Aims of our study were to evaluate the feasibility and diagnostic value of two-dimensional shear wave elastography in dogs with acute kidney injury, chronic kidney disease, and acute on chronic kidney disease, its correlation with renal functional (creatinine, urea), and prognostic parameters (serum calcium-phosphorus product, urinary output), and with contrast-enhanced ultrasound (qualitative and quantitative evaluation). The study was prospective. A group of healthy (Group A) and a group of nephropathic dogs (Group B) were included. Shear wave elastography was performed on the left kidney of the subjects of both groups; contrast-enhanced ultrasound was performed only in dogs with acute kidney injury and acute on chronic kidney disease. Sixty-four dogs were included (Group A, n=24; Group B, n=40). The renal stiffness values were significantly higher in Group B than Group A; optimal cut-off stiffness values for detection of renal pathology were: ≥1.51 m/sec (area under the curve, 0.84; 95% confidence interval 0.74–0.94) and ≥6.75 kPa (area under the curve, 0.84; 95% confidence interval 0.73–0.94). For contrast-enhanced ultrasound, a significant positive correlation was found between renal stiffness, area under the curve, and wash-out area under the curve values of cortex quantitative analysis. No correlations were found between renal stiffness and renal functional and prognostic parameters. Shear wave elastography showed diagnostic utility to detect renal abnormalities in dogs with acute kidney injury, chronic kidney disease and acute on chronic kidney disease, however, it could not differentiate between these different nephropathies.
A 7-year-old female sugar glider showed a well-defined, homogeneous, hypoechoic mass in the caudal abdominal cavity on ultrasound. Exploratory laparotomy revealed both uteri were severely dilated by viscous, purulent exudate. The patient underwent ovariohysterectomy with removal of bilateral vaginal canals. Antibiotic therapy was initiated postoperatively. Histopathological findings were consistent with suppurative metritis, leading to a clinical diagnosis of pyometra. Despite abscess formation in the uterine stump or central vaginal canal and bilateral renal pelvic/ureter dilations postoperatively, the sugar glider survived more than 270 days. Unfortunately, surgical and medical treatments performed in this case did not prove curative. The outcome of this case highlights the importance of further accumulation of cases to define more appropriate therapies for pyometra in sugar gliders.
The aim of this study was to compare the intra and postoperative analgesic effects of sacrococcygeal epidural levobupivacaine with those of lumbosacral levobupivacaine in feline ovariohysterectomy. Thirty-six cats were premedicated with intramuscular acepromazine (0.05 mg/kg) and meperidine (6 mg/kg). Anesthesia was induced with intravenous propofol and maintained with isoflurane in oxygen. The cats were randomly assigned one of the three treatments receiving 0.33% levobupivacaine (0.3 mL/kg) into the sacrococcygeal (S-C group, n=12) or lumbosacral (L-S group, n=12) epidural space, or the same volume of 0.9% saline solution into one of the epidural approaches (Control group, n=12). Intraoperatively, cardiorespiratory variables, end-tidal isoflurane concentration (FE´ISO), and fentanyl requirements were recorded. Postoperative pain was assessed by the UNESP (Universidade Estadual Paulista)-Botucatu multidimensional composite pain scale and the Glasgow feline composite measure pain scale up to 8 hr post-extubation. Morphine was administered as rescue analgesia. Overall FE´ISO and fentanyl requirements were lower in the L-S and S-C compared to the Control (P=0.002–0.048, respectively). There was no significant difference in the cardiorespiratory variables during anesthesia, postoperative pain and rescue analgesia among groups. The time to standing after anesthesia was prolonged in the L-S and S-C groups than in the Control (P<0.001). Lumbosacral and sacrococcygeal epidural levobupivacaine resulted in similar decreases in isoflurane requirements and intraoperative fentanyl supplementation in the cats, with no postoperative benefits.
Cold agglutinin disease, one of the serological classifications of immune-mediated hemolytic anemia, is caused by the production of autoantibodies that react with erythrocytes at low temperatures. A captive bottlenose dolphin presented with regenerative and hemolytic anemia. Anticoagulated whole blood was agglutinated at room temperature (approximately 18°C), with reversal of agglutination on warming to 37°C, indicating the presence of cold agglutinin. Based on these findings, this animal was diagnosed with cold agglutinin disease. Clindamycin, doxycycline, and prednisolone were administered orally to treat the infection and immune-mediated hemolytic anemia. Anemia gradually improved after initiation of pharmacotherapy, and erythrogenesis slowed as erythroblasts disappeared and reticulocyte count decreased in peripheral blood. This represents the first report of cold agglutinin disease in a cetacean.
