molecular epidemiology of these parasites in domestic cats in China. This study examined fecal samples from domestic cats in Eastern China to unravel the molecular epidemiology of four protozoans. Of the 346 samples examined, 47 (13.6%) were positive for the detected pathogens, including 8 (2.3%), 5 (1.4%), 2 (0.6%), and 35 (10.1%) samples positive for Cryptosporidium spp., G. duodenalis, Blastocystis sp.,and T. foetus, respectively. Co-infection with Cryptosporidium spp. and T. foetus was detected in three cats, no other mixed infections were observed. No age,sex or fecal condition predisposition was observed with any of the four pathogens. The species/ assemblages/ subtypes/ genotypes were C. felis, Assemblage A and F, ST1, and cat genotype for Cryptosporidium spp., G. duodenalis, Blastocystis sp., and T. foetus detected in this study, respectively. The presence of zoonotic species/ assemblages/ subtypes/ genotypes poses a threat to public health. These findings provide useful information for the design of prevention and control strategies to reduce the burden of protozoal infections in cats.

  • Rina NABETA, Naoki KAMBE, Yuki NAKAGAWA, Shiori CHIBA, Hou XIANTAO, Te ...
    論文ID: 18-0387
    発行日: 2019年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2019/05/16
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    A neutered male Golden Retriever was referred with a 2-week history of dry mouth. Multiple and bilateral enlargement of the lacrimal and salivary glands showing heterogeneous internal enhancement was identified on contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT). Ultrasonographic examination detected multifocal hypoechoic areas within the swollen submandibular salivary glands, which were histopathologically diagnosed as lymphoplasmacytic sialoadenitis. As both imaging and histopathological findings were in accordance with those in human Sjögren’s syndrome, a provisional diagnosis of Sjögren’s-like syndrome was made. Immunosuppressive drugs promptly improved clinical signs concurrently with the abnormal sonographic findings, indicating the feasibility of ultrasonography in monitoring therapeutic outcomes. Herein, we discuss a proposed criteria set for diagnosis of Sjögren’s-like syndrome in veterinary medicine.

  • Yukino MACHIDA, Masaki MICHISHITA, Hisashi YOSHIMURA, Takuya KATO, Shi ...
    論文ID: 18-0616
    発行日: 2019年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2019/05/16
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    A 21-year-old male masked palm civet died after 2 months of continuous abdominal distention and poor appetite. Grossly, both musk glands were markedly swelled. Microscopically, round, polygonal and spindle neoplastic cells proliferated diffusely in the right musk gland and a metastatic focus was observed in the lung. The neoplastic cells had abundant cytoplasm with faintly eosinophilic inclusions that ultrastructurally corresponded to whorl aggregates of intermediate filaments. Immunohistochemically, these cells were positive for vimentin, cytokeratins and glial fibrillary acidic protein and negative for desmin. Based on these findings, the tumor was diagnosed as malignant rhabdoid tumor. Papillary adenoma was seen in the opposite musk gland. T-cell lymphoma of the lymph nodes, small intestine and liver was considered as the cause of death.

  • Dong-Ju PARK, Ju-Bin KANG, Murad-Ali SHAH, Phil-Ok KOH
    論文ID: 19-0094
    発行日: 2019年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2019/05/16
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Quercetin is a plant flavonoid that has anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-ischemic properties. Moreover, quercetin exerts neuroprotective effects against focal cerebral ischemia. Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a form of serine/threonine phosphatase that modulates various biological functions. Among PP2A subunit types, subunit B exists abundantly in brain tissue and plays an essential function in nervous system. We previously reported that the decrease of PP2A subunit B in focal cerebral animal model. This study explored the change of PP2A subunit B expression by quercetin treatment in cerebral ischemic animal model and glutamate-treated hippocampal-derived (HT22) cell culture. Quercetin (10 mg/kg) or vehicle was injected intraperitoneally into male rats before 30 min of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), and cerebral cortices were isolated 24 hr after MCAO. MCAO induced the neurological behavioral deficit and increased infarct volume. However, quercetin treatment attenuated the increase of neurological deficit and infarction. We detected the alleviation of MCAO-induced the decrease in PP2A subunit B by quercetin treatment using a proteomic approach. Reverse-transcription PCR and Western blot analyses confirmed lower PP2A subunit B expression levels in MCAO group with vehicle. However, quercetin treatment attenuated MCAO-induced this reduction. We also observed the neuroprotective effect of quercetin and the change of PP2A subunit B expression in glutamate-exposed HT22 cells. Glutamate exposure dramatically reduced cell viability and PP2A subunit B expression, and quercetin treatment significantly improved these decreases. We clearly showed that quercetin performs a neuroprotective function and modulates down-regulation of PP2A subunit B against MCAO injury and glutamate toxicity. Thus, our finding suggests that the regulation of PP2A subunit B by quercetin contributes to neuroprotective function in ischemic brain injury.

  • Hidetaka NISHIDA, Kohei NAKATA, Sadatoshi MAEDA, Hiroaki KAMISHINA
    論文ID: 18-0521
    発行日: 2019年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2019/05/15
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Thoracolumbar intervertebral disk herniation (TL-IVDH) with caudal articular process anomalies has been reported in Pugs. It currently remains unclear whether congenital caudal articular process aplasia/hypoplasia predisposes to the development of TL-IVDH. However, there are difficulties in proving the causal relationship between caudal articular process anomalies and TL-IVDH. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of TL-IVDH at the vertebral space containing anomalous and normal caudal articular processes in Pugs. Fifty-seven pugs were eligible to be included in this study. Caudal articular process aplasia/hypoplasia affected 52/57 (91.2%) dogs. The caudal articular process anomalies were most frequently located between T10 and T13. Colocalization of caudal articular process aplasia/hypoplasia and TL-IVDH was detected in 11 dogs (19.3%). The prevalence of TL-IVDH at vertebral spaces containing abnormal caudal articular processes was 12.3%, whereas the prevalence of TL-IVDH at vertebral spaces containing normal articular processes was 2.4%. With the increase in the number of vertebrae with caudal articular process anomalies, the prevalence of TL-IVDH also increased. The results of this study suggested the prevalence of caudal articular process anomalies was high in Pugs. The caudal articular process anomalies could be associated with TL-IVDH. A large cohort is needed to prove the causal relationship between caudal articular process anomalies and TL-IVDH.

