Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Online ISSN : 1347-7439
Print ISSN : 0916-7250
ISSN-L : 0916-7250
早期公開論文
早期公開論文の62件中1~50を表示しています
  • Katsufumi OOSHITA, Takeshi TSUKA, Yasutake ITOU
    論文ID: 20-0113
    発行日: 2020年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2020/07/08
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    A female Holstein cow presented with lameness in the left hind-limb, having suffered a fracture within the distal phalanx distal to the distal interphalangeal joint. The lesion was visualized as a radiolucent gap on a lateral radiograph and a hypoechoic gap on an ultrasonogram in which the hyperechoic bony line disappeared. Using regular ultrasonographic examinations, the healing of the fracture could be characterized by increased echogenicity inside the gap and the formation of a hyperechoic bony bridge. Ultrasonography can provide earlier evidence compared with that provided by radiography of the healing process of a fractured distal phalanx.

  • Yu FURUSAWA, Masashi TAKAHASHI, Mariko SHIMA-SAWA, Osamu YAMATO, Akira ...
    論文ID: 20-0271
    発行日: 2020年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2020/07/08
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    The argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs) are cellular proliferation markers, crucial for predicting the clinical course and aggressiveness of tumors. The purpose of this study was to establish an easy and practical AgNOR staining method in the cytology of dogs and cats. Air-dried cytological slides were prepared from dogs (n=14) and cats (n=12). Ethanol, acetone, and formalin were tested as fixatives for AgNOR staining. Subsequently, various methods of Romanowsky-based counterstains were tested before and after AgNOR staining. Clear and strong AgNOR spots were observed with all fixatives, and post-May–Grünwald staining was the best counterstaining method. The established method showed clear AgNOR spots even in the long-term storage samples and Romanowsky-stained ones.

  • Masakazu ASAHARA, Yumi OBAYASHI, Ayano SUZUKI, Akane KAMIGAKI, Takeshi ...
    論文ID: 20-0039
    発行日: 2020年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2020/07/07
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    The American bullfrog Rana (Aquarana) catesbeiana has been reported to show significant sexual dimorphism based on the size ratio between the tympanic membrane and the eye. In males the tympanic membrane is much larger than the eye, but not in females. The ratio has been used as a convenient criterion to discriminate sexes (sexing) in the American bullfrog, though its reliability is unknown. In this study, we examined 86 adult American bullfrogs to clarify whether the tympanic membrane long diameter/eye long diameter (Dtm/De) ratio is a reliable index to discriminate sexes in this species. In addition, we examined the growth of this sexually dimorphic trait. Results indicated that there is a significant difference but there is a small overlap in this ratio Dtm/De between sexes. The allometric comparisons showed the sexual dimorphism of the Dtm/De ratio was increased during growth and the dimorphism is attributable to the difference in the growth rate of the tympanic membrane (Dtm). Therefore, sex determination of American bullfrogs cannot be wholly reliably achieved by the Dtm/De ratio alone; other external morphological features are required in addition.

  • Ekkapol AKARAPHUTIPORN, Eugene C. BWALYA, Sangho KIM, Takafumi SUNAGA, ...
    論文ID: 20-0091
    発行日: 2020年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2020/07/07
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    Pentosan polysulfate (PPS) is a semi-synthetic sulfated polysaccharide compound which has been shown the benefits on therapeutic treatment for osteoarthritis (OA) and has been proposed as a disease modifying osteoarthritis drugs (DMOADs). This study investigated the effects of PPS on cell proliferation, particularly in cell cycle modulation and phenotype promotion of canine articular chondrocytes (AC). Canine AC were treated with PPS (0–80 µg/ml) for 24, 48 and 72 hr. The effect of PPS on cell viability, cell proliferation and cell cycle distribution were analyzed by MTT assay, DNA quantification and flow cytometry. Chondrocyte phenotype was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) quantification. PPS significantly reduced AC proliferation through cell cycle modulation particularly by maintaining a significantly higher proportion of chondrocytes in the G1 phase and a significantly lower proportion in the S phase of the cell cycle in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. While the proportion of chondrocytes in G1 phase corresponded with the significant downregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 1 and 4. Furthermore, the study confirms that PPS promotes a chondrogenic phenotype of AC through significant upregulation of collagen type II (Col2A1) mRNA and GAG synthesis. The effect of PPS on the inhibition of chondrocyte proliferation while promoting a chondrocyte phenotype could be beneficial in the early stages of OA treatment, which transient increase in proliferative activity of chondrocytes with subsequent phenotypic shift and less productive in an essential component of extracellular matrix (ECM) is observed.

  • Ochbayar ERDEMSURAKH, Khurtsbaatar OCHIRBAT, Ulziisaikhan GOMBOSUREN, ...
    論文ID: 20-0219
    発行日: 2020年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2020/07/07
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    Glanders is a contagious and fatal equine disease caused by the gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia mallei.B. mallei is prevalent among horse populations in Asia, the Middle East, and South America. More than four million horses have been registered in Mongolia in 2020. However, the resent prevalence of glanders has not been well investigated. In this study, we aimed to investigate the seropositivity of B. mallei in horse populations in Mongolia using the complement fixation test (CFT) and Rose Bengal plate agglutination test (RBT). We randomly collected blood samples from horses in central and eastern Mongolia between 2018 and 2019. Of 337 horses, 26 (7.7%) and 28 (8.3%) were seropositive using RBT and CFT, respectively. Interestingly, seropositivity in horses resulting from crossbreeding of Mongolian native horses with thoroughbred horses was higher than that in Mongolian native horses. Our observations suggest that equine glanders are still endemic to Mongolia.

  • Xi CHEN, Yanqing JIA, Shanhui REN, Siqi CHEN, Xiangwei WANG, Xiaolong ...
    論文ID: 18-0707
    発行日: 2020年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2020/07/06
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    Avian paramyxoviruses 1 has the ability to edit its P gene to generate three amino-coterminal proteins (P, V and W), but its kinetic change is unclear. In this study, next-generation sequencing (NGS) was used to analyze the P-gene editing of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Transcriptome analysis of chicken embryonic tissues and bursa of fabricius showed the P-gene editing frequencies were 45.46–52.70%. To investigate the rules of P-gene editing along time, the ratio of PVW was determined by PCR based deep sequencing at multiple time points in cells infected with velogenic and lentogenic strain respectively. The results confirmed similar editing frequencies with transcriptome data and the PVW ratios were stable along time among different NDVs, but had a greater V-gene transcript on velogenic strain infection (P<0.001), which were different from previous reports. Also, it was shown that the number of inserted G residues in P-derived transcripts was not limited to +9G, and +10G transcripts were identified. These results confirmed the NDV P-gene editing frequencies and provided a novel point of view on NDV P-gene editing with NDV virulence.