Cellular senescence is a highly stable state associated with cell cycle arrest, that is elicited in response to various stresses. The accumulation of senescent cells in tissues drives age-related diseases. Recent studies have shown that the cellular senescence enhances an extracellular vesicles (EV) secretion. EV are lipid-bilayer-capsuled particles released by various cells mediating cell-to-cell communication. It was recently reported that EV secreted by the senescent cells had several functions such as cancer cell proliferation and immune cell activation. In the present study, we investigated whether senescent cardiac fibroblasts-derived EV play an autocrine/paracrine role in the heart cells. Neonatal rat cardiac fibroblasts (NRCFs) were treated with doxorubicin (DOX) to induce cellular senescence. EV were isolated from NRCFs culture media. The vehicle-treated NRCFs-derived EV (D0-EV, 72 hr) increased a living cell number in NRCFs, which was attenuated by DOX (1,000 nM)-treated NRCFs-derived EV (D103-EV, 72 hr). While D0-EV did not affect protein concentration in NRCFs, D103-EV decreased it. Furthermore, D103-EV significantly increased a ratio of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)-II to LC3-I in NRCFs, indicating an induction of autophagy. In addition, D103-EV increased phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate-activated kinase (AMPK)α in NRCFs. In neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, however, NRCFs-derived EV (72 hr) had no effect on the living cell number, protein concentration, and ratio of LC3-II to LC3-I. In conclusion, we for the first time revealed that DOX-induced senescent NRCFs-derived EV induce autophagy in NRCFs perhaps partly through the activation of AMPKα.
To evaluate the immune enhancement effect of the extracellular polysaccharide of Lactobacillus plantarum on oprH recombinant subunit vaccine from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a recombinant subunit vaccine of oprH (rOprH vaccine) was developed. The EP-rOprH vaccine was prepared with the extracellular polysaccharide of L. plantarum as an adjuvant. Mice were vaccinated with the rOprH and EP-rOprH vaccines, and the outer membrane protein (OMP) and inactivated vaccines were used as controls. The levels of serum antibody, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin (IL-2), and IL-4 were determined after vaccination. Finally, the protective efficacy of the vaccine was evaluated after challenge with virulent P. aeruginosa. Following vaccination, the serum antibody levels were significantly higher in mice vaccinated with the EP-rOprH vaccine than in those vaccinated with the rOprH vaccine (P<0.05). Moreover, the serum antibody levels detected in the EP-rOprH vaccine group were similar to those detected in the OMP vaccine group when P. aeruginosa suspension was used as the coating antigen. However, the levels in the EP-rOprH vaccine group were higher than those in the OMP vaccine and inactivated vaccine groups when the purified rOprH protein was used as the coating antigen (P<0.05). The level of IFN-γ, IL-2, and IL-4 in mice vaccinated with the EP-rOprH vaccine was significantly higher than that in mice vaccinated with the rOprH vaccine (P<0.05) and comparable to that in mice vaccinated with the OMP vaccine. The protective rates were 65%, 80%, 80%, and 95% with the rOprH, EP-rOprH, OMP, and inactivated vaccines, respectively. Thus, the extracellular polysaccharide of L. plantarum significantly enhanced the immune response and protection provided by the recombinant subunit vaccine of oprH.
Though lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) shows a variety of regulatory roles in reproduction, its action mechanisms in the gestational organs are still largely unknown. We here characterized cellular distribution of its six kinds of specific receptors (LPA1-6) in rat uteri by immunohistochemistry and quantitatively analyzed changes in Lpar1-6 mRNAs expression throughout pregnancy. Among LPA1-6, evident expression of LPA3, LPA4, and LPA6 was immunologically detected and less expression of immunoreactive LPA1 and LPA2 was also found. Luminal and glandular epithelial cells, stromal cells, and myometrial cells are sites of positive immunoreactions, and they are all likely to express three or more subtypes. All of Lpar1-6 mRNAs were expressed, and their alterations were variable depending on subtypes and gestational age. The present information suggests that diverse actions of LPA in the uterus involve varied expression of LPA receptors dependent on tissue/cell types, receptor subtype(s), and organ reproductive states and helps to understand uterine biology of LPA.
