Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Online ISSN : 1347-7439
Print ISSN : 0916-7250
ISSN-L : 0916-7250
早期公開論文
早期公開論文の56件中1~50を表示しています
  • Satoshi MATSUYAMA, Munmun PERVIN, Minto NAKAGAWA, Takeshi IZAWA, Mitsu ...
    論文ID: 21-0341
    発行日: 2021年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/07/22
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    Properties of macrophages and lymphocytes appearing in renal fibrosis remains to be investigated. F344 rats were injected once a week with cisplatin (2 mg/kg body weight) for 8 weeks and examined at post-final injection weeks 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12. Rats developed progressive renal fibrosis at weeks 1 to 6 as fibrosis-progress phase, and subsequent amelioration at weeks 9 and 12. CD68+ M1-macrophages and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II+ macrophages remarkably increased persistently, whereas CD163+ M2-macrophages slightly increased. MHC class II+/CD68+ and MHC class II+/CD163+ macrophages were present, indicating that MHC class II+ macrophages might have both functions of M1- and M2-macrophages. In the fibrosis-progress phase, Interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interferon (IFN)-γ for M1-factors, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and IL-10 for M2-factors tended to increase; tissue injury by M1 and fibrosis by M2 might have occurred simultaneously. Lots of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells appeared in close relation with MHC class II+ macrophages, and mainly CD4+ T cells formed aggregations. In the lymphocyte aggregates collected by laser microdissection, expression of IL-17A (for Th17 cells) and forkhead box P3 (FoxP3) (for Treg) significantly increased at weeks 1 and 6, respectively; presumably, Th17 cells might be involved in tissue injury, whereas Treg might be related to fibrosis amelioration. These results suggested that macrophages and T cells may contribute interrelatedly to renal fibrosis.

  • Keisuke KAWASE, Jumpei TOMIYASU, Kazuyuki BAN, Ryosuke ONO, Satoshi AN ...
    論文ID: 21-0032
    発行日: 2021年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/07/19
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    Lions (Panthera leo) breed well under captivity, so contraception has been commonly conducted for population management, leading to a demand for a less invasive and reversible contraceptive approach in lions. In this study, we examined the efficacy of a commercial gonadotropin-releasing hormone vaccine as a method of suppressing reproductive activity in a sexually matured female lion. Under behavioral restraint, the vaccine was injected twice (days 0 and 109). After the initial vaccination, ovarian activity is still observed. After the second vaccination, contraceptive effect was confirmed for 246 days until restart of estrous cycles. We confirmed only a slight swelling around the injection site after the second vaccination. This study may suggest an alternative option for a contraceptive method in lions.

  • Masayuki HORIE
    論文ID: 21-0285
    発行日: 2021年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/07/19
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    I performed metaviromic analysis of publicly available RNA-seq data from reptiles to understand the diversity of filoviruses (family Filoviridae). I identified a coding-complete sequence of a filovirus from the common lancehead (Bothrops atrox (Linnaeus, 1758)), tentatively named Tapajós virus (TAPV). Although the genome organization of TAPV is similar to mammalian filoviruses, our phylogenetic analysis showed that TAPV forms a cluster with a fish filovirus. However, TAPV is still distantly related to all the known filoviruses, suggesting that TAPV can be assigned as a species of a novel genus in Filoviridae. To our knowledge, this is the first report identifying a filovirus in reptiles, and thus contributes to a deeper understanding of the diversity and evolution of filoviruses.

  • Hiroaki SHIGEMURA, Takashi MAEDA, Shiko NAKAYAMA, Akira OHISHI, Yuki C ...
    論文ID: 21-0085
    発行日: 2021年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/07/16
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    Dissemination of extended-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC)-resistant Salmonella is a public health concern in the egg production industry. ESC-resistant Salmonella often acquires the bla gene via insertion sequences (ISs). Therefore, this study aimed to assess antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella from Japanese layer breeding chains and egg processing chains, and determine the genetic profiles of IS-like elements in ESC-resistant Salmonella. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on 224 isolates from 49 facilities involving layer breeder farms, hatcheries, pullet-rearing farms, and layer farms in breeding chains along with egg processing chains. ESC-resistant Salmonella strains were whole-genome sequenced. Among them, 40 (17.9%) were resistant to at least streptomycin, tetracycline, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, cefpodoxime, nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, and/or kanamycin despite lacking resistance to azithromycin and meropenem. Moreover, 15 were ESC-resistant Salmonella harboring blaCMY-2 (Salmonella enterica serovar Ohio, n=12; S. Braenderup, n=1; untypeable with O7:b:–, n=1) and blaCTX-M-14 (S. Cerro, n=1). IncA/C2 plasmids containing ISEcp1, IS26,and multiple antimicrobial resistance genes (including blaCMY-2) were identified in S. Ohio isolates from pullet-rearing and layer farms belonging to the same company. Chromosomal integration of partial or whole IncA/C2 plasmids was seen with two S. Ohio isolates via ISEcp1 or IS26, respectively. Antimicrobial resistance genes such as blaCMY-2 might be transmitted among the upper and the lower levels of layer breeding chains via the replicon type IncA/C2 plasmids containing ISEcp1 and IS26.

  • Lina SUSANTI, Seonmi KANG, Sunhyo KIM, Sanghyun PARK, Songhui LEE, Su ...
    論文ID: 21-0224
    発行日: 2021年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/07/13
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of mydriasis using topical rocuronium bromide on electroretinography (ERG) in domestic pigeons (Columba livia). Scotopic mixed rod and cone, photopic cone, and photopic flicker ERG were performed on nine eyes of nine healthy adult pigeons under sedation. Each pigeon underwent two sets of ERG recordings. First, without the induction of mydriasis (control) and the second time with the induction of mydriasis using topical rocuronium bromide (treatment). The results were compared using either the Student’s t-test or Wilcoxon rank-sum test, where a P-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. No significant differences were observed in the a- and b-wave implicit times and amplitudes during scotopic ERG between the two groups. The a- and b-wave amplitudes in the photopic cone were significantly higher in the treatment group (63.83 ± 32.33 and 191.75 ± 94.46 µV) compared to the control group (46.15 ± 27.60 and 116.76 ± 70.65 µV; P=0.045 and P=0.032, respectively). The photopic flicker amplitude was also significantly higher in the treatment group (76.23 ± 48.56 µV) than in the control group (42.18 ± 31.18 µV; P=0.044). No statistically significant differences were observed in the photopic cone and flicker implicit times between both groups. In conclusions, mydriasis induced by rocuronium bromide in pigeon resulting in higher amplitudes during the photopic ERG but not scotopic ERG.