  • Keita SATO, Jiro MIYAMAE, Manabu SAKAI, Masaharu OKANO, Fumihiko KATAK ...
    論文ID: 20-0142
    発行日: 2020年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2020/07/06
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    Transplantation medicine is used for the treatment of severe canine diseases, and the dog leukocyte antigen (DLA) is considered to be important in graft rejection. However, the utility of direct sequencing of both DLA classes I and II has not been assessed thoroughly. Eight healthy beagles with identified DLA genes were divided into two sets of four dogs, each including one donor and three recipients for skin transplantation. The following recipients were selected: one dog with a complete match, one with a haploidentical match, and one with a complete mismatch of the DLA gene with the donor. Full-thickness skin segments were obtained from each donor and transplanted to the recipients. A mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) assay was performed and analyzed by flow cytometry. Skin grafts of DLA haploidentical and mismatched pairs were grossly rejected within 14 days, whereas in fully matched DLA pairs, survival was as long as 21 days. Histopathological evaluation also showed moderate to severe lymphocytic infiltration and necrosis in DLA mismatched pairs. As seen in the MLR assay, the stimulation index of DLA mismatched pairs was significantly higher than that of fully matched DLA pairs in both sets (P<0.001). The allogeneic transplantation results suggested that it is possible to prolong transplant engraftment by completely matching the DLA genotype between the donor and recipient. Additionally, the MLR assay may be used as a simplified in vitro method to select donors.

  • Risa MAKISHIMA, Hirotaka KONDO, Atsuto NARUKE, Hisashi SHIBUYA
    論文ID: 20-0220
    発行日: 2020年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2020/07/01
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    An 8-year-and-9-month-old male, lop-eared rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) presented with gradual enlargement of the left eye to 4 × 4 × 4 cm and exophthalmos. The animal died 3 months later, and necropsy was performed. On gross pathology, the intraocular tissue was effaced and occluded by a hard, light-gray mass. Histologically, the mass comprised spindle-shaped to angular cells arranged in interlacing bundles with abundant production of osteoid and cartilage, consistent with osteosarcoma. Limited cases of intraocular neoplasm have been reported in pet rabbits. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the first pathologic documentation of intraocular osteosarcoma in a rabbit.

  • Nozomi SHIWA, Daria Llenaresas MANALO, Bazartseren BOLDBAATAR, Akira N ...
    論文ID: 20-0252
    発行日: 2020年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2020/06/26
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    We previously reported a novel diagnostic method using follicle-sinus complexes (FSCs) in the muzzle skin for postmortem diagnosis of rabies in dogs. However, whether this method works in other animal species remains unclear. Here, FSCs were collected from a wolf, a red fox, 2 bats, and a cat, and examined for the presence of viral antigen, viral mRNA, and viral particles. Viral antigen and viral mRNA were confirmed in Merkel cells (MCs) in FSCs of all species. Electron microscopy performed using only samples from wolf and cat confirmed viral particles in MCs of FSCs. These results suggested that this novel diagnostic method using FSCs might be useful for detection of rabies not only in domestic but also wild animals.

  • Ken HAZANO, Shingo HANEDA, Mitsunori KAYANO, Ryotaro MIURA, Motozumi M ...
    論文ID: 20-0199
    発行日: 2020年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2020/06/24
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    The aims of this study were to compare the effects of an intramuscular human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration on corpus luteum (CL) development, plasma progesterone (P4) and estradiol (E2) concentration in ipsilateral (first-wave dominant follicle [W1DF] in the same ovary as the CL) and contralateral (W1DF and CL in opposite ovaries) cattle. Cross-bred beef heifers (Holstein × Japanese black, n=83) with synchronized ovulation were randomly assigned to either treatment with 1,500 IU hCG or no treatment on day 5 post-ovulation and were subdivided into ipsilateral (hCG treatment, n=21; no treatment, n=23) or contralateral (hCG treatment, n=17; no treatment, n=17) groups. Five heifers were excluded from the study, as they presented with double ovulation in response to hCG treatment. The effects of hCG treatment, location (ipsilateral and contralateral), and the number of days post-ovulation (days 5, 7, and 14) were analyzed using three-way ANOVA. hCG treatment significantly increased CL diameter on day 7 and plasma P4 concentration on days 7 and 14 in the contralateral group, but not the ipsilateral group. In contrast, hCG treatment decreased plasma E2 concentration on days 7 and 14 in both groups. In summary, our results indicate that the hCG treatment more significantly promoted CL development and increased plasma P4 concentration in the contralateral than in the ipsilateral group.

  • Hyang-Sim LEE, Sun-Young PARK, Ah-Young KIM, Sang-Oh LEE, Jae-Seok KIM ...
    論文ID: 19-0559
    発行日: 2020年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2020/06/23
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    Foot-and-mouth disease is one of the most highly contagious animal diseases. In an effort to overcome the drawbacks of the currently used inactivated foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine, a novel recombinant protein carrying foot-and-mouth disease virus VP1 GH loop epitope linked to vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein was expressed in a baculovirus system. Its antigenicity was confirmed with ELISA using monoclonal antibody against foot-and-mouth disease virus. Twice immunizations one month apart in field pigs resulted in a significant antibody increase compared to the glutathione S-transferase carrier containing the same epitope and the commercial vaccine. To my knowledge, this is the first report that the recombinant protein vaccine was superior to the current vaccine. Although further studies are required to examine their immunogenicity in a large number of animals, this study sheds light on the development of a novel recombinant protein vaccine that could be easily produced in a general laboratory as an alternative to the current FMD vaccine, which requires a biosafety level 3 containment facility for vaccine production.

  • Atsushi KOBAYASHI, Sayaka TSUCHIDA, Takanari HATTORI, Koretsugu OGATA, ...
    論文ID: 20-0003
    発行日: 2020年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2020/06/23
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    Ex situ conservation of Japanese rock ptarmigans began in 2015 with the aim of reintroducing artificially raised birds into their original habitat. However, the current raising method in captivity seems insufficient in terms of the survivability of artificially raised birds in natural conditions. Feeding management is one potential reason for such insufficiency. In this study, we performed a comprehensive analysis of the hydrophilic metabolites by LC-MS/MS for the cecal feces of Japanese rock ptarmigans under in situ and ex situ conservation to reveal their gut chemical environment. We also analyzed the developmental processes of cecal microbiomes both in situ semi-wild and ex situ captive individuals. Metabolites of nucleic acid were rich in the in situ individuals, and free amino acids were rich in the ex situ individuals. The differences in the microbiome composition between in situ and ex situ individuals were also pronounced; major genera of in situ individuals were not detected or few in ex situ individuals. The alpha diversity of the cecal microbiome of semi-wild chicks at 1 week of age was almost the same as that of their hens, while it was very low in captive individuals. Sub-therapeutic use of oxytetracycline, a diet rich in protein and energy, and isolation from adult birds are considered to be causes for these great differences in gut chemical and microbiological environment between in situ and ex situ individuals.