Many parasite species migrate to another site of infection after entering the host body. Such parasite dynamics are closely related to pathogenicity, but it is not easy to observe such parasite behavior deep within the organs. In recent years, technology that can make organs transparent has been developed that enables us to observe deep within organs ex vivo while maintaining their three-dimensional structure. This review describes a series of attempts to apply this technology to understand the behavior of Toxoplasma gondii in the host body. A series of studies has shown that T. gondii tachyzoites that infect leukocytes can reach target organs far from the site of invasion via the circulatory system. In addition, infected leukocytes in the bloodstream adhere more readily to vascular endothelial cells than uninfected leukocytes and are more likely to remain inside the target organs. When infected leukocytes adhere to the vascular endothelial cells of the target organ, the tachyzoites inside the cells immediately escape and infect the parenchyma of the organs. As described above, organ transparency technology is a powerful tool for understanding the internal dynamics of parasites.
In the winter of 2021–2022, multiple subtypes (H5N8 and H5N1) of high pathogenicity avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) were confirmed to be circulating simultaneously in Japan. Here, we phylogenetically and antigenically analyzed HPAIVs that were isolated from infected wild birds, an epidemiological investigation of affected poultry farms, and our own active surveillance study. H5 subtype hemagglutinin (HA) genes of 32 representative HPAIV isolates were classified into clade 184.108.40.206b lineage and subsequently divided into three groups (G2a, G2b, and G2d). All H5N8 HPAIVs were isolated in early winter and had HA genes belonging to the G2a group. H5N1 HPAIVs belong to the G2b and G2d groups. Although G2b viruses were widespread throughout the season, G2d viruses endemically circulated in Northeast Japan after January 2022. Deep sequence analysis showed that the four HPAIVs isolated at the beginning of winter had both N8 and N1 subtypes of neuraminidase genes. Environmental water-derived G2a HPAIV, A/water/Tottori/NK1201-2/2021 (H5N8), has unique polymerase basic protein 1 and nucleoprotein genes, similar to those of low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses (LPAIVs). These results indicate that multiple H5 HPAIVs and LPAIVs disseminated to Japan via transboundary winter migration of wild birds, and HPAIVs with novel gene constellations could emerge in these populations. Cross-neutralization test revealed that G2a H5N8 HPAIVs were antigenically distinct from a G2b H5N1 HPAIV, suggesting that antibody pressure in wild birds was involved in the transition of the HPAIV groups during the season.
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare skin tumor that shares a similar immunophenotype with Merkel cells, although its origin is debatable. More than 80% of human MCC cases are associated with Merkel cell polyomavirus infections and viral gene integration. Recent studies have shown that the clinical and pathological characteristics of feline MCC are comparable to those of human MCC, including its occurrence in aged individuals, aggressive behavior, histopathological findings, and the expression of Merkel cell markers. More than 90% of feline MCC are positive for the Felis catus papillomavirus type 2 (FcaPV2) gene. Molecular changes involved in papillomavirus-associated tumorigenesis, such as increased p16 and decreased retinoblastoma (Rb) and p53 protein levels, were observed in FcaPV2-positive MCC, but not in FcaPV2-negative MCC cases. These features were also confirmed in FcaPV2-positive and -negative MCC cell lines. The expression of papillomavirus E6 and E7 genes, responsible for p53 degradation and Rb inhibition, respectively, was detected in tumor cells by in situ hybridization. Whole genome sequencing revealed the integration of FcaPV2 DNA into the host feline genome. MCC cases often develop concurrent skin lesions, such as viral plaque and squamous cell carcinoma, which are also associated with papillomavirus infection. These findings suggest that FcaPV2 infection and integration of viral genes are involved in the development of MCC in cats. This review provides an overview of the comparative pathology of feline and human MCC caused by different viruses and discusses their cell of origin.