  • Yuichi MATSUURA, Kohtaro MIYAZAWA, Morikazu IMAMURA, Takashi YOKOYAMA, ...
    論文ID: 18-0710
    発行日: 2019年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2019/05/15
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Atypical scrapie in goats has only been reported in European countries. The present study reports the identification of the first case of atypical scrapie in goats in Japan. The genotype of the animal was ALRQ/ALHQ at codons 136, 141, 154, and 171 in prion protein (PrP). Western blot analysis showed a multiplex proteinase K-resistant prion protein (PrP-res) band pattern with a band <15 kDa that was clearly distinguishable from the triplet PrP-res band pattern observed in classical scrapie cases. Histopathological and immunohistological examination showed mild vacuolation and fine granular to globular immunolabelling of disease-associated PrP in the dorsal horn of cervical spinal cord. Collectively, our results confirmed that this goat was affected by atypical scrapie.

  • Angkhana DERMLIM, Tatsuyuki OSUGA, Kensuke NAKAMURA, Tomoya MORITA, Kh ...
    論文ID: 19-0012
    発行日: 2019年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2019/05/15
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cardiac acute volume loading effect on left atrial (LA) strain and strain rate (SR) parameters derived from two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (2D-STE) in healthy dogs. Six healthy beagles were anesthetized and subjected to increase cardiac preload by intravenous infusion with lactated Ringer solution at 150 ml/kg/hr for 90 min. A Swan-Ganz catheter was placed to directly measure the mean pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP). Echocardiography was performed before (baseline) and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 min after acute volume loading began. Apical 4-chamber images focused on the LA were digitally recorded for later strain and SR analysis via 2D-STE. Acute volume loading significantly increased from baseline during LA strain and SR as assessed by the speckle tracking–based technique during reservoir and conduit function at 15 to 90 min after volume load began, and strain indices representing booster pump function were enhanced at 45 to 90 min. In addition, acute volume loading resulted in a significantly greater PCWP after fluid infusion. On multiple regression analysis, quadratic regression analysis was a better fit for the relationship between PCWP and all LA functional indices. Our findings indicated that LA function analyzed by strain and SR was enhanced during cardiac acute volume loading in healthy dogs. The change in strain and SR during acute volume loading should be interpreted with caution during the diagnosis of heart diseases related to volume overload.

  • Yoriko TSUKAMOTO, Norihide YAMADA, Kenjiro MIYOSHI, Kazuto YAMASHITA, ...
    論文ID: 18-0712
    発行日: 2019年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2019/05/10
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    The anesthetic effects of alfaxalone combined with medetomidine and butorphanol were investigated for ICR, BALB/c, and C57BL/6 mice. Mice were administered a combination of 0.5 or 0.75 mg/kg medetomidine and 5 mg/kg butorphanol with 30 or 40 mg/kg alfaxalone (0.5MBA30, 0.75MBA30 and 0.75MBA40, respectively). The drug combinations were administered subcutaneously and were compared with a widely used combination of 0.3 mg/kg medetomidine, 4 mg/kg midazolam, and 5 mg/kg butorphanol (MMB). All three MBA combinations achieved surgical anesthesia, although the recovery time was longer with 0.75MBA30 and 0.75MBA40 compared with 0.5MBA30. Furthermore, several mice exhibited a considerable jumping reaction immediately after injection with 0.75MBA30 and 0.75MBA40. Therefore, 0.5MBA30 may be suitable for inducing surgical anesthesia in the mouse strains tested. The anesthetic scores for 0.5MBA30 were improved compared with those of MMB in all three mouse strains; however, the body temperature drop in C57BL/6 mice was greater with 0.5MBA30. Our results show that the alfaxalone combination, 0.5MBA30, should allow surgical operations that are more stable in more strains of mice than MMB, although the combination may cause hypothermia, especially in C57BL/6 mice.

  • Yushun ISHIKAWA, Hisashi SAKATA, Yuuri TACHIBANA, Takaharu ITAMI, Nori ...
    論文ID: 18-0618
    発行日: 2019年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2019/05/02
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    To evaluate sedative and physiological effects of low dose intramuscular (IM) alfaxalone, six healthy rabbits were administered single IM doses of alfaxalone at 1mg/kg (IM1), 2.5 mg/kg (IM2.5), or 5 mg/kg (IM5) with a minimum of 7-day washout period. Sedative effects were subjectively evaluated using a composite measure scoring system (maximum sedation score of 16) and pulse rate, respiratory rate, non-invasive blood pressure, and percutaneous oxygen-hemoglobin saturation were measured before and after IM alfaxalone. Loss of righting reflex (LRR) was achieved in all rabbits after IM2.5 and IM5 treatments but in only three rabbits after IM1 treatment. Median (interquartile range) times to LRR were 16 min (15–17), 6 min (6–6), and 4 min (4–4), and median durations of LRR were 0.5 min (0–7), 22.5 min (19–27), and 53 min (48–58) after IM1, IM2.5, and IM5 treatments, respectively. The duration of LRR after IM5 treatment was significantly longer than those after IM1and IM2.5 treatments (P<0.01). Median value of total sedation scores peaked at 10 min [score 3.5 (3–4)], from 10 min [score 13.5 (12–14)] to 15 min [score 13.5 (12–14)], and from 10 min [score 15 (12–15)] to 15 min [score 15 (14–15)] after IM1, IM2.5, and IM5 treatments, respectively. No rabbit showed circulatory depression and apnea although respiratory rate decreased after IM 2.5 and IM5 treatments. In conclusion, alfaxalone produced a dose-dependent sedative effect and a deep sedation was achieved by alfaxalone at 2.5 mg/kg IM in rabbits.

  • Masaru USUI, Akari KAJINO, Michiha KON, Akira FUKUDA, Tomomi SATO, Tak ...
    論文ID: 19-0144
    発行日: 2019年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2019/05/02
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    The emergence and spread of aminoglycoside-resistant bacteria are a public health concern. The acquisition of the genes encoding 16S rRNA methylases, such as armA, rmtA, and rmtB, confers high-level resistance to aminoglycosides. However, the prevalence has not been well investigated in Japanese veterinary fields. To determine the prevalence of 16S rRNA methylases in animals, we detected 16S rRNA methylases genes in Gram-negative bacteria from animals. Here, we report the isolation of rmtB amd armA from two of the 446 Escherichia coli (0.5%) and one of the 103 Klebsiella spp. isolates (1.0%) from companion animals, respectively. However, none of the isolations were observed from 2445 E. coli isolates derived from livestock in Japan. The prevalence of 16S rRNA methylases in animals, especially in companion animals, should be carefully monitored in Japanese veterinary fields to avoid the spreading of the genes.