  • Joonyoung KIM, Chang-Min LEE, Ha-Jung KIM
    論文ID: 20-0125
    発行日: 2020年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2020/06/23
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    The aim of this study was to determine whether serum symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) and cystatin C (CysC) levels can be utilized as more accurate markers of early kidney dysfunction in dogs. Forty-one client-owned dogs with chronic kidney disease (CKD), which were clinically stable, and ten beagles as healthy controls were included. All dogs underwent physical examination, systemic blood pressure measurement, complete blood cell count (CBC), and plasma biochemistry analyses. Frozen serum was used for SDMA and CysC analyses. Data analysis was performed using Kruskal Wallis, Pearson’s correlation, Bland-Altman plots, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. SDMA and CysC levels were significantly higher in patients with CKD at various International Renal Interest Society (IRIS) stages than in the healthy controls. In particular, CysC level was the only biomarker that could indicate the earliest stage of CKD (IRIS stage I). Similar to these results, CysC level showed better sensitivity and specificity compared to the other biomarkers in early CKD dogs.

  • Hitoshi HATAI, Katsuhisa NAGAI, Yuki TANAKA, Noriaki MIYOSHI
    論文ID: 20-0305
    発行日: 2020年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2020/06/22
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS) is a rare mesenchymal tumor with differentiation toward the skeletal muscle. Although several cases of canine ARMS have been reported in veterinary medicine, only one case of abdominal ARMS has been reported in a cow. A 13-month-old, Japanese black heifer was referred for pus-like nasal discharge. On autopsy, an 11 × 7 × 4.5-cm pedunculated mass closed to the left palatine tonsillar sinus that occupied the laryngopharynx. Histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses indicated that the tumor was a typical ARMS. To the best of our knowledge, this has been the first case of primary pharyngeal ARMS in a Japanese black heifer, which is rare among cows. Nonetheless, its characteristics, including site, age and subtype, are identical to those among humans and dogs.

  • Tetsuro KURAME, Konosuke OTOMARU, Masaya HIRATA, Shingo ISHIKAWA, Mich ...
    論文ID: 20-0110
    発行日: 2020年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2020/06/19
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    This study aimed to analyze the pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin (ERFX) and its metabolite ciprofloxacin (CPFX) in plasma, as well as their migration to, and retention in, the epithelial lining fluid (ELF) and alveolar cells within the bronchoalveolar fluid (BALF). Four healthy calves were subcutaneously administered a single dose of ERFX (5 mg/kg). ERFX and CPFX dynamics post-administration were analyzed via a non-compartment model, including the absorption phase. The Cmax of plasma ERFX was 1.6 ± 0.4 μg/ml at 2.3 ± 0.5 hr post-administration and gradually decreased to 0.14 ± 0.03 μg/ml at 24 hr following administration. The mean residence time between 0 and 24 hr (MRT0-24) in plasma was 6.9 ± 1.0 hr. ERFX concentrations in ELF and alveolar cells peaked at 3.0 ± 2.0 hr and 4.0 ± 2.3 hr following administration, respectively, and gradually decreased to 0.9 ± 0.8 μg/ml and 0.8 ± 0.5 μg/ml thereafter. The plasma half-life (t1/2) of ERFX was 6.5 ± 0.7 hr, while that in ELF and alveolar cells was 6.5 ± 3.6 and 7.4 ± 4.3 hr, respectively. The Cmax and the area under the concentration-time curve for 0–24 hr for ERFX were significantly higher in alveolar cells than in plasma (P<0.05). These results suggest that ERFX is distributed at high concentrations in ELF and is retained at high concentrations in alveolar cells after 24 hr in the BALF region; hence, ERFX may be an effective therapeutic agent against pneumonia.

  • Moe IJIRI, Shingo ISHIKAWA, Yoshinori JIBIKI, Masataka MIYAZAWA, Akane ...
    論文ID: 20-0239
    発行日: 2020年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2020/06/19
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the distribution of marbofloxacin (MBFX) within the bronchoalveolar region of pigs. Four clinically healthy pigs were intramuscularly injected with a single dose of MBFX (2mg/kg). Samples of plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were obtained for each pig at 0 (before administration), 3, 8 and 24 hr after administration of MBFX. As a result, the MBFX concentrations in pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (ELF) and in alveolar cells showed a similar pattern of concentrations during the experimental period. The MBFX concentrations both in ELF and alveolar cells were higher than in plasma. These results suggest that intramuscularly injected MBFX was well distributed in the bronchoalveolar region.

  • Nana USHINE, Shouta M.M. NAKAYAMA, Mayumi ISHIZUKA, Tatsuo SATO, Yoshi ...
    論文ID: 20-0246
    発行日: 2020年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2020/06/19
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    Few studies have evaluated immunosuppression due to lead accumulation below the overt toxicity threshold. If low levels of lead accumulation cause immunosuppression in birds, those birds could become more susceptible to pathogens. We aimed to determine if low levels of lead accumulation lead to immunosuppression in Black-headed gulls (Chroicocephalus ridibundus). Gulls were captured in Tokyo-bay and Mikawa-bay from January to April 2019. Their blood samples were analyzed for eight items. The data were analyzed to evaluate the correlation between lead concentrations and the variables from each bay. Lead was positively correlated with the percentage of heterophils and heterophil and lymphocyte ratio and negatively with lymphocytes. Thus, low lead accumulation levels may induce changes in percentage of the heterophils and lymphocyte.

  • Chutimon THANABOONNIPAT, Saikaew SUTAYATRAM, Chollada BURANAKARL, Nan ...
    論文ID: 19-0496
    発行日: 2020年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2020/06/18
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common renal disease in dogs and cats. Renal fibrosis is a main pathologic process leading of CKD progression. Renal biopsy is the gold standard for renal fibrosis assessment. However, it is not routinely performed in clinic due to its invasiveness. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the use of ultrasonographic strain elastography (SE), which is a non-invasive method for renal tissue stiffness determination and its association with renal function. Renal strain ratios and renal function were evaluated in 13 CKD dogs (CKDD), 38 healthy dogs (HD), 17 CKD cats (CKDC) and 26 healthy cats (HC). There were significantly lower renal cortical strain ratios than medullary strain ratios in all groups (HD; P<0.01, HC; P<0.01, CKDD and CKDC; P<0.05) and significantly lower cortical and medullary strain ratios in both CKDD and CKDC than in healthy control animals of both species (P<0.0001). In dogs, the renal cortical and medullary strain ratios significantly negatively correlated with plasma creatinine (P<0.05), blood urea nitrogen (BUN; P<0.05; P<0.01, respectively), and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA; P<0.01). In cats, similar correlations were found for plasma creatinine (P<0.001), BUN (P<0.05; P<0.001, respectively) and SDMA (P<0.05). SE might be a promising imaging diagnostic tool for renal-elasticity evaluation, also correlating with renal functional impairment in canine and feline CKD.