  • Kunitaka YAMAMOTO, Riki HIROMATSU, Mina KAIDA, Tomoko KATO, Tohru YANA ...
    論文ID: 20-0523
    発行日: 2021年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/07/12
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    Epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) is an arthropod-borne disease of wild and domestic ruminants caused by the EHD virus (EHDV). To date, seven EHDV serotypes have been identified. In Japan, strain Ibaraki of EHDV serotype 2 has caused outbreaks of Ibaraki disease in cattle. In addition, EHDV serotype 7 (EHDV-7) has caused large-scale EHD epizootics. In mid-September 2016, eight cattle at a breeding farm in Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan developed fever. Since EHDV-7 was detected in sentinel cattle in western Japan in 2016, we suspected that the cause of this fever might be an EHDV-7 infection. In this study, we tested cattle for EHDV-7 and some other viruses. Consequently, EHDV was isolated from washed blood cells collected from three of the eight cattle, and genetic analysis of genome segment 2 revealed that this isolate was EHDV-7. Moreover, all affected cattle tested positive for anti-EHDV-7 neutralizing antibodies. Our results suggest that the fever was caused by EHDV-7 infection. In addition, we modified a conventional reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay for the specific detection of EHDV. This modified assay could detect various strains of EHDV isolated in Japan, Australia, and North America. Furthermore, the assay permitted the detection of EHDV-7 in blood cells collected from seven of the eight cattle. We believe that this modified assay will be a useful tool for the diagnosis of EHD.

  • Yirui HENG, Charlene Yen-Feng YEONG, Shin Min CHONG, Abraham MATHEW
    論文ID: 21-0096
    発行日: 2021年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/07/12
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    Three eastern bongos (Tragelaphus eurycerus isaaci) presented acutely with hemorrhagic diarrhea at the Singapore Zoo, thought to be caused by a mouldy batch of hay. Repeated fecal tests were negative of parasites and common gastrointestinal bacteria including salmonella and campylobacter. The diarrhea resolved for all individuals after a week of leaf-only diet. However, 2 individuals developed signs of colic. Both animals were anesthetized for examination including blood tests and imaging studies. The findings were consistent of gastrointestinal ileus and a possible impaction. With intensive treatment involving repeated sedations for fluid therapy administration and treatments for gastrointestinal impaction, one individual eventually made a full recovery, but the other individual died due to septic peritonitis secondary to a rupture in the spiral colon. Persistent supportive therapy may be vital in treating severe gastrointestinal disease in this species.

  • Yayoi TOKUNAGA, Hitomi YOSHIZAKI, Akiyo TORIUMI, Ritsuko KAWAHARADA, C ...
    論文ID: 21-0309
    発行日: 2021年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/07/12
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    Maternal obesity and diabetes are known to be involved in fetal myogenesis, but the later stages of myogenesis are not well understood. In this study, we investigated the influence of a hyperglycemic environment on L6 skeletal myoblast differentiation and the function of omega-7 palmitoleic acids. Exposure to a high concentration of glucose (25 mM) in high-glucose culture medium (HG) increased the expression of myogenic genes (MyoD, Myogenin, MRF4, Myhc2x, and Myhc2a) and the synthesis of myosin. HG also activated the PI3K/AKT pathway revealed muscle cell differentiation. Furthermore, the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and an inflammatory cytokine (Tnfaip3; tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced protein 3), which are crucial for the growth and differentiation of skeletal muscle, were increased by HG. Palmitoleic acids suppressed the expression levels of myogenic regulatory genes and increased the expression level of a cell proliferation-related gene (Pax3). Trans-palmitoleic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid (TPA and EPA) increased the phosphorylation level of MAPK/ERK1/2 and downregulated ROS generation and Tnfaip3 expression. In contrast, cis-palmitoleic acid inactivated MAPK/ERK1/2, leading to increased ROS generation. In conclusion, a hyperglycemic environment mediated by HG induced excessive muscle differentiation. Palmitoleic acids inhibited myoblast differentiation by downregulating muscle-specific genes. Moreover, trans-palmitoleic acids may have beneficial antioxidant and/or anti-inflammatory effects in cells.

  • Daji NOH, Sooyoung CHOI, Hojung CHOI, Youngwon LEE, Kija LEE
    論文ID: 21-0216
    発行日: 2021年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/07/09
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    Pharyngeal collapsibility has been used as diagnostic criteria in dogs, whereas the normal range and quantitative method have not been studied. Dynamic and static computed tomography (CT) was performed in 23 normal Beagle dogs to quantify the nasopharyngeal collapsibility at different locations. Using dynamic CT, maximum and minimum nasopharyngeal cross-sectional areas (CSAs) were measured at the level of the cranial end of the soft palate, pterygoid hamulus, foramen lacerum, bony labyrinth, and caudal end of the soft palate. The ratio of all maximum and minimum CSA to nasopharyngeal CSA at the level of the caudal hard palate (rCSAmax and rCSAmin) and the nasopharyngeal collapsibility were calculated. The differences of rCSAmax, rCSAmin, and nasopharyngeal collapsibility were analyzed at various locations. The nasopharyngeal collapsibility at the level of foramen lacerum, bony labyrinth, and caudal end of soft palate were higher than the others. At the level of the caudal end of the soft palate, rCSAmin was lower than that of the foramen lacerum and bony labyrinth, whereas rCSAmax at foramen lacerum was higher than that of the caudal end of the soft palate. These results indicated that the nasopharynx at the level of foramen lacerum and caudal end of the soft palate were considered notable locations for evaluating collapsibility. Dynamic CT could show the nasopharyngeal dynamic profile and will be an adequate modality for evaluating nasopharynx. Our results will be helpful for further comparative studies in dogs with and without nasopharyngeal collapse.

  • Yu FURUSAWA, Masashi TAKAHASHI, Mariko SHIMA-SAWA, Hitoshi HATAI, Nori ...
    論文ID: 21-0021
    発行日: 2021年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/07/08
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    Epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a crucial role in metastasis of epithelial tumors; however, it is challenging to detect EMT by cytology. In the present study, EMT was visualized by fluorescence-immunocytochemistry (FICC). Air-dried smears from epithelial tumors of dogs (n=22) and cats (n=9) were stained using mouse monoclonal anti-E-cadherin and rabbit monoclonal anti‐vimentin antibodies. Enzymatic immunohistochemistry (IHC) revealed that 51.6% (8/22 in dogs, 8/9 in cats) of the cases showed EMT. In dogs, FICC could detect EMT in 62.5% (5/8) of those cases. In cats, FICC could detect EMT in 100% (8/8) of the cases. In conclusion, the present FICC method could successfully detect EMT using conventional air-dried cytology smear slides.

  • Jaemin HWANG, Seonmi KANG, Seonghoon SEOK, Sohail AHMED, Dong-Hyuk JEO ...
    論文ID: 21-0119
    発行日: 2021年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/07/08
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    The aim of this study is to describe radiographic, ultrasonographic, and computed tomographic appearance of normal cinereous vulture’s eye and to determine normal biometric values of intraocular structures. Twenty-six eyes of thirteen healthy cinereous vultures were examined. Under general anesthesia with isoflurane, ultrasonography (US), computed tomography (CT) and skull radiography were performed. Differences between both eyes as well as between US and CT measurements were investigated and correlation of measurements between both eyes as well as correlation between CT and US measurements of the various ocular structures were calculated. Most of paired data did not show any significant differences between both eyes and the CT and US measurements, while there were significant differences (P<0.05) between CT and US measurements of depth of both vitreous and anterior chambers, and axial length of the lens in right eyes. There was also a significant difference (P<0.05) between both eyes in depth of vitreous measured by CT. All the measurements had strong correlations between both eyes and between US and CT. In conclusion, ocular imaging techniques provided useful data of biometry and morphology, showing good correlation between CT and US in cinereous vulture’s eye. Especially, when ophthalmoscopic examinations would not be available due to opaque anterior segment, imaging techniques could be essential for diagnosing and managing of the eye.