  • Yuya NAKAMOTO, Takashi UEMURA, Hiroki HASEGAWA, Miwa NAKAMOTO, Tsuyosh ...
    論文ID: 18-0447
    発行日: 2019年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2019/04/30
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Many of the reports summarizing neurological disorders in cats considered only a limited disease group(s). There is only one large-scale survey on neurological disorders in cats based on the histopathological viewpoint. We described the localizations and frequencies of neurological diseases in a large population of cats that were referred to the Kyoto Animal Referral Medical Center between 2009 and 2016. We attempted to determine the localization of lesions at the time of the examination in each case and to classify the disease etiologies of these 276 cats with neurological disorders retrospectively. There were 174 cases with lesions in the brain region, 14 cases with lesions in the cervical cord region, 34 cases with lesions in the thoracolumbar cord region, and 54 cases with lesions in the peripheral neuromuscular region. High morbidity rates were observed in cases of idiopathic epilepsy and intracranial tumor in the brain region, spinal cord infarction in the cervical cord region, spinal cord infarction and spinal cord tumor in the thoracolumbar cord region, and peripheral vestibular dysfunction arising from otitis media/interna in the peripheral neuromuscular region. It was suggested that there is a higher number of brain diseases than spinal cord and peripheral neuromuscular diseases in cats. Idiopathic and neoplastic diseases were common in the brain region, vascular diseases were common in the spinal cord region, and infectious diseases were common in the peripheral neuromuscular region.

  • Yo-Han KIM, Noriyuki TOJI, Keiichiro KIZAKI, Kei TAKEMURA, Shiro KUSHI ...
    論文ID: 18-0659
    発行日: 2019年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2019/04/30
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    We investigated the relationships between ruminal pH, gene expression in the rumen epithelium (RE), peripheral blood mononuclear cell subpopulations, and blood metabolites in Holstein calves during weaning transition. Calves (Weaning group, n=7) were assigned to one of two groups, and fed calf starter with forage (Forage group, n=3) or without forage (Starter group, n=4). Ruminal pH was measured continuously. Samples were collected at –1, 0, 1, and 3 weeks (blood and rumen fluid) or 3 weeks (rumen epithelium) after weaning. In the Weaning group, ruminal pH increased, and several blood metabolites increased (blood urea nitrogen [BUN], beta-hydroxybutyrate [BHB], and gamma-glutamyl transferase [GGT]) or decreased (total cholesterol [T-CHO] and phospholipid) after weaning. Ruminal pH was positively correlated with CD8+CD45R cell populations and blood metabolites (BUN, glucose, and BHB) and negatively correlated with GGT activity. The 24 hr mean ruminal pH was higher in the Forage group during weaning transition, and toll-like receptor 4 mediated signaling pathway was activated in the Starter group at 3 weeks post-weaning. The number of CD8+CD45R cells tended to be higher, and several blood metabolites (glucose, triglycerides, T-CHO, and phospholipid) were higher in the Forage group after weaning. Calves with higher ruminal pH also showed a greater energy metabolism status simultaneously with lesser hepatic disturbance enzymes in the peripheral blood. The results of our study indicate that serum GGT activity may be a plausible biomarker for predicting ruminal acidosis in Holstein calves during weaning transition.

  • Eloiza May S. GALON, Paul Franck ADJOU MOUMOUNI, Rochelle Haidee D. YB ...
    論文ID: 19-0042
    発行日: 2019年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2019/04/29
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Hemotropic mycoplasma (hemoplasma), a neglected vector-borne pathogen in goats, causes extensive economic damage to farmers due to production losses. In this study, 107/295 (36.27%) goats sampled from 4 farms (Barili, Danao City, Dumanjug and Minglanilla) in Cebu, Philippines tested positive for PCR targeting the 16S rRNA gene of Mycoplasma. All hemoplasma-positive goats were from Barili and no clinical sign was observed. Sex (P=0.0005) and age (P=0.03) were found associated with hemoplasma infection. Mycoplasma ovis, Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos, Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum and 3 Uncultured Mycoplasma sp. sequences were identified by sequencing analysis. This is the first report of molecular detection and genetic characterization of hemoplasmas in goats in the Philippines.

  • Kazufumi KASUYA, Nobuyuki TANAKA, Fumi OSHIMA, Nozomi FUJISAWA, Megumi ...
    論文ID: 18-0656
    発行日: 2019年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2019/04/24
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Strangles is a commonly diagnosed and important infectious disease of equids worldwide, caused by Streptococcus equi subsp. equi. We determined the SeM genotypes of S. equi isolated from imported horses at the Japanese border within the past 8 years, which allowed us to classify 12 strains isolated from these horses from each exporter into four allelic groups. These alleles were different from the alleles of past isolates found in Japan. Furthermore, four strains classified into the same allele were isolated from horses from one exporter over several years. In this study, S. equi isolates from different exporters had different SeM alleles. Attention to the hygiene status of farms will be necessary to prevent the incursion of strangles.

  • Tomoyoshi KOMIYA, Hiroko TORINIWA, Takahiro MATSUMURA, Tsutomu TAKEGAM ...
    論文ID: 18-0613
    発行日: 2019年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2019/04/23
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Thirty-seven specimens of wild boar sera were collected from August 2016 to March 2018 in Ishikawa prefecture, Japan. Thirty-two specimens (86.5%) were positive for neutralizing antibodies against Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). Eight specimens (21.6%) were positive for IgM antibodies against JEV. One sample was obtained from a wild boar captured in February during the winter season. Four other serum specimens obtained during the winter season were positive using a JEV gene-specific PCR assay. Based on IgM and PCR assays, wild boars were infected with JEV during the winter season, suggesting that the prevalence of JEV antibodies in wild boars in Ishikawa is high and JEV activity is possible during winter in this region. In addition, wild boars may play an important role in the infection cycle of JEV.

  • Tomomi TAKANO, Shinji YAMADA, Tomoyoshi DOKI, Tsutomu HOHDATSU
    論文ID: 18-0702
    発行日: 2019年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2019/04/23
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) causes a severe, immune-mediated disease called FIP in domestic and wild cats. It is unclear whether FIP transmits from cat to cat through the oral route of FIPV infection, and the reason for this includes that FIP is caused by oral inoculation with some FIPV strains (e.g., type II FIPV WSU 79-1146), but is not caused by other FIPV (e.g., type I FIPV KU-2 strain: FIPV-I KU-2). In this study, when cats passively immunized with anti-FIPV-I KU-2 antibodies were orally inoculated with FIPV-I KU-2, FIP was caused at a 50% probability, i.e., FIPV not causing FIP through oral infection caused FIP by inducing antibody-dependent enhancement. Many strains of type I FIPV do not cause FIP by inoculation through the oral route in cats. Based on the findings of this study, type I FIPV which orally infected cats may cause FIP depending on the condition.