Postoperative ileus (POI) is a surgical complication that induces emesis and anorexia. Fuzapladib (FUZ), an inhibitor of leukocyte-function-associated antigen type 1 (LFA-1) activation, a leukocyte adhesion molecule, exerts anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting leukocyte migration into the inflammatory site. In this study, we examined the prophylactic impact of FUZ on POI in a mouse model. POI model mice were generated by intestinal manipulation, and the effect of FUZ on intestinal transit and the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the ileal muscularis externa was assessed. The increased number of macrophages was significantly suppressed by FUZ, whereas the infiltration of neutrophils into the ileal muscularis externa was not sufficiently inhibited in the POI model mice. Additionally, FUZ did not ameliorate delayed gastrointestinal transit in POI model mice. In conclusion, our results suggest that FUZ does not improve delayed gastrointestinal transit but partially inhibits inflammation in the ileal muscularis externa in POI model mice. FUZ may be a potential anti-inflammatory agent for the management of post-surgical inflammation.
To our knowledge, ours is the first case of applying a 3D-printed prosthetic beak to an Oriental stork (Ciconia boyciana). A stork in captivity underwent several surgeries for beak fractures, but the lower-mandible fractures failed to be repaired. Therefore, we applied a patient-specific beak prosthesis of titanium alloy and nylon. Because the prosthetic beak could not be maintained due to mandible and soft-tissue inflammation, the stork was euthanized. Still, we confirmed typical behavior and feeding for ~3 months after surgery. This report highlights some of the challenges we encountered and identifies process improvements required for a more successful surgery.
Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin is a cattle-adapted serovar, and some infected cattle can become asymptomatic carriers. Identification of carrier animals is important for preventing the spread of infection within a farm, but low diagnostic sensitivity of the fecal culture method is problematic. In this study, we investigated isolation methods of four S. enterica Dublin strains. Selective enrichment using the tetrathionate broth showed better performance than Rappaport-Vassiliadis R10 broth, but one of the strains was not detectable. Since isolation of such strains by selective enrichment can be difficult, we designed a method using immuno-plates that concentrates S. enterica Dublin by antigen-antibody reaction. Our method is able to detect approximately 200 clony-forming units of S. enterica Dublin in 0.1 g of cattle feces. If S. enterica Dublin was isolated from cattle with clinical signs, the method to identify carriers in the farm should be based on the growth kinetics of the target S. enterica Dublin strain.
A 15-year-old, spayed female, Scottish Straight cat without any traumatic history was presented with swollen abdomen and diagnosed as an abdominal wall hernia. Abdominal ultrasound revealed thickened, irregular, and hypoechoic change of abdominal wall muscle adjacent to defect. During the herniorrhaphy, multiple nodules were identified in the subcutaneous tissue around the defect. Histological examination of the nodular tissue was performed, and it was confirmed as mammary gland tumor. After the surgery, metastatic changes of the pancreas were identified, and pleural effusion and ascites were also confirmed. The patient deteriorated rapidly and died 78 days after the surgery. This is the first case presenting abdominal wall hernia induced by malignant tumor in veterinary medicine.
Advanced imaging techniques under general anesthesia are frequently employed to achieve a definitive diagnosis of canine nasal diseases. However, these examinations may not be performed immediately in all cases. This study aimed to construct prediction models for canine nasal diseases using less-invasive examinations such as clinical signs and radiography. Dogs diagnosed with nasal disease between 2010 and 2020 were retrospectively investigated to construct a prediction model (Group M; GM), and dogs diagnosed between 2020 and 2021 were prospectively investigated to validate the efficacy (Group V; GV). Prediction models were created using two methods: manual (Model 1) and LASSO logistic regression analysis (Model 2). In total, 103 and 86 dogs were included in GM and GV, respectively. In Model 1, the sensitivity and specificity of neoplasia (NP) and sino-nasal aspergillosis (SNA) were 0.88 and 0.81 in GM and 0.92 and 0.78 in GV, respectively. Those of non-infectious rhinitis (NIR) and rhinitis secondary to dental disease (DD) were 0.78 and 0.88 in GM and 0.64 and 0.80 in GV, respectively. In Model 2, the sensitivity and specificity of NP and SNA were 0.93 and 1 in GM and 0.93 and 0.75 in GV, respectively. Those of NIR and DD were 0.96 and 0.89 in GM and 0.80 and 0.79 in GV, respectively. This study suggest that it is possible to create a prediction model using less-invasive examinations. Utilizing these predictive models may lead to appropriate general anesthesia examinations and treatment referrals.