  • Guopan LI, Lei LIU, Baojuan XU, Jixiong HU, Hongyan KUANG, Xi WANG, Li ...
    論文ID: 20-0543
    発行日: 2021年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/07/07
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    The Cap of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) can be assembled into virus like particles (VLPs) in vitro that have multiple loops located on the particle surface. This would make it a good vehicle for displaying exogenous proteins or epitopes. We derived two epitopes, epitope B (EpB, S37HIQLIYNL45) and epitope 7 (Ep7, Q196WGRL200) from Gp5 of the highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV). We replaced the core region of Loop CD (L75PPGGGSN82) and the carboxyl terminus (K222DPPL226) of PCV2 Cap, respectively, to construct a bi-epitope chimeric PCV2 Cap. Its immunogenicity and protective effects were evaluated as one PRRSV subunit vaccine. The chimeric PCV2 Cap was soluble, efficiently expressed in an Escherichia coli expression system, and could be self-assembled into chimeric virus like particles (cVLPs) with a diameter of 12–15 nm. Western blotting confirmed that the cVLPs could be specifically recognized by anti-PCV2, anti-EpB and anti-Ep7 antibodies. The cVLPs vaccine could alleviate the clinical symptoms and reduce the viral loads after HP-PRRSV challenge in 100-120 days old pigs. These data suggest that the cVLPs vaccine could provide pigs with partial protection against homologous PRRSV strains, and it provides a new design for additional PRRSV subunit vaccines.

  • Shin-ichi HAYAMA, Yuki KAWABATA, Aoi OCHI, Setsuko NAKANISHI, Yoshi KA ...
    論文ID: 21-0141
    発行日: 2021年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/07/06
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    The Shimokita Peninsula in Aomori Prefecture, Japan, which is inhabited by Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata), is the northernmost habitat for wild primates in the world. This study was the first to determine the conception dates of specific individuals and estimate the pregnancy rate of wild populations in this region. The pregnancy rate of animals aged 5 years or more at delivery was estimated to be 40.9% (27/66). Conception dates of each fetus were also estimated using a regression line of Pig-tail monkeys (Macaca nemestrina), which are taxonomically related to Japanese monkeys and have a similar physique. The conception dates were distributed across 90 days between September 24th and December 23rd, with a mean conception date of November 4th (SD=22.3 days, n=53). Using these findings, the mean birth date was estimated as April 25th, more than two weeks earlier than the mean birth date in previous research determined using direct observations carried out over the past 20 years ago. Global warming due to climate change is thought to be one of the main causes of this difference.

  • Rommaneeya LEELA-ARPORN, Hiroshi OHTA, Genya SHIMBO, Noboru SASAKI, Mi ...
    論文ID: 21-0218
    発行日: 2021年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/07/06
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    The size of canine focal liver lesions (FLLs) is known to be one of the predicting criteria for malignancy. However, there are discrepancies for the measurement of maximum lesion size, resulting in contradicting results among studies and incidences of false positive outcomes. Thus far, the morphometric changes of FLLs for distinguishing malignancy from benignancy remains undocumented. This study aimed to investigate morphometric characteristics of FLLs using computed tomography (CT). CT images of 40 dogs with histopathological confirmation of 49 liver lesions, including 39 hepatocellular carcinomas and 10 nodular hyperplasias were retrospectively reviewed. The morphometric parameters including size (long and short axis diameters measured on transverse image), shape (measured by long to short axis (L/S) ratio), volume, and surface appearance of a liver lesion were evaluated using univariate and stepwise multivariate analyses, respectively. The results of univariate analysis showed that long and short axis diameters, L/S ratio, volume, and surface appearance of a lesion were significantly different between hepatocellular carcinomas and nodular hyperplasias. Multivariate analysis revealed that short axis diameter (>3.30 cm; odds ratio (OR): 36.1, 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.36–387.05, P=0.0031) and L/S ratio (>1.23; OR: 18.1, 95% CI: 1.61–205.12, P=0.0191) were independent predictors of malignancy, with the area under the curve of 0.9154. These results suggest that the combination of short axis diameter and L/S ratio is a promising tool for predicting liver malignancy with outstanding discriminating ability.

  • Elisabet TANGKONDA, Meiko KUBO, Satoshi SEKIGUCHI, Taisuke SHINKI, Sat ...
    論文ID: 21-0244
    発行日: 2021年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/07/05
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    Workers in poultry abattoirs may be frequently exposed to Campylobacter jejuni, which is a leading cause of bacterial food poisoning in Japan. The present study was conducted to measure the titers of IgG and IgA antibodies against C. jejuni among 104 female workers in a chicken processing plant in Miyazaki prefecture, Japan. Information regarding habitual ingestion of raw chicken meat and potential occupational risk factors was collected using a questionnaire. Acid extracts of four C. jejuni strains representing the genotypes most dominant in Miyazaki were used as antigens. The levels of both immunoglobulins measured by ELISA were not correlated with ingestion of edible raw chicken meat, the amount consumed in one sitting, or its frequency. Although age was correlated with antibody levels, the length of employment was not. Furthermore, the IgG and IgA levels in workers at the evisceration step were significantly higher than those at other locations in the plant. To identify the bacterial proteins recognized by the workers’ IgG and IgA antibodies, Western blotting followed by LC/MS was conducted. Flagellin was identified as the common protein recognized in the sera of workers for whom ELISA demonstrated both the highest and lowest antibody levels. We concluded that the titers of IgG and IgA against C. jejuni in workers at the processing plant had been increased by occupational exposure to Campylobacter, regardless of raw chicken meat ingestion.

  • Hisako KYAN, Taketoshi TAKARA, Katsuya TAIRA, Takeshi OBI
    論文ID: 21-0038
    発行日: 2021年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/07/02
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    Cats are an important host of Toxoplasma gondii from an epidemiological perspectivebecause they are the only definitive hosts that excrete oocysts in their feces. In this study, 201 free-ranging cats in Okinawa were examined for T. gondii infection. Using the latex agglutination test, we detected antibodies against T. gondii in 26.9% (54/201) of the cats. Oocysts of T. gondii were not detected upon microscopic examination of the feces of 128 cats. T. gondii was isolated from the tissues of 9 out of 24 seropositive or pseudo-seropositive cats with a bioassay using laboratory mice. Genotyping for the GRA6 gene revealed that five and four of the isolates were type I and II, respectively.