  • Yasunori KOYATA, Kiyoko WATANABE, Toshizo TOYAMA, Haruka SASAKI, Nobus ...
    論文ID: 19-0067
    発行日: 2019年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2019/04/23
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Periodontal disease is a significant problem in companion animals such as dogs and cats. However, there is little information available about fimbriae association of periodontal disease in companion animals. In this study, we have purified and characterized a fimbriae from P. salivosa ATCC 49407. The molecular mass of this protein was approximately 60-kDa, as estimated by SDS-PAGE. Immunogold electron microscopy revealed that anti-60-kDa fimbrial serum bound to fimbria on the cell surface of P. salivosa ATCC 49407. However, fimbriae of P. gingivalis and P. gulae were not labeled with the same antibody. Immunoelectron-microscopic studies and immunoblot analysis revealed that antigenicity and molecular weight were distinct from previously reported Porphyromonas fimbrial proteins. The amino acid sequence of the N-terminal 15 residues of the 60-kDa fimbrillin protein revealed only 3 of 15 residues identical to other Porphyromonas species fimbrillin proteins. Thus, the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the 60-kDa fimbrillin protein of P. salivosa clearly differed from previously reported fimbrillin proteins. The level of adherence of the P. salivosa was 1.81%. It was confirmed that P. salivosa can adheres to human cells. These results suggest that the 60-kDa fimbriaeof P. salivosa ATCC 49407 is a new type of fimbria and may have an important factor in the adherence host cells. We suggest that the surface structure of P. salivosa may have a role in the colonization of this organism in periodontal pockets in companion animals.

  • Aiko IGUCHI, Junichi OOSHIDA, Ikki MITSUI, Naohiro UCHIDA, Saori KOBAY ...
    論文ID: 18-0286
    発行日: 2019年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2019/04/18
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    A 12-year-old, male miniature dachshund has an ulcer on the footpad of the right hind limb. Despite treatment for longer than 6 months, the ulcer did not heal. Biopsy of the lesion was done to make a definitive diagnosis. Histologically, there were lumens containing weakly eosinophilic fluid surrounded by tumor cells with a similar circular pale nucleus and distinct nucleoli that showed some variation in size. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin (AE1/AE3) and vimentin, were negative for S100 and p63. A poorly differentiated eccrine adenocarcinoma was diagnosed. Treatment was started with toceranib, an anti-angiogenic agent, and enlargement of the lesion was not observed during the administration period.

  • Kasumi SUDO, Cuong VAN DAO, Atsushi MIYAMOTO, Mitsuya SHIRAISHI
    論文ID: 19-0059
    発行日: 2018年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2019/04/18
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Mercury (Hg) and cadmium (Cd) are the major toxic heavy metals and are known to induce neurotoxicity. Although many studies have shown that several heavy metals have neurotoxic effects, the cellular and molecular mechanisms thereof are still not clear. Oxidative stress is reported to be a common and important mechanism in cytotoxicity induced by heavy metals. However, the assays for identifying toxic mechanisms were not performed under the same experimental conditions, making it difficult to compare toxic properties of the heavy metals. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms underlying neurotoxicity induced by heavy metals and H2O2, focusing on cell death, cell proliferation, and oxidative stress under the same experimental condition. Our results showed that MeHg caused lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, caspase activation and cell-cycle alteration, and ROS generation in accordance with decreased cell viability. HgCl2 caused LDH release and cell-cycle alteration, but not caspase activation. CdCl2 had a remarkable effect on the cell cycle profiles without induction of LDH release, caspase activation, or ROS generation. Pretreatment with N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) prevented the decrease in cell viability induced by MeHg and HgCl2, but not CdCl2. Our results demonstrate a clear difference in neurotoxic mechanisms induced by MeHg, HgCl2, CdCl2 or H2O2 in SH-SY5Y cells. Elucidating the characteristics and mechanisms of each heavy metal under the same experimental conditions will be helpful to understand the effect of heavy metals on health and to develop a more effective therapy for heavy metal poisoning.

  • Hellen Fialho HARTMANN, Marília Teresa DE OLIVEIRA, João Pedro Scussel ...
    論文ID: 17-0631
    発行日: 2019年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2019/04/17
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Mesothelioma is a very aggressive malignant tumor with low survival rates that is often diagnosed belatedly. Pericardial effusion is a common consequence in cases of mesothelioma, with pericardiocentesis and pericardiectomy indicated; therefor thoracocentesis is necessary to drain the contents no longer retained in the pericardium. The present report describes a mesothelioma – carrying dog with a history of cardiac tamponade that underwent thoracoscopic pericardiectomy and, later, thoracoscopic implantation of a fully implantable catheter to function as a thoracic drain. In the consulted literature, there is no use of a fully implantable catheter for this purpose. The authors consider that there was an improvement in the quality of life.

  • Shotaro NAKAGUN, Kenichi WATANABE, Takashi MATSUISHI, Mari KOBAYASHI, ...
    論文ID: 18-0706
    発行日: 2019年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2019/04/17
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Systemic amyloidosis is rarely reported among cetaceans, and a surveillance dedicated for its occurrence across a certain geographic location has not been reported. Between 2013 and 2018, comprehensive gross and histopathologic examinations were conducted on 54 animals comprising 11 species of stranded and bycaught cetaceans in Hokkaido, Japan. Systemic amyloidosis was diagnosed in 2 out of 3 Stejneger’s beaked whales (Mesoplodon stejnegeri), through Congo red staining and immunohistochemistry for amyloid A. The kidney and gastrointestinal tract had the largest amounts of amyloid deposits, representing a previously undescribed organ distribution in the species. The current study demonstrates the possibility of Stejneger’s beaked whales being prone to the development of systemic amyloidosis, and highlights the need for further investigations.

  • Sooa YOON, Sang-Kwon LEE, Juhwan LEE, Yeong-Bin BAEK, Kyoung-Oh CHO, J ...
    論文ID: 19-0101
    発行日: 2019年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2019/04/17
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    In an 8-year-old Labrador Retriever with progressive anorexia, constipation, and depression, CT revealed intussusception of the cecum into the ascending colon and a small cecal mass showing strong enhancement on arterial phase. The ileocecocolic junction was surgically resected and histologically diagnosed as cecocolic intussusception with carcinoid tumor. The carcinoid tumor worked as a lead point of intussusception in this case. Dual phasic CT is useful to assess the presence of gastrointestinal tumors as lead points in old dogs with intussusception.