A 31-month-old Holstein dairy cow aborted at 224 days of gestation with ejection of cheese-like lochia. Citrobacter koseri, which commonly exists in the normal flora of human and animal digestive tracts, was isolated from aborted fetal tissues (liver, spleen, kidney, heart, lung, cerebrum, and skeletal muscle) and fetal membranes. Histopathological examination revealed suppurative fibrinous meningoencephalitis of the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brainstem; suppurative bronchopneumonia; suppurative chorioamnionitis; and fibrous splenic serositis. Numerous gram-negative bacilli were detected in the cytoplasm of macrophages and/or neutrophils in these lesions. Bacteriological investigation and immunohistochemical staining identified the bacilli as C. koseri. This is the first report ofcattle abortion caused by C. koseri infection in dairy cattle.
Providing a method to detect avian lymphocytes by immunohistochemistry (IHC) would be helpful for analyzing immune function and diagnosing diseases in birds. In this study, we comprehensively examined the immunohistochemical identification of avian T and B lymphocytes in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues from 53 avian species across 15 orders, using eight commercially available lymphocyte markers. T lymphocytes from all 53 avian species tested were specifically detected by IHC using the anti-CD3 antibody (clone F7.2.38). The appropriate antibody for detecting avian B lymphocytes in IHC varied depending on the avian species. B lymphocytes were specifically labeled by IHC in 46 of 53 avian species (86.8%) using any of seven B cell markers. The anti-PAX5 antibody (clone SP34) immunohistochemically detected B lymphocytes from the majority of avian species (41 out of 53 species), excluding those in the orders Falconiformes (falcons) and Passeriformes (oscines). The anti-BAFF-R antibody (clone 2C4) proved suitable for detecting B lymphocytes in the orders Galliformes (landfowls) and Anseriformes (waterfowls) in IHC. Caution is advised when using the anti-BLA36 (clone A27-42) and two anti-CD20 (clone L26 and product No. PA5-16701) antibodies, which are commonly used as B cell markers in mammals, for detecting avian B lymphocytes. These antibodies reacted with cells located in both T and B cell areas in certain avian species. The anti-Bu-1a/b (clone AV20) and anti-CD79a (clone HM57) antibodies were found not to bind to B lymphocytes in various avian species in IHC.
As the majority of antimicrobial treatments for cattle in Japan are prescribed by veterinarians, medical record information can be useful in clarifying the amount and purpose of antimicrobial use. In this study, we examined their amount and purpose in cattle practices in Gifu Prefecture. In cattle, approximately 85% of the antimicrobials are used for the treatment of gastrointestinal (50.4%) and respiratory diseases (34.4%). The main antimicrobials were sulfonamides (27.1 kg, 49.2%), followed by amphenicols (11.9 kg, 21.7%). As for second-line antimicrobials for veterinary treatment, fluoroquinolones, a third-generation cephalosporins, and 15 membered-ring macrolides, accounted for 5.6%, 0.1%, and 0.9% of all antimicrobials, respectively. Thus, medical record information may represent the actual situation of not only antimicrobial use, but also the significance of the disease in local regions.
A 131-day-old male Japanese Black calf presented with a swollen right cheek from birth. Imaging examination revealed a cyst under the right buccal area and debris-containing fluid inside the cyst, and puncture aspiration revealed a mildly cloudy fluid containing hair and tissue fragments. Histological examination of the excised cyst revealed stratified squamous epithelium with skin appendages in the cyst wall, which was diagnosed as a dermoid cyst. In addition, some submandibular gland tissue was found within the cyst wall. After removal of the cyst, there was swelling in the same area, which resolved with steroid administration. Surgical treatment of buccal dermoid cysts should be performed with caution to avoid damage to adjacent salivary gland tissue.