  • Jialin LI, Xiabing CHEN, Erguang JIN, Guiqiang WANG, Lijun WU, Zhiyong ...
    論文ID: 21-0068
    発行日: 2021年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/06/29
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    Bovine mastitis, caused by Prototheca bovis, has received much attention worldwide. To investigate the status of P. bovis infection in dairy farms of Hubei, we collected 1,158 milk samples and 90 environmental samples from 14 dairy farms of Hubei, China. The isolates were identified with traditional biological methods and molecular biological techniques, and their pathogenicity was tested through mice infection experiments. Isolates from 57 milk and 20 environmental samples were identified as P. bovis. The mice infection tests proved that the isolated P. bovis could cause mastitis in mice, manifesting as severe red swelling of the mammary glands. Histopathological analysis of tissue sections showed necrosis and nodules lesions formed in the infected mice mammary tissue, accompanied by macrophage and neutrophil infiltration. These results suggested the existence of pathogenic P. bovis in dairy farms of the Hubei province, China, with brewer's grains and fresh feces possibly playing important roles in the spread of this disease.

  • Xuting LI, Sicong LI, Bin WANG, Min ZHANG, Dingsheng YUAN, Jinliang LI ...
    論文ID: 20-0641
    発行日: 2021年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/06/28
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    Borneol is a traditional Chinese medicine. In Chinese veterinary clinics, borneol and its related compounds are often used in combination with florfenicol to treat respiratory infections. This study investigated whether the pharmacokinetics of florfenicol in rats was affected by its concomitant use with borneol. Sprague-Dawley rats were intragastrically administered borneol (50 mg/kg body weight (BW)) or 0.5% carboxymethyl-cellulose sodium for 7 consecutive days, and then intragastrically administered florfenicol (25 mg/kg BW) on the eighth day. Pharmacokinetic studies showed that borneol significantly decreased the area under the concentration-time curve from zero to infinity (AUC(0-t)), time to reach peak concentration (Tmax), and the peak concentration (Cmax) values of florfenicol, whereas the values of mean residence time from zero to infinity (MRT(0-t)), elimination half-life (t1/2z), apparent volume of distribution fraction of the dose absorbed (Vz), and plasma clearance fraction of the dose absorbed (CLz) were increased significantly. Furthermore, the mRNA expression levels of multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) and cytochrome P450 3A1 (CYP3A1) in the jejunum and of CYP1A2 and CYP2C11 in the liver were significantly upregulated by borneol. In conclusion, borneol decreased absorption, increased clearance, improved distribution, and increased the mean residence time of florfenicol in rats, possibly through regulating the mRNA expression levels of drug‑metabolizing enzymes and efflux transporters.

  • Takuro NAGAHARA, Koichi OHNO, Itsuma NAGAO, Taisuke NAKAGAWA, Nozomu Y ...
    論文ID: 21-0137
    発行日: 2021年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/06/28
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    Protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) is known to induce hypercoagulability and resultant thromboembolism in dogs. We hypothesized that hypercoagulability would improve if remission was obtained in dogs with PLE after treatment. This study aimed to evaluate the changes in the coagulation parameters after treatment in dogs diagnosed with PLE. As coagulation parameters, prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), fibrinogen, thrombin-antithrombin complex (TAT), D-dimer, and antithrombin (AT) were measured. In addition to these parameters, rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM), which evaluates the comprehensive coagulation and fibrinolysis reactions of whole blood, was conducted and the data of clotting time (CT), clot formation time (CFT), α angle (α), maximum clot firmness (MCF) and lysis index at 60 min (LI60) were obtained. Eleven of the 14 dogs diagnosed with PLE were classified as responders to the treatment based on the changes in their plasma albumin (ALB) concentration after treatment. Significant increase in CFT and decrease of α and MCF indicating the resolution of hypercoagulability were found after treatment in responder dogs; however, there was no significant change in the coagulation and fibrinolysis parameters other than those measured by ROTEM. This study demonstrated that the hypercoagulability detected by ROTEM was significantly improved after treatment in dogs with PLE.

  • Dung LE THI, Son Nguyen VU, Mari OKAMOTO, Nanako YAMASHITA-KAWANISHI, ...
    論文ID: 21-0190
    発行日: 2021年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/06/28
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    The detection of BFV (bovine foamy virus) in Vietnamese cattle was performed using conventional PCR targeting pol and gag genes. Out of 243 tested samples, ten (4.1%) and eight (3.3%) samples were positive for BFV gag and pol DNA, respectively. The prevalence of BLV (bovine leukemia virus) estimated by detection of proviral DNA using nested PCR targeting env gene was 26.7% (65/243). The results of nucleotide sequence alignment and the phylogenetic analysis suggested that Vietnamese BFV strains showed high homology to isolates belonging to either European or non-European clades. There was no significant correlation between BLV and BFV. This study provides information regarding BFV infection and confirms the existence of two BFV clades among Vietnamese cattle for the first time.

  • Yoshinori TAKAMI, Kyung-Ok NAM, Youki TAKAKI, Sho KADEKARU, Chizuka HE ...
    論文ID: 21-0177
    発行日: 2021年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/06/25
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    Ophidiomycosis is an emerging infectious disease caused by the fungus Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola, which has been affecting wild and captive snakes in North America, Europe, and Australia. We report 12 cases of suspected ophidiomycosis in captive colubrid snakes in Japan. Pathological and microbiological examinations were performed, and the results confirmed the diagnosis of ophidiomycosis in two snakes, which indicated that the remaining sympatrically raised snakes also had ophidiomycosis since they exhibited similar lesions. This is the first report of ophidiomycosis in Asia caused by O. ophiodiicola. To prevent the expansion of ophidiomycosis in the natural environment in Japan, there is a need to evaluate the ophidiomycosis carrier status of imported snakes, the pathogenicity of the infection in native snakes, and the prevalence and distribution of O. ophiodiicola in wild and captive snakes. Measures also must be taken to prevent endemicity globally.

  • Minae KAWASAKI, Tomoya FURUJO, Kazuo AZUMA, Yoshiharu OKAMOTO, Norihik ...
    論文ID: 21-0104
    発行日: 2021年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/06/24
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    Keratometry was performed in 73 domestic cats of varied signalment in Japan using an automated handheld keratometer. The mean corneal curvature radius was significantly lower for cats younger than 1 year than for those older than 2 years (8.04 mm vs. 8.80−8.99 mm, P<0.01). The radius was significantly greater in males than in females among the cats older than 11 years (9.22 mm vs. 8.84 mm, P=0.01), while the age distributions of the males and females were similar. Corneal astigmatism did not significantly differ across the gender and age groups. The predictability of the corneal curvature and astigmatism was approximately 41−43% and less than 3%, respectively, as a function of age and bodyweight. The results highlighted some age- and sex-related keratometric variations in domestic cats in Japan.