  • Chihiro ISHII, Yoshinori IKENAKA, Shouta M.M. NAKAYAMA, Takeshi KURITA ...
    論文ID: 20-0104
    発行日: 2020年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2020/06/18
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    Birds of a number of species have died as a result of lead (Pb) poisoning, including many Steller’s sea eagles (Haliaeetus pelagicus) and white-tailed sea eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) in Hokkaido, the northernmost island of Japan. To address this issue, the use of any type of Pb ammunition for hunting of large animals was prohibited in Hokkaido in 2004. However, Pb poisoning is still being reported in this area, and there are few regulations regarding the use of Pb ammunition in other parts of Japan, where it has been reported that eagles and water birds have been exposed to Pb. This study was performed to accurately determine the current level of Pb exposure of birds found dead in the field or dead in the wild bird centers in Japan (June 2015–May 2018) and to identify the sources of Pb. Pb exposure was found to still be occurring in raptors and water birds in various parts of Japan. 26.5% and 5.9% of the recorded deaths of Steller’s sea eagles and white-tailed sea eagles, respectively, were found to have been poisoned by Pb. In addition, Pb isotope ratio analysis showed that both Pb rifle bullets and Pb shot pellets cause Pb exposure in birds, and these endangered eagles are also exposed to Pb in Hokkaido due to the illegal use of Pb ammunition. Changing to Pb-free ammunition, such as copper (Cu) rifle bullets, steel shot pellets, or bismuth shot pellets, will be essential for the conservation of avian species in Japan.

  • Onalenna KEREILWE, Hiroya KADOKAWA
    論文ID: 20-0159
    発行日: 2020年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2020/06/17
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    Cow fertility decreases with age, but the hypothalamic pathomechanisms are not understood. Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) stimulates gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons via AMH receptor type 2 (AMHR2), and most GnRH neurons in the preoptic area (POA), arcuate nucleus (ARC), and median eminence (ME) express AMH and AMHR2. Therefore, we hypothesized that both protein amounts would differ in the anterior hypothalamus (containing the POA) and posterior hypothalamus (containing the ARC and ME) between young post-pubertal heifers and old cows. Western blot analysis showed lower (P<0.05) expressions of AMH and AMHR2 in the posterior hypothalamus, but not in the anterior hypothalamus, of old Japanese Black cows compared to young heifers. Therefore, AMH and AMHR2 were decreased in the posterior hypothalami of old cows.

  • El-Sayed EL-ALFY, Yoshifumi NISHIKAWA
    論文ID: 20-0151
    発行日: 2020年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2020/06/15
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    Cryptosporidium species infect domestic animals, livestock, and humans. These protozoan parasites are frequently reported as major environmental contaminants in many countries despite their differing climatic, socioeconomic, and demographic factors. This review focuses on the research findings that relate to Cryptosporidium epidemiology, genetic diversity, and associated risk factors relating to animals, contaminated water sources, and humans in Japan. Adequate knowledge of these factors is essential for understanding the economic and public health importance of cryptosporidiosis in Japan so that effective control strategies against it are implemented. Cryptosporidium infections are highly prevalent in animals in Japan. Among the different animal species, cattle infections stand out because of their economic importance and zoonotic potential. Living circumstances in Japan restrain Cryptosporidium transmission between humans, but there is evidence to suggest that animals, especially those in close contact with humans, can be potential sources of human infections. Water sampling studies have provided clues about how environmental contamination with Cryptosporidium oocysts can cause infections in livestock and wild animals. There is some evidence of person-to-person transmission of cryptosporidiosis, but only occasionally and under certain circumstances. By identifying the major role played by animals in Cryptosporidium transmission to people in Japan, we highlight the urgent need for disease control against this pathogen.

  • Changqiang ZHU, Ting HE, Ting WU, Lele AI, Dan HU, Xiaohong YANG, Ruic ...
    論文ID: 20-0081
    発行日: 2020年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2020/06/10
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    Dabieshan tick virus (DBV) belongs to phlebovirus and its pathogenicity to human and animals is unknown. To investigate the presence of Dabieshan tick virus in Zhoushan, 244 ticks were collected from May 2018 to October 2019. The detection result showed that the average prevalence rate among these samples was 30.3% (107 positives out of 353 samples), which means DBVs are widely distributed in tick populations in Zhoushan of China. In a phylogenetic analysis based on the nucleotide sequences of the L and S segments of the virus (ZS-DBS-2018 tick virus) in the study, it clustered with Dabieshan tick virus (KM817666.1, KM817733.1) with a 97.1% and 99.6% nucleotide identity, respectively. Further studies involving virus isolation are required to characterize Dabieshan tick virus and to expand the geographical distribution of the sampled ticks.

  • Ikki MITSUI, Shigeaki OHTSUKI, Kazuyuki UCHIDA
    論文ID: 20-0088
    発行日: 2020年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2020/06/10
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    Hepatobiliary diseases of animals are frequently diagnosed by a combination of imaging, clinical pathology, and histopathology. A standardized surgical liver biopsy protocol, however, has not been established in veterinary medicine with regard to the selection of lobe and site of the liver to yield the most diagnostic information. To address this matter, we histologically examined 33 livers of autopsied dogs from which tissue samples of 4 different lobes as well as 4 different sites of each lobe were prepared. We measured the hepatic lobular diameter (HLD) as an objective variable to refer to the inter-lobar or inter-site difference among the biopsied samples. A measurement of 2,623 hepatic lobules resulted in 1.042 mm as the average of all the HLD values. Statistical analysis further revealed that the HLD tended to be small in a superficial 2 mm area of the liver parenchyma regardless of biopsy location, thus this area should be evaluated carefully by pathologists. The results also suggest that the HLD values of the quadrate lobe may measure smaller than those in the other lobes. Therefore, one would be able to obtain representative data of the entire liver by taking a sample from any single lobe except for the quadrate lobe. HLD measurements are needed in order to accumulate potentially useful information on the microanatomy and pathophysiology of the liver.

  • Madeh SADAN, El-Sayed EL-SHAFAEY, Fahd AL-SOBAYIL
    論文ID: 19-0621
    発行日: 2020年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2020/06/08
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    This study describes the clinical presentation of ruminal and reticular foreign body syndrome (RRFBS), and evaluates the effect of mineral deficiency on its occurrence in dromedary camels. Thirty dromedary camels were divided into two groups. Group 1 (control) included 10 apparently healthy she-camels. Group 2 consisted of twenty dromedary camels diagnosed with RRFBS on the basis of clinical, ultrasonographic, hematological, and biochemical examinations. Clinical findings showed decreased appetite and milk yield, tympany, and gradual body weight loss. Ultrasonographic examinations revealed the presence of hyperechoic material with variable degrees of shadowing. Hematological evaluation showed a significant (P<0.05) decrease of the total erythrocyte and lymphocyte count and a significant increase of neutrophils in the camels with RRFBS compared to the controls. Biochemical tests showed a significant elevation in the activity of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), creatine kinase (CK), glucose, creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen and a significant decrease of sodium, chloride, potassium, cobalt, iron, and selenium in the camels with RRFBS compared to the controls. Rumenotomy was performed on the 20 camels as a surgical intervention for treating the RRFBS. By the 6th month postoperatively, all surgically treated camels had completely recovered except for one with tympany and slight swelling in situ. In conclusion, trace element deficiency might play an important role in the occurrence of foreign body ingestion syndrome in dromedary camels. Moreover, clinical, ultrasonographic, hematological, and biochemical examinations are considered as tools assisting in the accurate diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment stratagem for RRFBS in camels.