The antiviral activity of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) in liquid (ClO2 gas dissolved liquid) and gaseous state against avian influenza virus (AIV) and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) was evaluated. To evaluate the effect of ClO2 in liquid state, suspension tests (10 ppm) and carrier tests in dropping / wiping techniques (100 ppm) were performed. In the suspension test, virus titers were reduced below the detection limit within 15 sec after treatment, in spite of the presence of an accompanying organic matter. In the carrier test by dropping technique, AIV and IBV were reduced to below the detection limit in 1 and 3 min, respectively. Following wiping technique, no virus was detected in the wiping sheets after 30 sec of reaction. Both viruses adhering to the carriers were also reduced by 3 logs, thereby indicating that they were effectively inactivated. In addition, the effect of ClO2 gas against IBV in aerosols was evaluated. After the exposure of sprayed IBV to ClO2 gas for a few seconds, 94.2% reduction of the virus titer was observed, as compared to the pre-treatment control. Altogether, hence, ClO2 has an evident potential to be an effective disinfectant for the prevention and control of AIV and IBV infections on poultry farms.
The aim of this study was to measure the concentrations of enrofloxacin (ERFX) and other fluoroquinolones; orbifloxacin (OBFX), marbofloxacin (MBFX), and ofloxacin (OFLX) in the plasma and bile of rabbits after a single intravenous (IV) injection. Twenty male rabbits were divided into four groups and given each drug by IV injection into the ear vein at a dose of 5.0 mg/kg BW. The concentration of ERFX, CPFX, OBFX, MBFX and OFLX in plasma and bile were determined by HPLC. Ciprofloxacin (CPFX), metabolite of ERFX, was also measured by HPLC in plasma and bile of rabbits receiving ERFX. Several pharmacokinetic parameters in plasma were calculated and biliary clearance (CLbile) was calculated from extent of biliary excretion and accumulation of AUC of each drug. After IV injection, elimination half-life (t1/2β) was 4.13, 3.68, 6.60, 5.14 hr; volume of distribution at a steady state (Vdss) was 1.24, 0.503, 0.771, 1.02 L/kg; and total body clearance (CLtot) was 1.05, 0.418, 0.271, 0.453 L/kg/hr, respectively. The values for CLbile for ERFX, OBFX, MBFX, and OFLX were 0.0048, 0.0050, 0.0057, and 0.0094 L/kg/hr, respectively. These values represent 0.48%, 1.2%, 2.1%, and 2.3% of the total body clearance (CLtot) of each drug, respectively. The biliary clearance of CPFX was also measured and found to be 0.0199 L/kg/hr with ERFX administration. The results showed that ERFX, OBFX, MBFX, and OFLX were not excreted into the bile to a significant extent, making them safe drugs to use in rabbits.
Five pigs experimentally infected with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serovar 15 isolated in our previous study were pathologically examined. One pig died at 2 days post inoculation (dpi) and four pigs were euthanized at 7 dpi. Autopsy revealed fibrinohemorrhagic pleuropneumonia in all pigs. Histopathologically, the lesions were characterized by extensive hemorrhage and necrosis, fibrin deposition, and multifocal abscesses composed of numerous neutrophils including oat cells and numerous Gram-negative bacilli. In one survived pig, asteroid body formation was confirmed in the lung. The bacteria within the abscesses and asteroid bodies were immunohistochemically positive for antiserum raised against A. pleuropneumoniae serovar 15. This is the first report describing porcine pleuropneumonia with asteroid bodies in a pig experimentally infected with A. pleuropneumoniae serovar 15.
The present study aimed to histologically clarify the regional specificity of the mucosal enteric glial cells (mEGCs) in the rat intestine with serial block-face scanning electron microscopy (SBF-SEM). SBF-SEM analysis with the ileum, the cecum and the descending colon revealed that mEGC nuclei were more abundant in the data stacks from the apical portion of the villus and the lateral portion of the crypt of the ileum. mEGCs exhibited a high rate of coverage over the nerve bundle around the lateral portion of the ileal crypt, but showed an extremely low level of coverage in the luminal portion of the cecum. These findings evidenced regional differences in the localization of mEGCs and in their sheath structure in the rat intestine.
Hyperkalemia is a common electrolyte abnormality frequently complicated with chronic kidney disease. By injecting potassium chloride (KCl) solutions intravenously into bullfrogs, we reproduced typical electrocardiogram (ECG) abnormalities of hyperkalemia in the frog hearts, such as the peaked T waves and the widening of QRS complexes. Simultaneous recordings of cardiac action potentials showed morphological changes that synchronized with those of ECG. After 100 mM KCl injection, the widened QRS complexes continued for a while and gradually restored to their baseline widths. However, pre-treatment with sodium bicarbonate or salbutamol, which directly or indirectly stimulates Na+/K+-ATPase activity, significantly facilitated the recovery from the widened QRS duration, indicating the transcellular movement of potassium ions from the extracellular fluid into the intracellular stores.