  • Hayato AMAIKE, Motoki SASAKI, Nao TSUZUKI, Mitsunori KAYANO, Motoharu ...
    論文ID: 21-0198
    発行日: 2021年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/06/24
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    In several primates and carnivores, pronation/supination angles of the forearm skeleton were examined, and it is thought that a larger angle is useful to acquire dexterous behaviors in feeding and/or life style, including climbing. In this study, the pronation/supination angles in Asiatic black, brown and polar bears were nondestructively examined. These specimens were classified as adult or non-adult. Three or four carcasses of each group of Asiatic black and brown bears were used for CT analysis, whereas only one adult polar bear was used. The forearms were positioned within the gantry of a CT scanner in both maximally supinated and pronated states. Extracted cross-sectional CT images of two positions were superimposed by overlapping the outlines of each ulna. The centroids of the radii were detected, and then the centroid of each radius and the midpoint of a line which connects between both ends of the surface of each radius facing the ulna, were connected by lines to measure the angle of rotation as an index of pronation/supination. In adult brown and polar bears, the angles were smaller as compared with the other groups (Asiatic black and non-adult brown bears). Asiatic black and non-adult brown bears can climb trees, whereas adult brown bears and polar bears cannot. This suggests that the pronation/supination angle is related to arboreal activity in Ursidae.

  • Ryo SAITO, James K CHAMBERS, Takuya E. KISHIMOTO, Kazuyuki UCHIDA
    論文ID: 21-0258
    発行日: 2021年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/06/23
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    Meningioma is the most common primary brain tumor in cats, although there are few reports about their pathological features. To investigate the histopathological subtypes and immunohistochemical features including expression of cytokeratin and cell adhesion molecules, 45 cases of feline meningioma were examined. The mean age was 12.5 years (range 6–21 years). No statistically significant sex predilection was observed. Regarding the anatomical location of meningioma, tumors mostly developed in the cerebrum, followed by spinal cord and cerebellum, and multiple meningioma was observed in one cat. Microscopically, linear or focal mineralization was observed in 40 cases and cholesterol cleft was observed in 14 cases. Based on histopathological subtypes, there were 15 fibrous, 22 transitional, 2 meningothelial, 5 atypical, and 1 anaplastic meningiomas. These subtypes are classified into grade 1 (39 cases), grade 2 (5 cases), and grade 3 (1 case). There was no significant difference in the Ki-67 index among histological subtypes or grades. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin in 5 cases (12.8%), vimentin in 17 cases (43.6%), E-cadherin in 36 cases (92.3%), β-catenin in 21 cases (53.8%), and N-cadherin in 1 case (2.6%), demonstrating the utility of E-cadherin-immunohistochemistry for the diagnosis of feline meningiomas.

  • Luisa P. B. BORGES, Filipe L. S. DA COSTA, Kayan C. ROSSY, Gabriela M. ...
    論文ID: 20-0582
    発行日: 2021年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/06/22
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    This study aimed to describe the anatomical topography of the abdominal cavity of buffaloes in the quadruped position to establish the best endosurgical access and vantage points and identify possible limitations. Laparoscopies were performed on 10 healthy female buffaloes obtained from the Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia to explore possible access points to the abdomen. Techniques for assessing and possibly observing certain organs and structures through the left and right flanks of 10 animals have been described. In five animals, access was created through the right side of the last intercostal space to allow more cranial access to the abdominal cavity. Despite the presence of the rumen, access through the left flank allowed the visualization of the structures of the gastrointestinal tract and the genitourinary system. With access through the right flank, however, imaging was hampered by the presence of the greater omentum and its deep and superficial walls, which prevented the progression of the endoscope. Access through the last right intercostal space allowed the visualization of the cranial structures of the abdominal cavity, such as the caudate process, right lobe of the liver, right kidney, and pancreas. Laparoscopic access through the left flank and the last intercostal space in healthy buffaloes in the quadruped position is feasible, and it is promising for the exploration, diagnosis, and treatment of various disorders in buffaloes.

  • Sieun PARK, Min JANG, Kija LEE, Hojung CHOI, Youngwon LEE, Inchul PARK ...
    論文ID: 20-0724
    発行日: 2021年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/06/22
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    This study aimed to determine the optimal placement of the region of interest (ROI) among four anatomical sites─pulmonary artery (PA), pulmonary vein (PV), aortic arch (AA), and carotid artery (CA)─in computed tomography (CT) brain angiography with automatic bolus tracking in healthy beagle dogs. Six beagles were included, and CT brain angiography was performed four times for each dog, to cover each ROI. The scan parameters, amount, and injection rate of the contrast medium were the same. The major intracranial arteries were selected for quantitative and qualitative evaluation: caudal cerebellar artery (CcA), basilar artery (BA), rostral cerebellar artery (RcA), caudal cerebral artery (CCA), middle cerebral artery (MCA), and rostral cerebral artery (RCA). Quantitative evaluation showed significantly higher CT attenuation values for the RcA, CCA, and MCA in the PA group and RcA and MCA in the PV group than in the CA group. Qualitative analysis revealed significantly higher scores for the BA, CCA, and MCA in the PA and PV groups than in the CA group. Venous contamination did not differ significantly among the ROIs, but the mean scores of the AA and CA groups were higher than those of the PA and PV groups. CT brain angiography using bolus tracking in the beagle dogs showed that the ROI should be placed at the PA or PV rather than at the CA for optimal images with strong contrast enhancement of the BA, RcA, CCA, and MCA and minimal venous contamination.

  • Kanumporn MUNGTHONG, Soe Thiri KHAING, Takehiko OTSUBO, Chihiro HATANA ...
    論文ID: 20-0742
    発行日: 2021年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/06/22
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    For broad detection of pestivirusA (bovine viral diarrhea virus 1: BVDV1) and pestivirusB (BVDV2) by a reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) test, the P25 primer set was designed using nucleotide sequences of 5’-UTR region of 1454 BVDVs. The base coverage of each primer against diverse BVDVs were more than 99% in each base position. The one step LAMP test with the P25 primer set could detect both BVDV1 (TK) and BVDV2 (KZ), but did not amplify 5 other bovine viruses. Detection limit of the LAMP test was 103 copies of synthesized DNAs, and 10–3 and 10–4 dilutions of viral RNAs of TK and KZ strains, respectively, whereas that with current Aebischer’s primer set was 10–2 dilution and negative of these RNAs, respectively. All of the 63 viral RNA samples of persistently infected (PI) cattle, consisting of the 1a (12), 1b (31), 1c (11), and 2a (9) subgenotypes, were broadly detected with the P25, while only 65% of them were positive with Aebischer’s primer set. The validation study showed that the RT-LAMP test with the P25 had 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity against that with updated Vilcek’s PCR primers. Also, by using the P26 primer set which contained 3 species-specific primers, all 63 RNA samples were clearly distinguished from BVDV1 or BVDV2 by the typing RT-LAMP test. These results indicate that the one step RT-LAMP test using P25 or P26 primer sets would be useful for broad detection and rapid differentiation of BVDV1 and BVDV2.

  • Yusuke WADA, Hiroki YAMAZAKI, Miyuu TANAKA, Ayumi KANEGUCHI, Toshiyuki ...
    論文ID: 20-0656
    発行日: 2021年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/06/21
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    A 13-year-old, female, mixed-breed dog with a huge cranial mediastinal mass underwent radiotherapy (RT). On the following day, the dog presented with lethargy and anorexia. Hematological examination revealed elevated levels of blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, inorganic phosphorus, potassium, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine phosphokinase and aspartate aminotransferase, decreased calcium level, and metabolic acidosis. Urine output markedly decreased. The patient recovered with fluid therapy and diuretic therapy; however, died suddenly from an unknown cause 11 days after RT completion. Histopathological examination after necropsy showed thymoma in the cranial mediastinum and extensive tubular necrosis of both kidneys which may be due to RT-induced TLS. This report suggests that the risk of TLS should be evaluated in dogs with thymoma who undergo RT.