  • Yoshiyuki TSUCHIYA, Naoya KAWAHARA, Yo-Han KIM, Toshihiro ICHIJO, Shig ...
    論文ID: 20-0024
    発行日: 2020年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2020/06/08
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    We investigated changes in oxidative stress markers during the transition period in healthy Holstein cows and those with postpartum diseases. Transition control (TC) Holstein cows (n=9) were evaluated for longitudinal changes during the transition period and postpartum diseased (PD) cows with ketosis (n=10), abomasal displacement (n=9), and acute mastitis (n=10) were evaluated in comparison to control cows (n=10). In the TC group, blood samples were collected at 2 weeks prepartum and at 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks postpartum. Milk yield and composition were measured at 2 and 4 weeks postpartum. In the PD group, blood samples were collected at the first day of examination during the 60 days postpartum. Peripheral oxidative stress parameters (malondialdehyde, MDA; potential antioxidant capacity, PAO; and glutathione peroxidase) were measured, and biochemical analyses were performed. In the TC group, MDA increased significantly postpartum and was correlated with milk yield, blood glucose (Glu), free fatty acid (FFA), β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHB), and aspartate aminotransferase. Compared to the control cows, PD cows with ketosis had significantly higher MDA and significantly lower PAO. Moreover, MDA was significantly correlated with Glu, FFA, and BHB. Postpartum increase in MDA might interact with milk yield and Glu, FFA, and BHB in the TC cows, and postpartum diseases, especially ketosis, might signify its increase and interaction with Glu, FFA, and BHB.

  • Hitoshi HATAI, Kaori TOKOROZAKI, Yuko HARAGUCHI, Tsutomu MATSUI, Makot ...
    論文ID: 20-0241
    発行日: 2020年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2020/06/08
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    An adult male Hooded crane was found dead on the Izumi plane. At autopsy, subcutaneous nodules were found around the medial and lateral sides of the left distal tibiotarsus bone. The largest cross-section of the masses revealed a multilobular pattern, with small amounts of viscous mucus. Histopathologically, the nodules were composed of three types of neoplastic cells: chondrocytic cells with abundant lightly basophilic cartilaginous matrices, mesenchymal cells and a small portion of the neoplastic tissue consisted of undifferentiated neoplastic cells exhibiting a high mitotic count and frequent multinucleation. This is the first case of a chondrosarcoma including undifferentiated neoplastic cell proliferation in a wild Hooded crane.

  • Yui KOBAYASHI, Tatsuro NAKAMURA, Koji KOBAYASHI, Takahisa MURATA
    論文ID: 20-0238
    発行日: 2020年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2020/06/05
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids including arachidonic acid (AA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), are converted to lipid mediators by oxidation. Unlike other mammals, cats cannot synthesize AA. Since their lipid metabolic features remain unknown, we qualitatively analyzed 118 types of urinary lipid metabolites in healthy neutered cats. Using LC-MS, we found 26 lipid metabolites in urines of all individuals. In detail, 20 AA-, 5 EPA- and 1 DHA-derived lipid mediators were detected. Focusing on oxidative pathway, 17 cyclooxygenase-metabolites and 5 metabolites produced by non-enzymatic pathway were detected. Of interest, few lipoxygenase- or cytochrome P450-metabolites were excreted. Thus, AA-derived cyclooxygenase-metabolites mainly composed the urinary lipid metabolites in cats.

  • Noboru SASAKI, Noriyuki NAGATA, Keitaro MORISHITA, Tatsuyuki OSUGA, Ka ...
    論文ID: 20-0183
    発行日: 2020年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2020/06/04
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    The feasibility of ultrasonographic measurement of thyroid gland area to common carotid artery (TG:CCA) was investigated. Twenty-one healthy, 12 hypothyroid and 18 non-thyroid illness (NTI) dogs were evaluated. The area of thyroid lobe and common carotid artery in right and left sides were measured using the same ultrasonographic images in transverse plane. The average of the right and left ratio was calculated as TG:CCA. The median TG:CCA of 21 healthy dogs was 1.53, and it did not correlate either body weight or age. The median TG:CCA of 12 hypothyroid dogs was 0.81, which was significantly lower than that of 18 NTI dogs (1.81, P<0.001). If the cut off value <1.12 was used, TG:CCA indicated hypothyroidism with a sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 83%, and accuracy of 90%. Our data indicated that TG:CCA was independent of both body weight, which may contribute to consistent measurement of thyroid size. The results of this study suggest that TG:CCA is a promising tool for diagnosing canine hypothyroidism.

  • Bernardo Nascimento ANTUNES, Henrique Jonatha TAVARES, Marta Lizandra ...
    論文ID: 19-0409
    発行日: 2020年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2020/06/02
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    A lamb presented with recurrent prolapse of the descending colon. On clinical examination, intussusception of the descending colon with the prolapse of a segment was verified. The external anal sphincter had a rupture, extending to the lacerated wound in the anus. The lamb underwent colopexy with the two-portal video-assisted incisional technique and was discharged 6 days after the surgical procedure with a satisfactory clinical outcome. There were no recurrences or complications for at least 9 months. Video-assisted colopexy is an alternative treatment for intussusception and recurrent colon prolapse in sheep, even in the presence of an external anal sphincter rupture.

  • Marina OTSUKA, Yasunobu NISHI, Kenji TSUKANO, Masakazu TSUCHIYA, Jeffr ...
    論文ID: 19-0629
    発行日: 2020年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2020/06/02
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    The objective of the present study was to elucidate sequential changes in mRNA abundance of serum amyloid A (SAA) isotypes in endotoxin (ETX) challenge model cattle. Ten healthy cattle were separated to 2 groups: control and ETX groups. Cattle in the ETX group were challenged by 2.5 µg/kg of O111:B4 lipopolysaccharide in 4 ml of autologous serum. Blood samples were withdrawn at pre, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hr after ETX challenge. Plasma ETX activity, serum SAA concentrations, mRNA abundance of interleukin (IL)-6, SAA2 and SAA4 in the liver and polymorphonuclear leukocytes were measured. The plasma ETX activity in the ETX group increased at 0.5 hr after the ETX challenge. The serum SAA value remained higher between 12 and 72 hr after the ETX challenge than that of the control group. Hepatic IL-6 mRNA abundance in the ETX group increased at 2 hr after the ETX challenge. Hepatic SAA2 and SAA4 mRNA abundance significantly increased from 4 hr after administration, and remained significantly higher than those pre-values up to 12 and 24 hr, respectively. The abundance ratio of hepatic SAA2 was much higher than that of SAA4. The major isotype was SAA2 in liver tissue, and it is indicating systemic inflammation in cattle.