A 1-year-old spayed female Miniature Schnauzer had chronic hyponatremia, accompanied by polyuria and polydipsia. Blood tests and urinalysis revealed severe hyponatremia, low plasma osmolality with euvolemia, and increased sodium excretion in urine. Hypothyroidism and hypoadrenocorticism were ruled out as causes. These findings led to the diagnosis of syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed dilation of the lateral ventricles, indicating severe hydrocephalus. Tolvaptan, a vasopressin V2 receptor antagonist commonly used in human SIADH, was administered along with water restriction. This treatment resulted in a consistent increase in plasma sodium levels without any adverse effects. This case report represents the first documented evidence of the therapeutic efficacy of tolvaptan in treating SIADH in a dog.
We aimed to assess the proportion of tuberculosis in humans and Tuberculosis (TB)-associated abattoir condemnations from the animal sector, as well as determine risk factors of zoonotic tuberculosis at the animal-human interface in Zambia. The study involved 255 presumptive TB patients and 156 cattle carcasses and was conducted from April 2020 to December 2021. Univariable and multivariable logistic regressions were performed for risk factor analysis for zoonotic TB. The overall proportion of bovine tuberculosis in traditional cattle and the proportion of tuberculosis among presumptive TB patients were 39.7% and 10.2%, respectively. Consumption of raw milk (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.72, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.73–4.28) and history of previous contact with a TB patient (AOR = 1.86, 95% CI: 1.17–2.95) were risk factors for zoonotic TB at the animal-human interface of Zambia. Therefore, community campaigns and sensitization on zoonotic TB transmission are recommended.
Herein, we describe the management of nasopharyngitis caused by Schizophyllum commune infection in a captive cheetah. Computed tomography revealed a nodule in the nasal cavity and pharynx, and an endoscopic biopsy was performed. As a result, the nodule was surgically resected because of a suspected carcinoma. However, the surgical specimen was histologically re-evaluated and a fungal granuloma was diagnosed. Sequence analysis of DNA from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples revealed S. commune infection. The cheetah was administered fluconazole orally for 73 days. However, the drug was ineffective and itraconazole was administered for 14 days. Symptoms such as nasal discharge and sneezing have completely resolved for 4 years.
Feline meningiomas usually have benign biological behavior, while canine and human meningiomas are often classified as grade 2 or 3. Activation of the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and its receptor signal pathway through PDGFβ/Rβ autocrine and paracrine is considered to play an important role in the tumor proliferation and malignant transformation of human meningiomas. However, there have been few studies about the expression of these molecules in canine meningiomas and no studies about their expression in feline meningiomas. We analyzed the PDGFα/Rα and PDGFβ/Rβ expression in canine and feline meningiomas by immunohistochemistry and western blotting. Immunohistochemically, most canine meningiomas showed the expression of PDGFα (42/44; 95.5%), PDGFRα (44/44; 100%) and PDGFRβ (35/44; 79.5%), and a few showed the expression of PDGFβ (8/44; 18.2%). In contrast, feline meningiomas were immunopositive for PDGFRα and PDGFRβ in all cases (14/14; 100%), while no or a few cases expressed PDGFα (0/14; 0%) and PDGFβ (2/14; 14.3%). Western blotting revealed specific bands for PDGFα, PDGFRα and PDGFRβ, but not for PDGFβ in a canine meningioma. In a feline meningioma, specific bands for PDGFRα and PDGFRβ were detected, but not for PDGFα and PDGFβ. These results suggested that canine meningiomas commonly express PDGFα/Rα, and thus autocrine or paracrine PDGFα/Rα signaling may be involved in their initiation and progression. Moreover, PDGF negativity may be related to benign biological behavior and a low histopathological grade in feline meningioma.