  • Kazuhei SAWADA, Akio SUZUKI, Takeshi YAMASAKI, Yoshifumi IWAMARU, Yuic ...
    論文ID: 19-0003
    発行日: 2019年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2019/04/15
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), first identified in 2004, poses a threat due to the potential to spread the disease to cattle and other animals, including humans. Here, we estimated prion titers in various tissues of cattle infected with atypical BSE using a real-time quaking-induced conversion assay that detects amyloid seeding activity of a disease-specific prion protein, PrPSc, a major component of prions. PrPSc was detected both in and outside of nerve tissues, and some of the peripheral nerve tissues contained relatively high prion titers. Low titers of prions were also observed in masseter, jejunum, and adrenal glands. Quantitative data on prion infectivity in tissues of atypical BSE-affected cattle is useful to assess the risk of atypical BSE.

  • Mizuki HAMADA, Tsubasa IHARA, Mitsuhiro FURUSE
    論文ID: 19-0064
    発行日: 2019年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2019/04/15
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats, an animal depression model, display abnormal behaviors such as hypoactivity and depression-like behavior compared with Wistar (WIS) rats as a control. A previous study confirmed a dysfunction of amino acid metabolism in the brain of WKY rats compared with that of WIS rats. At the neonatal stage, free amino acids in milk are important nutrients because they act as immediate nutrients for offspring and may affect later health and behavior of the offspring. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate free amino acid concentrations in milk and the relationships between free amino acid concentrations in milk and plasma in WIS and WKY rats. The concentrations of ten of the determined free amino acids in milk were significantly higher, but only L-methionine was significantly lower, in WKY rats. Six free amino acids had significantly higher concentrations in colostrum and two free amino acids had higher concentrations in matured milk. Free amino acid concentrations in plasma changed by both genetic background and lactation stage; however, the patterns of change in most free amino acid concentrations except for taurine in plasma were similar between WIS and WKY rats. The transport ratio of free amino acids from plasma to milk was not similar among the free amino acids tested, and each free amino acid was influenced by the genetic background and/or the type of milk.

  • Seri SEKI, Kenji TESHIMA, Daisuke ITO, Masato KITAGAWA, Yoshiki YAMAYA
    論文ID: 18-0475
    発行日: 2019年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2019/04/12
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    The present study used data from anesthetic records to analyze variables of intracranial pressure (ICP) during brain tumor surgery or in the early postoperative period as prognostic indicators in dogs. Data from 17 dogs which were scheduled to undergo elective craniotomy for brain tumor surgery from 2009 to 2012 were included. Of these, five (29.4%) died during 14 days after the surgery because of respiratory failure following pneumonia (n=2), euthanasia due to difficulty in treatment of status epilepticus (n=1), tumor-bed hematoma (n=1), and unknown reason (n=1). In the 12 surviving dogs, neurological signs were improved or resolved at discharge. All dogs were administered midazolam and droperidol-fentanyl as premedication. General anesthesia was induced using propofol maintained on isoflurane and oxygen. Direct ICP was obtained via a Codman Microsensor strain gauge transducer. ICP hypertension (>13 mmHg) measured after 15 min of recovery from the moment after discontinuation of anesthesia by turning off the vaporizer dial was associated with poor prognosis (odds ratio, 20.00; 95% confidence interval, 1.39−287.60, P=0.028). This suggests that intracranial pressure influences the postoperative mortality rate in dogs undergoing brain tumor surgery.

  • Taisuke SENOH, Shin OIKAWA, Ken NAKADA, Takayoshi TAGAMI, Tomohito IWA ...
    論文ID: 18-0777
    発行日: 2019年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2019/04/11
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    The purpose of this study is to compare the assessment of pre- and postpartum oxidative stress-related causal indicators and other metabolites in cows with postpartum subclinical ketosis (SCK). The prepartum serum malondialdehyde concentration and body condition score (BCS) were elevated in the SCK cows (n=17) compared to healthy controls (n=12), while the insulin sensitivity check index was lower in the SCK cows than in the controls. Oxidative stress is enhanced in cows with prepartum higher BCS, causing insulin resistance, and may be associated with onset of postpartum SCK. However, paraoxonase alone might be insufficient to assess the antioxidant state because of no difference in pre- and postpartum activities between the two groups.

  • Kaoru HATATE, Nao TSUZUKI, Ayako KAJIHARA, Bhuminand DEVKOTA, Kazuya T ...
    論文ID: 18-0757
    発行日: 2019年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2019/04/10
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    The aim of this study was to examine the treatment outcomes of tibial fracture using different configurations of transfixation pinning and casting (TPC) in eight cattle. After pins were inserted to stabilize the fracture site, cast material was placed from the level of the stifle to the hoof (full TPC) in six cases and from the stifle to the proximal metatarsus (partial TPC) in two cases. Five cattle (three full TPC and two partial TPC cases) underwent TPC removal 36–86 days after surgery and resumed productivity. The other three cattle which underwent full TPC suffered from irreversible orthopedic complications within 5 weeks of surgery, while a prolonged healing process was observed in the partial TPC cases. Although TPC is an effective method for treating bovine tibial fracture, full TPC may result in a guarded prognosis in some cattle. However, partial TPC can delay healing. Surgeons should choose the optimal TPC configuration while considering the various factors that affect the healing process.

  • Yasunori SHINOZUKA, Kazuhiro KAWAI, Akira TAKEDA, Michiaki YAMADA, Fum ...
    論文ID: 19-0035
    発行日: 2019年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2019/04/10
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the therapeutic effects of oxytetracycline (OTC) as a first-line antibiotic in cattle with acute Escherichia coli mastitis and systemic signs.Drug susceptibility was determined by the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of E. coli isolated from cows with acute E. coli mastitis (n=38). Cattle were divided into OTC-susceptible (S, n=30) and OTC-resistant (R, n= 8) groups. They were further subdivided according to susceptibility to the antibiotic used as a second treatment, into susceptible-susceptible (SS, n=30), resistant-susceptible (RS, n=5), and resistant-resistant (RR, n=3) groups. Clinical signs on the day after initial treatment were compared between S and R groups as short-term indicators of treatment effects. The 28-day survival rate of cattle was then compared among SS, RS, and RR groups as a long-term indicator of treatment effects. There were no differences in clinical signs between S and R groups on the day after the first dose, but the 28-day survival rate was significantly greater in the SS group than in the RR group (P=0.04). The results demonstrated that an effective drug is essential for first-line treatment of acute coliform mastitis. However, anticipating the effectiveness of a first-line antibiotic based on clinical symptoms at the second day of treatment is impossible. It is important to build a picture of drug resistance trends in cattle herds for empirical selection of antibiotics to be administered.