  • Satoki NAKANISHI, Youhei MANTANI, Tomohiro HARUTA, Toshifumi YOKOYAMA, ...
    論文ID: 20-0175
    発行日: 2020年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2020/06/02
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    The comprehensive targets of innervation in the intestinal mucosa are unknown, partly because of the diversity of cell types and the complexity of the neural circuits. Herein, we investigated the comprehensive targets of neural connectivity and analyzed the precise characteristics of their contact structures in the mucosa of rat ileum. We examined target cells of neural connections and the characteristics of their contact structures by serial block-face scanning electron microscopy at four portions of the rat ileal mucosa: the apical and basal portions in the villi, and the lateral and basal portions around/in the crypts. Nerve fibers were in contact with several types of fibroblast-like cells (FBLCs), macrophage-like cells, eosinophils, lymphocyte-like cells, and other types of cells. The nerve fibers almost always ran more inside of lamina propria than subepithelial FBLC, and thus contacts with epithelial cells were very scarce. The contact structures of the nerve fibers were usually contained synaptic vesicle-like structures, and we classified them into patterns based on the number of nerve fiber contacting the target cells at one site, the maximum diameter of the contact structures, and the relationship between nerve fibers and nerve bundles. The contact structures for each type of cells occasionally dug into the cellular bodies of the target cells. We revealed the comprehensive targets of neural connectivity based on the characteristics of contact structures, and identified FBLCs, immunocompetent cells, and eosinophils as the candidate targets for innervation in the rat ileal mucosa.

  • Dung Thi LE, Nanako YAMASHITA-KAWANISHI, Mari OKAMOTO, Son Vu NGUYEN, ...
    論文ID: 20-0094
    発行日: 2020年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2020/06/01
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) belongs to the genus, Deltaretrovirus of the family, Retroviridae and it is the causative agent of enzootic bovine leukosis. The prevalence of BLV in three provinces in the Red River Delta Region in the North of Vietnam, Hanoi, Vinhphuc and Bacninh was studied from April 2017 to June 2018. A total of 275 blood samples collected from cattle were used for serum isolation and DNA extraction. Of these samples, 266 sera were subjected to ELISA test for detecting antibody against BLV gp51 protein and 152 DNA samples were used to detect the 444 bp fragment corresponding to a part of the gp51 region of the env by nested PCR. The results showed that 16.5% (n=44) and 21.1% (n=32) of samples were positive for BLV gp51 antibody and BLV proviral DNA, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of the partial (423 bp) and complete (913 bp) BLV env-gp51 gene indicated that Vietnamese strains were clustered into genotypes 1, 6 and 10 (G1, G6 and G10). Of those genotypes, G1 genotype was dominant; G6 strains were designated as G6e and G6f subgenotypes; the existence of genotype 10 was confirmed for the first time in Vietnam. The present study provides important information regarding the prevalence of BLV infection and genetic characteristics of BLV strains identified in Vietnam, contributing to promote the establishment of disease control and eradication strategies in Vietnam.

  • Tadatoshi OHTAKI, Kanae OGATA, Hiroshi KAJIKAWA, Toshiaki SUMIYOSHI, S ...
    論文ID: 20-0117
    発行日: 2020年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2020/05/27
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    A high-concentrate diet destroys gram-negative bacteria in the cattle rumen, leading to elevated ruminal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels. LPS causes liver inflammation through the hepatic portal vein but little is known about the effects of rumen-derived LPS on liver function and the reproductive organs. In this study, we determined the effect of increasing rumen fluid LPS levels on liver function and genital LPS levels. Cows were assigned to control (CON; n=5) and high-concentrate diet (HC; n=7) groups. We observed that the ruminal LPS and haptoglobin (Hp) levels were significantly higher and albumin levels were lower in the HC group than in the CON group. In the HC group, The Hp levels and aspartate transaminase (AST) activity were significantly higher and the total cholesterol levels were significantly lower after high-concentrate diet feeding than before feeding. No differences were observed in LPS levels in the peripheral veins, hepatic veins, hepatic portal vein, uterine perfusate, and follicular fluids between the groups. In all samples, the LPS level in the hepatic portal vein blood positively correlated with the AST activity and serum amyloid A level. In conclusion, our results indicate that high-concentrate diets do not have a direct effect on the reproductive organs upon a moderate ruminal LPS level increase. However, an increased ruminal LPS influx into the liver might affect negatively liver function.

  • Sou WADA, Hironari KOYAMA, Kazuto YAMASHITA
    論文ID: 20-0043
    発行日: 2020年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2020/05/26
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    To evaluate the sedative and physiological effects of alfaxalone intramuscular (IM) administration, 12 healthy cynomolgus monkeys were administered single IM doses of alfaxalone at 0.625 mg/kg (ALFX0.625), 1.25 mg/kg (ALFX1.25), 2.5 mg/kg (ALFX2.5), 5 mg/kg (ALFX5), 7.5 mg/kg (ALFX7.5), or 10 mg/kg (ALFX10); saline was used as the control (CONT). The sedative effects were subjectively evaluated using a composite measure scoring system in six animals. Changes in respiratory rate, pulse rate, non-invasive blood pressure, percutaneous oxygen-hemoglobin saturation (SpO2), and rectal temperature were observed after IM treatments in the other six animals. All animals were allowed to lay down following the ALFX5, ALFX7.5, and ALFX10 treatments, whereas lateral recumbency was achieved in only two animals after ALFX2.5 treatment and none after the CONT, ALFX 0.625, and ALFX1.25 treatments. The median time (interquartile range) to lateral recumbency was 6.5 min (5.3–7.8), 4.0 min (4.0–4.0), and 3.0 min (3.0–3.8), and the duration of immobilization was 27.5 min (19.0–33.8), 56.0 min (42.3–60.8), and 74.5 min (62.8–78.0) after the ALFX5, ALFX7.5, and ALFX10 treatments, respectively. Endotracheal intubation was achieved in all six animals after the ALFX7.5 and ALFX10 treatments. Dose-dependent decreases in respiratory rate, non-invasive blood pressure, SpO2, and rectal temperature were observed, and the quality of recovery was smooth in all animals after the ALFX5, ALFX7.5, and ALFX10 treatments. Thus, alfaxalone IM induced a dose-dependent sedative effect in cynomolgus monkeys, but at higher doses, hypotension, hypoxemia, and hypothermia could be induced.