An 11-year-old spayed female French bulldog was referred on suspicion of nasal tumor. Anaplastic oligodendroglioma in the olfactory bulb that was suspected to have invaded the nasal cavity was diagnosed from imaging and histopathology. Metastasis to cervical lymph nodes was suspected, with no other metastases identified. The brain-to-nasal lesion and lymph nodes were treated with hypo-fractionated radiation therapy. Nasal congestion soon resolved. About 3 months later, follow-up computed tomography revealed multiple hepatic and splenic masses, which were cytologically suspected as metastatic oligodendroglioma. Nimustine, followed by toceranib phosphate, seemed to have no effect, and the dog died on day 167. Postmortem examination revealed the primary tumor disappearance and systemic metastases. Canine oligodendroglioma can grow outside the cranial vault, and systemically metastasize.
In reptiles, infection with Cryptosporidium parasite can be lethal, especially in species of family Eublepharidae such as Eublepharis macularius and Goniurosaurus splendes species. We investigated the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. in wild reptiles, especially Goniurosaurus spp., in five islands of Japan. Nested PCR was performed to detect Cryptosporidium spp. in 38 fecal samples of 9 reptile species from five islands of Japan, and 3 (3/8) positive samples ofGoniurosaurus kuroiwae sengokui from Tokashikijima, Okinawa Prefecture were detected. A BLAST search of the detected gene sequences revealed that the all 3 samples were identified as Cryptosporidium serpentis, a reptile-specific Cryptosporidium parasite. This is the first record of Cryptosporidium from a wild Goniurosaurus species in Japan and worldwide.
Podoplanin (PDPN) is a prognostic factor and is involved in several mechanisms of tumor progression in human squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Canine non-tonsillar SCC (NTSCC) is a common oral tumor in dogs and has a highly invasive characteristic. In this study, we investigated the function of PDPN in canine NTSCC. In canine NTSCC clinical samples, PDPN overexpression was observed in 80% of dogs with NTSCC, and PDPN expression was related to ki67 expression. In PDPN knocked-out canine NTSCC cells, cell proliferation, cancer stemness, and migration were suppressed. As the mechanism of PDPN-mediated cell proliferation, PDPN knocked-out induced apoptosis and G2/M cell cycle arrest in canine NTSCC cells. These findings suggest that PDPN promotes tumor malignancies and may be a novel biomarker and therapeutic target for canine NTSCC.
A 5-year-old castrated male domestic shorthair cat was diagnosed with diabetic ketoacidosis and severe insulin resistance. Although the conventional treatment for diabetic ketoacidosis was provided, the cat required frequent hospitalization because of severe dehydration and repeated diabetic ketoacidosis. We detected anti-insulin antibodies for human in this cat. Serum insulin-binding IgG levels were markedly elevated compared with those in healthy cats and other diabetic cats. We initiated prednisolone to suppress the effects of anti-insulin antibodies. After initiation of prednisolone, the cat was gradually recovered with increasing activity and appetite. Furthermore, satisfactory glycemic control was achieved with combined subcutaneous injection of insulin detemir and insulin degludec.
Atlanto-axial (AA) instability due to ligament insufficiency is a common cause of cervical spinal cord compression in toy breeds. However, in some dogs a difference in size between the atlas and the axis leads to joint incongruence that exacerbates AA subluxation and makes surgical treatment challenging. Twelve dogs with AA instability with incongruence were enrolled in a single institution prospective observational study. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the AA joint were compared to a retrospectively reviewed control group. A novel surgical approach consisting of a dorsal internal fixation technique was performed in six dogs. For affected dogs, the mean normalised difference between the dorso-ventral atlas canal and the dorso-ventral axis canal was 29.67% (median of 35.07%, standard deviation 25.64%), while in normal dogs a mean difference of 4.67% (median of 3.95%, standard deviation 5.21%) was observed. On MRI, 12/12 affected dogs had spinal cord compression, which was classified as reducible (3/12), partially reducible (6/12) and non-reducible (3/12). In surgically operated dogs, follow-up CT showed a partial or complete reduction of the previous spinal cord compression with a consistent amelioration or resolution of the presenting complaints. The proposed surgical technique was safe and effective in dogs with partially or completely reducible spinal cord compression.
This article released online on July 30, 2014 as advance publication has been retracted by the Editorial Board of Journal of Veterinary Medical Science due to a violation of the journal’s “Information for Authors”.