  • Yusuke SAKAI, Masato HIYAMA, Saya KAGIMOTO, Yuki MITSUI, Miko IMAIUMI, ...
    論文ID: 18-0450
    発行日: 2019年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2019/04/09
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    An 11-month-old female Japanese Black calf had showed chronic intestinal symptoms. A large mass surrounding the colon wall that was continuous with the colon submucosa was surgically removed. After recurrence and euthanasia, a large mass in the colon region and metastatic masses in the omentum, liver, and lung were revealed at necropsy. Pleomorphic small cells proliferated in the mass and muscular layer of the colon. The cells were positively stained with anti-doublecortin (DCX), PGP9.5, nestin, and neuron specific enolase (NSE). Thus, the diagnosis of peripheral neuroblastoma was made. This is the first report of enteric peripheral neuroblastoma in animals. Also, clear DCX staining signal suggested usefulness of DCX immunohistochemistry to differentiate the neuroblastoma from other small cell tumors in cattle.

  • Rommaneeya LEELA-ARPORN, Hiroshi OHTA, Masahiro TAMURA, Noriyuki NAGAT ...
    論文ID: 18-0673
    発行日: 2019年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2019/04/08
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    A definitive diagnosis of focal liver lesions (FLLs) requires invasive procedures for histopathologic examination. Thus, a simpler noninvasive diagnostic method, such as conventional ultrasonography combined with clinical data, is needed for the prediction of liver malignancy. The objective of this study was to examine the diagnostic accuracy of clinical data and ultrasonographic (US) features to differentiate benign and malignant liver lesions. Medical records and US images from dogs with FLLs that underwent abdominal US and histopathologic examinations following surgery or liver biopsy were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical data, including signalment, clinical signs and laboratory findings, and the US features of liver lesions that could act as predictive factors were assessed using univariate and multivariate analyses to evaluate the associations between predictive factors and liver malignancy. Based on the histopathologic results, 55 dogs with malignant lesions and 28 dogs with benign lesions were included in the study. The results of univariate analysis showed that several US features and platelet count were significantly associated with liver malignancy. Multivariate analysis revealed that the platelet count (thrombocytosis; odds ratio [OR]: 4.13, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.81–9.41), lesion size (4.1 cm or greater; OR: 23.83, 95% CI: 3.74–151.95) and echotexture of FLLs (heterogenous; OR: 8.44; 95% CI: 1.37–51.91) were independent predictors for differentiating benign and malignant liver lesions, suggesting that a combination of clinical data and US findings of FLLs could predict liver malignancy in dogs.

  • Takae KAWAGUCHI, Rina HASHIMOTO, Youko YASUKAWA, Shusaku YAMADA, Arita ...
    論文ID: 18-0772
    発行日: 2019年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2019/04/08
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Maintaining a good ventricular systolic function is important in the long-term therapy of dogs with supraventricular tachyarrhythmia (SVTA). The objective of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of telmisartan on myocardial injury and the resulting ventricular systolic dysfunction in a canine model of SVTA. A total of 14 dogs were randomly assigned to a Telmisartan (oral telmisartan, 1.0 mg/kg daily, n=7) or a Control (no drug administration, n=7) group; the duration of rapid atrial pacing (RAP) was 3 weeks for both groups. The cardiac troponin I (cTnI) concentration in the Control group was significantly increased after 3 weeks compared to that before RAP initiation (baseline), but no significant difference was observed in the Telmisartan group. Moreover, the cTnI concentration at 3 weeks was significantly lower in the Telmisartan group than in the Control group. The left ventricular fractional shortening was significantly decreased at 3 weeks compared to that at baseline in both groups. However, fractional shortening at 3 weeks was significantly higher in the Telmisartan group than in the Control group. The cardiac output values in the Control group were significantly decreased at 3 weeks compared with those at baseline, but no significant difference was observed in the Telmisartan group. This study demonstrates that telmisartan inhibits the reduction in ventricular systolic function and prevents myocardial injury in a canine model of SVTA. Therefore, telmisartan is suggested as a novel treatment for canine SVTA.

  • Woongchul SHIN, Yuko OKAMATSU-OGURA, Shinya MATSUOKA, Ayumi TSUBOTA, K ...
    論文ID: 19-0070
    発行日: 2019年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2019/04/08
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Brown adipocytes, which exist in brown adipose tissue (BAT), are activated by adrenergic stimulation, depending on the activity of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). Beige adipocytes emerge from white adipose tissue (WAT) in response to chronic adrenergic stimulation. We investigated obesity-related changes in responses of both types of adipocytes to adrenergic stimulation in mice. Feeding of mice with high-fat diets (HFD: 45%-kcal fat) for 14 weeks resulted in significantly higher body and WAT weight compared to feeding with normal diets (ND: 10%-kcal fat). Injection with β3-adrenergic receptor agonist CL316,243 (CL; 0.1 mg/kg, once a day) for one week elevated the mRNA and protein expression levels of UCP1 in BAT, irrespective of diet. In WAT, CL-induced UCP1 expression in ND mice; however, the responses to CL treatment were attenuated in HFD mice, indicating that CL-induced browning of WAT was impaired in obese mice. Flow cytometric analysis revealed a significant decrease in platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) α-expressing beige adipocyte progenitors in WAT of HFD mice compared with those of ND mice. Expression of PDGF-B, a PDGFRα ligand, increased in WAT following CL-injection in ND mice, but not in HFD mice. Treatment of mice with a PDGFR inhibitor significantly decreased CL-dependent UCP1 protein induction in WAT. Our study demonstrates that ß3-adrenergic stimulation-dependent beige adipocyte induction in WAT is impaired by obesity in mice, potentially due to obesity-dependent reduction in the number of PDGFRα-expressing progenitors and decreased PDGF-B expression.

  • Marianthi IOANNIDIS, Miyuu TANAKA, Sayaka YASUI, Chiho KEZUKA, Maremic ...
    論文ID: 19-0089
    発行日: 2019年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2019/04/05
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    An 8-year-old female Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) started to show epilepsy-like seizures. Subsequent Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) examinations did not reveal any responsible lesions. The neurological symptoms worsened at the age of 10. This penguin became recumbent and died 6 months later after the apparition of the recumbency. At necropsy, only multiple yellowish necrotic lesions in the air sacs and lungs were found. Histopathological evaluation of the brain showed a marked loss of Purkinje cells and many hypertrophied parvalbumin-positive basket/stellate cells were seen in the cerebellar cortex. Calbindin immunohistochemistry demonstrated disrupted arrangement of dendrites in the Purkinje cells. This case was diagnosed as cerebellar cortical degeneration with a very late onset and a slow progression in a Magellanic penguin.