  • Hiroyuki IMAI, Kiyoshi KANO, Ken Takeshi KUSAKABE
    論文ID: 21-0197
    発行日: 2021年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/06/21
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    The large Japanese field mouse (Apodemus speciosus) is a small rodent species endemic to Japan. The genetic characteristics of A. speciosus include different chromosome numbers within the same species. Furthermore, A. speciosus has been used in radiation and genetic research. In the present study, a pregnant A. speciosus was obtained, and histochemical analysis of the implanted embryos was performed and compared with the developmental stages of the mouse (Mus musculus). Although there were some differences, the structures of the implanted embryos, including the primitive streak and placenta of A. speciosus were similar to those of mouse. Our study will be important for the construction of a developmental atlas of A. speciosus.

  • Yuta NISHIYAMA, Yasuhiro FUKUYAMA, Takuya MARUO, Shinichiro YODA, Masa ...
    論文ID: 21-0060
    発行日: 2021年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/06/18
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    Tegafur is a prodrug of fluoropyrimidine 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), while TS-1TM is an oral fixed-dose combination of three active drugs, tegafur, gimeracil, and oteracil. This pilot study evaluated the safety of tegafur/gimeracil/oteracil in the treatment of cancers in dogs. Tegafur/gimeracil/oteracil was administered orally at a mean dose of 1.1 mg/kg twice daily on alternate days, Monday-Wednesday-Friday, every week to 11 dogs with tumors. Partial response and stable disease were observed in one dog each, whereas six exhibited progressive disease. Three dogs were not assessed. Adverse events, the most serious being grade 2, were noted in seven dogs. Adverse events were acceptable, and the drug was effective in some dogs. Therefore, tegafur/gimeracil/oteracil may be useful for treating malignant solid tumors in canines.

  • Fitrine EKAWASTI, Kazuya KITAGAWA, Hiroshi DOMAE, April Hari WARDHANA, ...
    論文ID: 21-0152
    発行日: 2021年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/06/17
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    Oocysts of Isospora sp. were detected in the feces of a veiled chameleon (family Chamaeleonidae; Chamaeleo calyptratus) kept at a zoo in Ishikawa, Japan. Phylogenetic analysis placed the sequence in the cluster of Isospora spp. isolated from reptiles. Based on a comparison of morphological data of ten previously reported Isospora species from the Chamaeleonidae family, this isolate was morphologically similar to I. jaracimrmani, which has been considered to be a virulent species. This case study suggests the possibility that species of Isospora might not always cause disease because the animal that shed these oocysts showed no symptoms for more than two months.

  • Yusuke TANAKA, Keisuke SUGANUMA, Kenichi WATANABE, Yoshiyasu KOBAYASHI
    論文ID: 21-0056
    発行日: 2021年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/06/16
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    Dourine, caused by infection with Trypanosoma equiperdum, is one of the trypanosomiasis in equids. The clinical course of dourine is long-term, ranging from 1-2 months to several years. Since the pathogenesis of dourine has not yet been elucidated, experimental studies using mouse infection models are needed. Although mice are not susceptible to most T. equiperdum strains, some strains can infect mice. Even in such strains, infected mice develop rapidly transient parasitemia and die within 2-8 days. Therefore, mice experimentally infected with these T. equiperdum strains are not suitable for mouse infection models to analysis the pathogenesis of dourine. A sequential method of isolating parasites from dourine-affected horses and adapting them to in vitro cultures using soft agarose media was recently developed. Various T. equiperdum strains adapted to in vitro conditions have been established using this technique. We used one of these strains, the T. equiperdum IVM-t2 strain. In the present study, T. equiperdum IVM-t2 strain inoculated mice developed periodic parasitemia during the experimental period of 60 days. Histopathologically, vaginitis and dermatitis were observed. These findings were comparable to those of dourine-affected horses. Therefore, mice infected with T. equiperdum IVM-t2 strain may be a valuable tool for pathological, immunological, and parasitological in vivo research, and will contribute to investigations on the mechanisms underlying the disease process and the host-parasite relationship.

  • Masanari ARAKI, Tadatoshi OHTAKI, Junpei KIMURA, Seiji HOBO, Kazuyoshi ...
    論文ID: 20-0174
    発行日: 2021年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/06/15
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    Immunohistochemical investigations of the expression of surfactant protein A (SP-A) and surfactant protein D (SP-D) in the uterine and placental tissues of 13 pregnant mares were performed using anti-horse monoclonal primary antibodies. Strong positive reactions for both SP-A and SP-D were observed in the trophoblasts in the microcotyledons of the placentae at 182 to 314 days of gestation; in uterine glandular epithelial cells, faint-to-weak reactions were observed during gestation. This study describes, for the first time, the changes in the SP-A and SP-D expression levels in the endometrium of mares during gestation; the SP-A and SP-D expression levels increased after the second trimester of gestation.

  • Nanako YAMASHITA-KAWANISHI, Chia Yu CHANG, James K CHAMBERS, Kazuyuki ...
    論文ID: 21-0153
    発行日: 2021年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/06/15
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    Felis catus papillomavirus (FcaPV), especially type 2 (FcaPV2) is considered as one of the causative agents in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in cats. However, our previous study detected FcaPV3 and FcaPV4, but not FcaPV2 in feline SCCs collected in Japan, suggesting that the prevalence of FcaPV2 in SCC may vary depending on geographic locations. To evaluate this hypothesis, two conventional PCR reactions targeting E1 and E7 genes were performed to detect FcaPV2 in feline SCC samples collected in Taiwan and Japan. While 46.9% (23/49) of feline SCC cases from Taiwan were PCR positive for FcaPV2, only 8.6% (3/35) cases from Japan were positive. Our result suggests that the prevalence of FcaPV2 in feline SCCs may depend on the region.

  • Sumito MATSUYA, Hiroyuki IMAI, Yasuo KISO, Ken Takeshi KUSAKABE, Kiyos ...
    論文ID: 21-0231
    発行日: 2021年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/06/14
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    We determined the nucleotide sequence of the growth hormone (Gh) gene in Mus minutoides, one of the smallest mammals, where was predicted to be distinct in the functional regions between M. minutoides and Mus musculus. To investigate the evolutionary characteristics of Gh in M. minutoides, we constructed a phylogenetic tree based on the putative amino acid sequences of Gh, suggesting that the Gh of M. minutoides diverged earlier than M. musculus. Furthermore, the Gh gene expressed higher in M. minutoides than in M. musculus. Our results suggest that the specific feature of the Gh in M. minutoides is in rather the regulatory mechanism than the sequence.