  • Masakazu SHIMADA, Nichika MIZOKAMI, Tom ICHINOHE, Nobuo KANNO, Shuji S ...
    論文ID: 19-0613
    発行日: 2020年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2020/05/25
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    The object of this study is to evaluate the long-term outcome of hind limb weight-bearing function and progression of stifle osteoarthritis (OA) after tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO). Groups were classified by the degree of cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) damage and presence or absence of medial meniscus damage as macroscopically evaluated during surgery. Weight-bearing function was assessed via the peak vertical force (PVF), and OA progression was assessed via the radiographic OA score (OAS) preoperatively and 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36 months postoperatively. In all stifles, PVF was significantly higher within 6 months postoperatively than preoperatively, and this high ratio was maintained for 36 months. The OAS was significantly higher 24 months postoperatively than preoperatively in stifles with a partial CrCL tear, and significantly increased at each timepoint after 3 months postoperatively in stifles with complete CrCL rupture. The OAS remained consistently lower in stifles with a partial CrCL tear and no treatment of the medial meniscus than in stifles with complete rupture. Thus, after TPLO, the weight-bearing function improved in the early postoperative period and was maintained for as long as 36 months. Although OA progressed over time after TPLO, the progression was more gradual in stifles with partial tears than in those with complete rupture. Canine patients would benefit from earlier surgical intervention through development of technology that enables early detection of ligament degeneration.

  • Younghye RO, Woojae CHOI, Junho PARK, Eunhui CHOE, Danil KIM
    論文ID: 20-0048
    発行日: 2020年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2020/05/25
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    This study was performed to confirm the alterations of blood and urine parameters in artificially induced hypocalcemic cows. For a 2 х 2 cross-over design, four non-pregnant, non-lactating Holstein Friesian cows (622.5 ± 63.49 kg) were utilized. Cows in the treatment and control group were infused with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (Na2EDTA) solution and normal saline through an intravenous catheter for 3 hr, respectively. Laboratory analyses included complete blood cell count, plasma chemistry, blood gas analysis and urine chemistry. During the hypocalcemic period, abnormal signs were not observed clinically, hematologically nor biochemically either in groups. But, plasma calcium and magnesium concentrations continued to decrease throughout Na2EDTA infusion, and significant group differences (P<0.05 or P<0.001) were detected until 5 hr after the initiation of infusion. Urinary excretions of these minerals were significantly reduced compared to the control group by 6 hr (Ca, P<0.05; Mg, P<0.001). Moreover, there is a significant group difference in the change in plasma pH at 1 hr after Na2EDTA infusion (P<0.05) and maintained a decreased level until 6 hr. Consequently, the blood pH was diminished simultaneously with hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia induction in cows infused with Na2EDTA. This phenomenon may be one of the mechanisms to recover normocalcemia including maximizing the effect of parathyroid hormone, however, further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanism to alter the blood pH in hypocalcemia.

  • SUPRIYONO, Ryusei KUWATA, Shun TORII, Hiroshi SHIMODA, Keita ISHIJIMA, ...
    論文ID: 20-0261
    発行日: 2020年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2020/05/25
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    Mosquitoes transmit many kinds of arboviruses (arthropod-borne viruses), and numerous arboviral diseases have become serious problems in Indonesia. In this study, we conducted surveillance of mosquito-borne viruses at several sites in Indonesia during 2016–2018 for risk assessment of arbovirus infection and analysis of virus biodiversity in mosquito populations. We collected 10,015 mosquitoes comprising at least 11 species from 4 genera. Major collected mosquito species were Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes albopictus, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Aedes aegypti, and Armigeres subalbatus. The collected mosquitoes were divided into 285 pools and used for virus isolation using two mammalian cell lines, Vero and BHK-21, and one mosquito cell line, C6/36. Seventy-two pools showed clear cytopathic effects only in C6/36 cells. Using RT-PCR and next-generation sequencing approaches, these isolates were identified as insect flaviviruses (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus), Banna virus (family Reoviridae, genus Seadornavirus), new permutotetravirus (designed as Bogor virus) (family Permutotetraviridae, genus Alphapermutotetravirus), and alphamesoniviruses 2 and 3 (family Mesoniviridae, genus Alphamesonivirus). We believed that this large surveillance of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne viruses provides basic information for the prevention and control of emerging and re-emerging arboviral diseases.

  • Megumi ITOH, Yuuki HIRANO, Kazuhiro YAMAKAWA, Ichiro YASUTOMI, Keiko K ...
    論文ID: 19-0695
    発行日: 2020年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2020/05/22
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is typically used for the early detection of mycoplasma in bovine milk; it requires 3 days to obtain results because of the necessary enrichment process. A more rapid, simple, and accurate detection method is required to directly detect the Mycoplasma bovis (M. bovis) gene in milk. In this study, we assess the utility of combining the following two methods to achieve this goal: the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), which is more sensitive than PCR, and the procedure for ultra rapid extraction (PURE), which adsorbs and filters components that inhibit DNA amplification/detection. LAMP was examined using DNA extracts obtained by four methods. This showed that PURE had the highest sensitivity and specificity and that the combination of PURE and LAMP was able to detect M. bovis in milk. We then showed that the detection limit of M. bovis was 102 colony-forming units per milliliter of milk using the PURE–LAMP. Finally, the respective sensitivities of the PURE–LAMP and PCR were 57% and 86% for bulk tank milk, 89% and 74% for mature milk, 85% and 92% for colostrum/transitional milk, and 97% and 95% for mastitis milk. The specificity was 100% for all milk samples in both LAMP and PCR. We conclude that PCR was suitable for detecting mycoplasma in bulk tank milk and that the PURE–LAMP could detect mycoplasma within 2 hr and was also effective for mature and mastitis milk.

  • Hiroshi ISEKI, Kenji KAWASHIMA, Michihiro TAKAGI, Tomoyuki SHIBAHARA, ...
    論文ID: 20-0122
    発行日: 2020年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2020/05/22
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the cross-protective immunity between type 1 and type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) isolates in growing pigs. Japanese type 1 PRRSV, first isolated from a pig with respiratory disorders in a farm in 2009, exhibits unique genetic characteristics. The pathogenicity of a Japanese standard strain of type 2 PRRSV, EDRD1, in pigs immunized by the type 1 PRRSV isolate, Jpn EU 4-37 was determined by evaluating clinical signs, viremia, antibody response, and pathological lesions. Similarly, we evaluated the pathogenicity of Jpn EU 4-37 in pigs immunized by EDRD1 and compared the cross-protective immunity between these isolates. The EDRD1 challenge after Jpn EU 4-37 inoculation reduced viral clearance and shedding in pigs, compared to those treated with the EDRD1 single infection. On the other hand, the pathogenicity of Jpn EU 4-37 after EDRD1 infection did not differ significantly compared to non-immunized pigs treated with Jpn EU 4-37. Therefore, exposure to Jpn EU 4-37 could not induce enough immunity to reduce the viremia against subsequent infection by type 2 PRRSV. However, the immunity induced by Jpn EU 4-37 infection may play a role in reducing viremia caused by type 2 PRRSV. Moreover, the immunity induced by the EDRD1 and other genetically related viruses, which are broadly distributed in Japan, may not contribute to cross-protection against Jpn EU 4-37 as an emerging virus.