  • Seong Hun SEOK, Sun Young KANG, Young Bin IM, Han Sang YOO, Seong-Chan ...
    論文ID: 18-0693
    発行日: 2019年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2019/04/02
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    In this study, we used multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to determine the sex of leopard cats (Prionailurus bengalensis euptilurus) in Korea. When we applied PCR using primers based on the intronic region between ZFX and ZFY, only one DNA band of 143 bp was detected in females, compared with two specific bands of 143 and 310 bp in males, indicating that the band patterns were clearly different between females and males. Since the set of primers also proved compatible with tissue and fecal samples, the results of the present study demonstrate that the present PCR could be a convenient tool for identifying the sex of leopard cats.

  • Yohei MOCHIZUKI, Ryohei SUZUKI, Yuyo YASUMURA, Takahiro SAITO, Takahir ...
    論文ID: 18-0718
    発行日: 2019年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2019/04/02
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Beta-blockers are used to treat cats with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM). However, there are various hemodynamic responses to beta-blockers. This retrospective study aimed to explore the relationship between the response to carvedilol and the presence of geometric abnormalities. Medical records were reviewed for 16 cats diagnosed with HOCM. Cats were divided into two groups based on the velocity of the left-ventricular outflow-tract after carvedilol treatment (responder: eight cats, non-responder: eight cats). Baseline intergroup comparison revealed that anterior mitral valve leaflet length and diastolic left-ventricular posterior-wall thickness were significantly greater in the non-responder group. Longer anterior mitral valve leaflet and thicker left-ventricular posterior-wall may cause poor response to carvedilol. Thus, these properties may predict a lack of response to carvedilol therapy.

  • Hiro HORIKIRIZONO, Kumiko ISHIGAKI, Takao AMAHA, Keigo IIZUKA, Takahir ...
    論文ID: 18-0575
    発行日: 2019年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2019/03/29
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    This study investigated the direct effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) on canine-derived vascular endothelial cells (VECs). VECs were isolated and cultured from canine arteries and veins. The mRNA expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2, cyclooxygenase-2, and natriuretic peptide receptor 1 were detected in the cultured VECs. The viability of the cultured VECs was reduced in a dose-dependent manner by meloxicam, carprofen, and robenacoxib. By contrast, dose escalations of ANP had only marginal influence on the viability of cultured VECs. NSAIDs may potentially serve as not only analgesic agents against cancerous and perioperative pain but also as adjuvant anti-angiogenic drugs in dogs with malignant tumors.

  • Yukihisa MATSUDA, Yoshiko SHIBATA, Keita BASAKI, Yasuyoshi FUKUDA, Nao ...
    論文ID: 18-0758
    発行日: 2019年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2019/03/27
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    The present study was conducted to reveal characteristic features of albino large rabbit (JW-AKT) which we formerly established a specific pathogen-free (SPF) colony. Body weights of JW-AKT rabbit at 52 weeks old was 5.7 ± 0.4 kg in males and 6.4 ± 0.4 kg in females. Weight of body, heart, lung and kidney in JW-AKT rabbit was significantly higher than in Japanese white and New Zealand white rabbits in both sexes. Though the body weight (BW) was rather lower in males, body length and brain weights tended to be higher in males than in females. Since body fat was significantly higher in females, what affects difference in BW is body fat, rather than the physical constitution of female JW-AKT rabbit. No critical sex difference was found in hematological parameters in JW-AKT rabbit. The results indicated that JW-AKT were about 1.5 times larger than the general laboratory rabbits with common properties in hematology. Thus, JW-AKT rabbit could be used as a novel SPF experimental animal model with some advantages in surgical experiments or collection of large amount of biological specimen.

  • Konomu NAGAO, Ryohei MAKINO, Francis Victor APEGO, Hirohisa MEKATA, Wa ...
    論文ID: 19-0009
    発行日: 2019年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2019/03/27
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    BLV causes enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL), a condition that threatens the sustainability of the livestock industry. A fluorescent loop-mediated isothermal amplification (fLAMP) assay targeting BLV env sequences was developed and used to evaluate 100 bovine blood samples. Compared with a conventional real-time PCR (rPCR) assay, the fLAMP assay achieved 87.3% (62/71) sensitivity and 100% (29/29) specificity. The rPCR assay took 65 min, while the fLAMP assay took 8 min to 30 min from the beginning of DNA amplification to final judgement with a comparable limit of detection. The fLAMP is a potential tool for the rapid and simple diagnosis of BLV infection to supplement ELISA testing and can be used by local laboratories and slaughterhouses without special equipment.

  • Xin WANG, Ying BI, Xuhua RAN, Xiaodan TONG, Hongbo NI, Xiaobo WEN
    論文ID: 19-0041
    発行日: 2019年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2019/03/27
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1), a member of the Alphaherpesvirinae, causes a variety of diseases, which result in significant economic losses worldwide. Envelope glycoprotein gD of BoHV-1 plays an important role in viral entry into the permissive cells, and protective immune response. The fine mapping epitope on the gD glycoprotein will contribute to the understanding of viral pathogenesis and development of alternative vaccines against various diseases associated with BoHV-1. We previously reported the preparation of a monoclonal antibody (MAb) 2B6, which was raised by a truncated recombinant gD protein, demonstrating a neutralizing activity against BoHV-1 infection in Madin–Darby bovine kidney cells. This study described the identification of a linear B-cell epitope on gD glycoprotein using MAb 2B6. A series of partially overlapping gD proteins with glutathione S-transferase tag were generated to define the epitope recognized by MAb 2B6. The amino acid (aa) sequence 323GEPKPGPSPDADRPE337 was recognized by MAb 2B6 using Western blot with the variedly truncated recombinant proteins. Importantly, this epitope was highly conserved among the typical members of BoHV-1, indicating that the epitope may be utilized in diagnosis of diseases due to BoHV-1 infection. Furthermore, the minimal linear epitope sequence 323GEPKPGP329 on gD recognized by MAb 2B6 was confirmed using single-aa residue deletion mutation in carboxyl terminal. This finding not only contributes to our understanding of gD glycoprotein of BoHV-1 virion but also shows a potential for the development of vaccine candidates and diagnostic techniques.