  • Takahiro AYA, Yukiko TOMIOKA, Takashi TAKEUCHI
    論文ID: 21-0269
    発行日: 2021年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/06/11
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    Genital bacterial infection is one of the most important causes of infertility, however, bacteria frequently exist in seminal fluid. Sperm express Toll-like receptors (TLRs) on their cell surfaces and bacterial recognition by TLRs induces sperm apoptosis. In this study, we examined the lactoferrin (LF) potentiality on sperm apoptosis induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay indicated that TUNEL-positive sperm cells were scarce in the group treated with LF and LPS (LF/LPS group) compared to the group treated with LPS only (LPS group). In addition, real-time RT-PCR detected lower mRNA expression levels of apoptosis-associated genes in the LF/LPS group compared to the LPS group. These results indicate that LF treatment of semen might decrease LPS-induced apoptosis of sperm.

  • Yuto SANO, Hikaru KUWAJIMA, Hiroki KANAI, Chiemi BABA, Kohei AZAMI, Ka ...
    論文ID: 21-0221
    発行日: 2021年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/06/10
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    A 24-year-old, Thoroughbred gelding presented with difficulty breathing for a few days and intermittent nose bleeding before dying. At necropsy, the bronchoesophageal artery and the bronchial artery that flowed into the left anterior lobe were tortuous and dilated, and it was found that dilated tortuous branches of the bronchial artery ran over the dorsal and ventral surfaces of the left anterior lobe. Histopathologically, an anastomosis between a muscular artery and an elastic artery were demonstrated, which were identified as bronchial and pulmonary arteries, respectively. Based on the gross and histopathological findings, a bronchopulmonary artery fistula was diagnosed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of a pulmonary vascular anastomosis in a horse.

  • Nuttapone SANGKANJANAVANICH, Tsutomu KAKUDA, Yasunori SUZUKI, Yukako S ...
    論文ID: 21-0256
    発行日: 2021年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/06/10
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    Rhodococcus equi is a Gram-positive facultative intracellular bacterium that causes pyogranulomatous pneumonia in foals and immunocompromised people. In the present study, signature-tagged transposon mutagenesis was applied for the negative selection of R. equi mutants that cannot survive in vivo. Twenty-five distinguishable plasmid-transposon (plasposon) vectors by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), each containing a unique oligonucleotide tag, were constructed and used to select the transposon mutants that have in vivo fitness defects using a mouse systemic infection model. Of the 4560 transposon mutants, 102 mutants were isolated via a real-time PCR-based screening as the mutants were unable to survive in the mouse model. Finally, 50 single transposon insertion sites were determined via the self-cloning strategy. The insertion of the transposon was seen on the virulence plasmid in 15 of the 50 mutants, whereas the remaining 35 mutants had the insertion of transposon on the chromosome. The chromosomal mutants contained transposon insertions in genes involved in cellular metabolism, DNA repair and recombination, gene regulation, non-ribosomal peptide synthesis, and unknown functions. Additionally, seven of the chromosomal mutants showed a reduced ability to multiply in the macrophages in vitro. In this study, we have identified several biosynthetic pathways as fitness factors associated with the growth within macrophages and survival in mice.

  • Megumi YOSHIDA, Keijiro MIZUKAMI, Masaharu HISASUE, Ichiro IMANISHI, K ...
    論文ID: 21-0090
    発行日: 2021年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/06/09
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    Severe adverse reactions after rabies vaccination in dogs were examined from 317 cases reported to the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF) in Japan during 15-year period from April 2004 to March 2019. We found that 109 of the 317 dogs showed anaphylaxis (0.15/100,000 vaccinated dogs), and 71 of the 109 cases of anaphylaxis resulted in death (0.10/100,000 vaccinated dogs). We measured bovine serum albumin (BSA) in four commercially available rabies vaccines and found the levels ranged from 0.1 to 16.6 μg/dose. Our survey showed that the rate of anaphylaxis to rabies vaccines in dogs is rare, although some cases of anaphylaxis resulted in death. Veterinarians should be well prepared to deal with vaccine-associated anaphylaxis.

  • Justice Opare ODOI, Michiyo SUGIYAMA, Yuko KITAMURA, Akiko SUDO, Tsuto ...
    論文ID: 21-0108
    発行日: 2021年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/06/09
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    Wild birds are recognized as disseminators of antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) bacteria into the environment. Here, we isolated AMR indicator bacteria from 198 Great Cormorant cloacal swabs collected in Shiga (n=90), Oita (n=52), Gifu (n=29), and Gunma (n=27) Prefectures, Japan, in 2018 and 2019. In total, 198 Aeromonas spp. and 194 Escherichia spp. were isolated, and their antimicrobial susceptibility was examined. Aeromonas spp. were resistant to colistin (8.6%), nalidixic acid (4%), and other antimicrobials (<2%), with 3.0% positivity for mcr-3. Escherichia spp. showed resistance to colistin (3.1%), ampicillin (2.6%), tetracycline (2.1%), and other antimicrobials (<2%). This study shows the presence of AMR bacteria in Great Cormorants, indicating that these birds potentially disseminate AMR bacteria.

  • Jeewan THAPA, Susan K. MIKOTA, Kamal Prasad GAIRHE, Sarad PAUDEL, Dine ...
    論文ID: 21-0113
    発行日: 2021年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/06/09
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    We conducted a tuberculosis serosurveillance program of captive elephants in Nepal and compared hematology and biochemistry parameters between seropositive and seronegative elephants. A total of 153 elephants (male=20, female=133) from four national parks were tested for Tuberculosis (TB) using the ElephantTB STAT-PAK® Assay (ChemBio Diagnostic Systems, Inc., Medford, NY, USA). The mean reported age for 138 elephants was 38.5 years (range 2–71 years). Seroprevalence for TB was 21.56% (33/153). The majority of seropositive elephants were female (n=30) and from Chitwan National Park (n=29. The occurrence of TB seropositive cases in other more remote national parks suggests TB may be widespread among the captive elephant population of Nepal. Hematology and biochemistry analyses were performed on 13 and 22 seropositive elephants, respectively and, nine elephants from a seronegative TB herd for comparison. Hematology parameters (hemoglobin, packed cell volume, platelet, white blood cells, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate) were comparable between the two groups. Total protein, globulin, and lactate dehydrogenase were significantly higher in seronegative elephants, and bilirubin was significantly higher in seropositive elephants whereas blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase/aspartate aminotransferase (GOT/AST), glutamic pyruvic transaminase/alanine aminotransferase (GPT/ALT), Gamma glutamyl transferase (GT), and albumin were not significantly different. The range of biochemical parameters that were significantly different between seropositive and seronegative elephants had narrow ranges. Thus, the potential of these parameters as a direct biomarker for TB diagnosis is limited based on the findings in this study. We recommend including blood parameters in future TB surveillance studies.

  • Takahiro AYA, Yukiko TOMIOKA, Takashi TAKEUCHI
    論文ID: 21-0251
    発行日: 2021年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/06/09
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    The effect of lactoferrin (LF) on embryo development was investigated by using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated mouse sperm. For the development rate of the 2-cell stage embryo, the embryo derived from LPS- and LF-treated sperm showed similar survival rate to the control embryo. On day 12 after the embryo transfer into the recipient, the frequent abnormality was observed in the embryo derived from LPS-treated sperm, and the abnormality was tended to be inhibited in the embryo derived from LPS- and LF-treated sperm. These results imply that LF treatment on sperm contaminated with bacteria may facilitate the embryo development, which contribute to the improvement of infertility.

  • Marin HIROKAWA, Kaho TAKAHASHI, Masaki MIYAJIMA, Rintaro FURUKAWA, Koj ...
    論文ID: 20-0519
    発行日: 2021年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/06/02
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    Inflammasomes play a pivotal role in gastrointestinal homeostasis and inflammation. However, it remains elusive whether the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor (NLR) family inflammasomes, such as NLR family pyrin domain-containing (NLRP)3, NLRP6, and NLRP12, are involved in the pathogenesis of canine chronic enteropathy (CE), which includes antibiotic-responsive enteropathy (ARE), food-responsive enteropathy (FRE), immunosuppressant-responsive enteropathy (IRE), and non-responsive enteropathy (NRE). Thus, we measured mRNA expression of NLRP3, NLRP6, and NLRP12 in the intestinal mucosa of 35 dogs with CE (ARE, four dogs; FRE, 11 dogs; IRE and NRE, 20 dogs) and seven healthy dogs. As per real-time PCR analysis, significant increases in mRNA expression of NLRP3 and NLRP12 were noted in the colonic but not in the duodenal mucosa of dogs with FRE compared to healthy dogs. These findings suggested that the NLRP3 and NLRP12 inflammasomes might contribute to the development of colitis in dogs with FRE.

  • Yoshihiro WAKAYAMA, Satoshi HIRAKO, Hirokazu OHTAKI, Satoru ARATA, Tak ...
    論文ID: 20-0470
    発行日: 2021年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/05/31
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    The aim of this study is to examine 1) muscle fiber type composition, 2) myofiber diameter, and 3) aquaglyceroporin (AQP) 7 and AQP 9 mRNA expressions by quantitative PCR in muscles of obese db/db mice. The myofiber type composition of skeletal muscle was not statistically significantly different between db/db mice and control mice; while the average myofiber diameter ratio showed a decrease in db/db mice. The expression of AQP7 but not AQP9 mRNA in the skeletal and cardiac muscles was significantly upregulated in db/db mice. Thus this study revealed quantitatively that type 2 myofiber atrophy was shown in the skeletal muscles of db/db mice. AQP7 mRNA expression was upregulated in the skeletal and cardiac muscles of db/db mice.

  • Shinjiro OJIMA, Masashi OKAMURA, Nana OSAWA, Akiko TAMURA, Kazuki YOSH ...
    論文ID: 21-0227
    発行日: 2021年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/05/27
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum biovar Gallinarum (S. Gallinarum) is a host-specific pathogen causing systemic infection in poultry, which leads to significant economic losses due to high mortality. However, little is known about the dynamic process of systemic infection and pathogenic characteristics of S. Gallinarum in chickens. In the present study, we developed an oral infection model that reproduces the pathology of S. Gallinarum and clarified the host immune response of the infected chickens. Chickens at 20 days of age orally inoculated at a dose of 108 colony forming unit (CFU) showed typical clinical signs of fowl typhoid and died between 6 and 10 days post infection. The inoculated S. Gallinarum rapidly disseminated to multple organs and the bacterial counts increased in the liver and spleen at 3 days post infection. Pathological changes associated wirh inflammation in the liver and spleen became apparent at 4 days post infection, and increased expression of interferon (IFN)-γ and interleuikin (IL)-12 in the liver and spleen did not observed until 3 days post infection. These results indicate that S. Gallinarum rapidly spread to entire body through intestine, and the low-level of inflammatory responses in the liver during the early stage of infection may contribute to rapid, systemic dissemination of the bacteria. Our infection model and findings will contribute to the better understanding of the pathogenic mechanism of S. Gallinarum, and provide new insights into the prevention and control of fowl typhoid.

  • Takumi KOMIYA, Akihiro MORI, Naohito NISHII, Hitomi ODA, Eri ONOZAWA, ...
    論文ID: 2-0345
    発行日: 2021年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/03/05
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    A 5-year-old castrated male domestic shorthair cat was diagnosed with diabetic ketoacidosis and severe insulin resistance. Although the conventional treatment for diabetic ketoacidosis was provided, the cat required frequent hospitalization because of severe dehydration and repeated diabetic ketoacidosis. We detected anti-insulin antibodies for human in this cat. Serum insulin-binding IgG levels were markedly elevated compared with those in healthy cats and other diabetic cats. We initiated prednisolone to suppress the effects of anti-insulin antibodies. After initiation of prednisolone, the cat was gradually recovered with increasing activity and appetite. Furthermore, satisfactory glycemic control was achieved with combined subcutaneous injection of insulin detemir and insulin degludec.

  • Linjie LI, Xiaoling SHI, Derong ZHANG, Xin CAO, Amjad ALI, Jialin BAI
    論文ID: 20-0487
    発行日: 2020年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2020/11/13
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開
  • Mario DOLERA, Luca MALFASSI, Simone PAVESI, Sara FINESSO, Giovanni MAZ ...
    論文ID: 16-0077
    発行日: 2017年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2017/11/15
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Atlanto-axial (AA) instability due to ligament insufficiency is a common cause of cervical spinal cord compression in toy breeds. However, in some dogs a difference in size between the atlas and the axis leads to joint incongruence that exacerbates AA subluxation and makes surgical treatment challenging. Twelve dogs with AA instability with incongruence were enrolled in a single institution prospective observational study. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the AA joint were compared to a retrospectively reviewed control group. A novel surgical approach consisting of a dorsal internal fixation technique was performed in six dogs. For affected dogs, the mean normalised difference between the dorso-ventral atlas canal and the dorso-ventral axis canal was 29.67% (median of 35.07%, standard deviation 25.64%), while in normal dogs a mean difference of 4.67% (median of 3.95%, standard deviation 5.21%) was observed. On MRI, 12/12 affected dogs had spinal cord compression, which was classified as reducible (3/12), partially reducible (6/12) and non-reducible (3/12). In surgically operated dogs, follow-up CT showed a partial or complete reduction of the previous spinal cord compression with a consistent amelioration or resolution of the presenting complaints. The proposed surgical technique was safe and effective in dogs with partially or completely reducible spinal cord compression.

  • Mohamed ABDO, Khaled SHOGHY, Yoshinao Z. HOSAKA, Tomohiro IMAGAWA, Saf ...
    論文ID: 14-0225e
    発行日: 2014年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2014/08/20
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開
    This article released online on July 30, 2014 as advance publication has been retracted by the Editorial Board of Journal of Veterinary Medical Science due to a violation of the journal’s “Information for Authors”.
  • Mohamed ABDO, Khaled SHOGHY, Yoshinao Z. HOSAKA, Tomohiro IMAGAWA, Saf ...
    論文ID: 14-0225
    発行日: 2014年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2014/07/30
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開
    This article has been retracted by the Editorial Board of Journal of Veterinary Medical Science due to a violation of the journal's “Information for Authors”.
feedback
Top