  • Wanchart YIPPADITR, Atthaporn ROONGSITTHICHAI
    論文ID: 18-0571
    発行日: 2019年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2019/03/26
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    This is the first study of using sublingual mucosae to establish a new urination passage in male cats suffering from complications from prior urethrostomy. In total, five domestic male cats afflicted with various complications, such as urethra stricture, scalding dermatitis, and urinary tract infection, after urethrostomy were included in the study. Sublingual mucosa was harvested to graft with abdominal muscles and further made into a tube connecting with the remaining urethra of the bladder at the cranial end and with the prepuce at the caudal end, serving as a new passage for urination. Postoperatively, all cats were alive and well recovered with no complications both in the oral cavity and at the surgical site. Radiography with contrast medium at two weeks and six months after surgery showed no leakage, stricture, or abnormality of the new urination passage. Moreover, all cats were able to urinate from the prepuce without any difficulty or signs of discomfort.

  • Ayumi MIURA, Tomomi KURUMISAWA, Rui KANO, Takaaki ITO, Kazuyuki SUZUKI ...
    論文ID: 18-0649
    発行日: 2019年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2019/03/26
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the bacterial flora in the udder and intestinal environments in cows with and without protothecal mastitis. We used next-generation sequencing (NGS) analysis to identify 16S rRNA genes from bacterial flora present in 13 milk and 13 fecal samples from protothecal mastitic and healthy dairy cows in the Aichi region of Japan. Sequences associated with 5 species (Calothrix desertica, Corynebacterium simulans, Corynebacterium striatum, Empedobacter falsenii, and Rothia endophytica) showed the highest prevalence in samples of milk and feces from animals with protothecal mastitis. This range of species differed from those detected in the milk and feces from healthy cows.

  • Jun HAYASHI, Konosuke OTOMARU, Masaya HIRATA, Shingo ISHIKAWA, Tomonob ...
    論文ID: 18-0761
    発行日: 2019年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2019/03/26
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the distribution of marbofloxacin (MBFX) within the bronchoalveolar region of calves. Four clinically healthy calves were intramuscularly injected with a single dose of MBFX (2 mg/kg). Samples of plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were obtained for each calf at 0 (before administration), 1, 2, 6 and 24 hr after injection of MBFX. The injections and series of sample collections were conducted and repeated again after two weeks. The results show that the MBFX concentrations in the pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (ELF) were significantly higher than that in plasma and in alveolar cells at 2hr after injection (P<0.05). For concentrations of MBFX within the ELF, the mean area under the MBFX concentration curve calculated during the 0 to 24 hr timeframe (AUC0-24) was significantly higher than the mean determined from samples collected from the plasma (P<0.05). These results suggest that intramuscularly injected MBFX was well distributed in the bronchoalveolar region.

  • Shuichiro KANAI, Takuro SHIMADA, Takanori NARITA, Ken OKABAYASHI
    論文ID: 19-0049
    発行日: 2019年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2019/03/26
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Phosphofructokinase-1 (EC:2.7.1.11, PFK-1) catalyzes the phosphorylation of fructose 6-phosphate to fructose 1,6-bisphosphate using adenosine triphosphate and is a key regulatory enzyme of glycolysis. Mammalian PFK-1 isozymes are composed of three kinds of subunits (PFK-M, -L, and -P), with different properties. It has been suggested that the proportion of PFK-1 subunits in different organs is based on the organ energy metabolism. In this study, we analyzed the activity and subunit composition of canine PFK-1. We found that, in dogs, the skeletal muscle only has PFK-M, the liver mainly has PFK-L, and the brain expresses all of them. The knowledge of the composition of PFK-1 could provide useful information for determination of the differences in glycolysis in various organs of dogs.

  • Felipe F. NASCIMENTO, Vírginia I. MARQUES, Giulianne C. CROCIOLLI, Gab ...
    論文ID: 18-0744
    発行日: 2019年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2019/03/25
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of laser acupuncture and electroacupuncture on postoperative pain and analgesic requirements in cats. In a prospective, randomized and blinded clinical study, thirty cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy were sedated with intramuscular (IM) ketamine (5 mg/kg), midazolam (0.5 mg/kg), and tramadol (2 mg/ kg). Before the induction of anesthesia, the animals were randomly distributed into three groups of ten cats each: LA: bilateral Stomach 36 (ST-36) and Spleen 6 (SP-6) acupoints were stimulated with an infrared laser; EA: bilateral ST-36 and SP-6 acupoints were stimulated with an electrical stimulus; Control: no acupuncture was applied. Postoperative analgesia was evaluated in the first 24 hr post-extubation using the Interactive Visual Analogue Scale and UNESP-Botucatu Multidimensional Composite Pain Scale. Rescue analgesia was provided with IM tramadol (2 mg/kg), and the pain scores were reassessed 30 min after the rescue intervention. If the analgesia remained insufficient, meloxicam (0.2 mg/kg IM, single dose) was administered. Data were analyzed using t-tests, the Mann-Whitney U test, and Friedman test. P<0.05 was considered significant. The pain scores did not significantly differ between the treatment groups at any time point (P>0.05). The prevalence of rescue analgesia was significantly higher in the Control group than in the LA and EA groups (P=0.033). Preoperative laser and electroacupuncture reduced the need for rescue analgesia during the first 24 hr after ovariohysterectomy.

  • Tsutomu TAKEDA, Hiromi FUJITA, Masumi IWASAKI, Moe KASAI, Nanako TATOR ...
    論文ID: 18-0572
    発行日: 2019年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2019/03/20
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    An assessment of acari (tick and mite) borne diseases was required to support development of risk management strategies in rural areas. To achieve this objective, blood samples were mainly collected from rural residents participating in hunting events. Out of 1,152 blood samples, 93 were positive against acari-borne pathogens from 12 prefectures in Japan. Urban areas had a lower rate of positive antibodies, whereas mountainous farming areas had a higher positive antibody prevalence. Residents of mountain areas were bitten by ticks or mites significantly more often than urban residents. Resident of mountain areas, including hunters, may necessary to be educated for prevention of akari-borne infectious diseases.

  • Kazuki OKADA, Yumiko KAGAWA
    論文ID: 19-0037
    発行日: 2019年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2019/03/12
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    A 9-year-old castrated male cat presented with sudden onset of paralysis in four limbs. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an intramedullary lesion at C3, and lesions in the vermis and right hemisphere of the cerebellum, which were hyperintense on T2-weighted imaging. The cat was euthanized, and postmortem examination was performed. Grossly, transverse sectioning of the spinal cord revealed areas of malacia within the gray matter extending from C2 to C3. Histologically, the ventral spinal artery, the spinal intramedullary arteries and the arterioles of arachnoid in the cerebellum contained fibrocartilaginous emboli confirmed by metachromatic staining with toluidine blue. To our knowledge, this is the first report of fibrocartilaginous embolism involving both the cerebellum and cervical spinal cord in a cat.

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