  • Michihito TAGAWA, Genya SHIMBO, Ken-Ichi WATANABE, Noriyuki HORIUCHI, ...
    論文ID: 20-0157
    発行日: 2020年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2020/05/22
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    A 12-year-old female domestic short-haired cat was presented due to weight loss, anorexia, and tachypnea. Complete blood count revealed severe anemia, leukocytosis with massive undifferentiated blast cells, and thrombocytopenia. Bone marrow aspiration showed acute myeloid leukemia, subclassified as monoblastic leukemia (M5a) based on the outcomes of the cytochemistry examinations. The SNAP feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) test using whole blood was negative. In addition, FeLV/FIV proviral polymerase chain reaction test using bone marrow aspirate was also negative. Although the cat was treated with doxorubicin, cytosine arabinoside, and prednisolone, anemia did not improve without blood transfusion. The owner declined further treatment after 2 months, and the cat died a few days later.

  • Kazuya TAKEHANA, Ryohei KITANI, Kaoru HATATE, Rurika ONOMI, Norio YAMA ...
    論文ID: 19-0666
    発行日: 2020年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2020/05/21
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    The anthropometric and blood data of an unsuccessfully hand-reared Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) calf were retrospectively compared with the data for calves raised by their real mothers or allomothers, to identify potential reasons for poor outcomes in the hand-reared case. The hand-reared calf grew normally in terms of body weight and withers height. However, blood biochemical data suggested reduced bone metabolism, low immune status, and malnutrition during its life. Blood bone markers were measured to determine whether a skeletal disorder was present in the Asian elephant calf, which was not clear from the anthropometric data. Monitoring these parameters in hand-reared Asian elephant calves, with the aim of keeping them within the normal range, may increase the success rate of hand-rearing of Asian elephant calves.

  • Kraisiri KHIDKHAN, Hazuki MIZUKAWA, Yoshinori IKENAKA, Shouta M. M. NA ...
    論文ID: 20-0140
    発行日: 2020年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2020/05/21
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    The knowledge of cytochrome P450 (CYP) expression involved in chemical exposure are necessary in clinical applications for the medication and prediction of adverse effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mRNA expression of CYP1–CYP3 families in cats exposed to BDE-209 for one year. All selected CYP isoforms showed no significant difference in mRNA expressions between control and exposure groups, however, CYP3A12 and CYP3A131 revealed tend to be two times higher in the exposure group compared to control group. The present results indicate that the chronic exposure of BDE209 could not alter CYP expression in the liver of cats. This result considered caused by the deficiency of CYP2B subfamily which is major metabolism enzyme of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in cat.

  • Seiya MAEHARA, Yoshiki ITOH, Wataru KURIMOTO, Yasunari KITAMURA, Yosuk ...
    論文ID: 20-0169
    発行日: 2020年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2020/05/21
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of pupil diameter on canine visual evoked potentials with pattern stimulation (P-VEP). Atropine eye drop (1.0%) was applied to both eyes as a cycloplegic drug, and tafluprost eye drop (0.015%) was applied to one eye that was selected randomly for miosis (miosis group). The other eye did not receive tafluprost (mydriasis group). P-VEP was recorded at three pattern sizes. The P100 implicit time at a small pattern size in the mydriasis group was significantly prolonged compared to the miosis group. We hypothesized that the prolonged P100 implicit time under mydriatic conditions was due to increased spherical aberrations and concluded that mydriatic conditions affected P100 implicit time in canine P-VEP recordings.

  • Rumika YOSHIDA, Go KITAHARA, Takeshi OSAWA
    論文ID: 20-0165
    発行日: 2020年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2020/05/20
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    This study aimed to describe the duration of inflammation after intrauterine infusion of polyvinylpyrrolidone-iodine (povidone-iodine, PVP-I), determine the effect of PVP-I infusion on the subsequent fertility, and evaluate the histopathology of the endometrium in dairy cows. In Experiment 1, 120 lactating clinically healthy Holstein-Friesian cows at 5 weeks postpartum (W5) were equally divided into three groups: intrauterine infusion of 2% PVP-I (PVP), saline (SAL), and no treatment (NTX). Endometrial cytology was performed daily from D0 (W5) to D7 to determine the percentage of polymorphonuclear cells (PMN%) in 44 of the 120 cows. All cows received timed artificial insemination at D17. In Experiment 2, 25 cows were randomly classified into sacrifice at 24 hr or 48 hr after 2% PVP-I infusion (PVP24 and PVP48), and 24, 48, 72, or 96 hr after SAL infusion (SAL24; SAL48; SAL72; SAL96), or no treatment (NTX). Histopathology was performed on the uterus of each cow. In Experiment 1, PMN% was greater in PVP (P<0.05) than in SAL and NTX, on D1, but decreased to a level similar to that of the other groups by D2. Conception rate was higher (P<0.05) in PVP cows compared to SAL and NTX cows. In Experiment 2, stratified columnar epithelium in the uterus disappeared in PVP24 and SAL24. The epithelium was regenerated in PVP48, SAL72, and SAL96, but not in SAL48. In conclusion, the results of the study suggest that PVP-I induces transient uterine inflammation, improves fertility, and promotes regeneration of endometrial epithelial cells.

  • Michihito TAGAWA, Genya SHIMBO, Mizuki TOMIHARI, Masashi YANAGAWA, Ken ...
    論文ID: 20-0068
    発行日: 2020年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2020/05/18
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    A 1-year-old male mixed breed dog presented for the evaluation of progressive hindlimb paresis. Neurological examination indicated a spinal cord lesion between the 3rd thoracic and 3rd lumbar vertebrae. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed an intramedullary spinal cord lesion located at the level of the 1st and 2nd lumbar vertebrae. Following cytoreductive surgery of the mass, palliative radiation therapy was administered. A diagnosis of nephroblastoma was made based on histological examination. After radiation therapy, the disappearance of the spinal lesion was confirmed by MRI. The dog was improved from gait abnormality and alive at 16 months postoperatively, with slight signs of neurological dysfunction.

  • Hanako MORITA, Masahiko YASUDA, Masafumi YAMAMOTO, Ritsuki UCHIDA, Mai ...
    論文ID: 20-0180
    発行日: 2020年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2020/05/18
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    To investigate the prevalence of murine astrovirus (MuAstV) in mice in laboratory animal facilities in Japan, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test targeting the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) gene was performed on the cecum contents of 1,212 mice (1,183 immunocompetent mice and 29 immunodeficient mice) from 226 facilities. The results showed that 118 (52.2%) of the 226 facilities were positive for MuAstV. Out of the 1,212 mice, 424 (35.0%) were positive. No gross lesions were observed in any of the mice examined. A phylogenetic analysis for 15 selected strains revealed that 13 strains formed one cluster, while two were genetically distant from that cluster. These results suggest that multiple strains are prevalent in laboratory mice in Japan.

  • Yusei FUJIOKA, Kosuke OTANI, Muneyoshi OKADA, Hideyuki YAMAWAKI
    論文ID: 20-0208
    発行日: 2020年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2020/05/18
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    Extracellular vesicles (EV) consist of a lipid-bilayered membrane and are typically classified as small EV (sEV or exosome) or large EV (or microvesicle). sEV mediate cell-to-cell communication and play a key role in various disease states. We recently reported that plasma sEV in normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), an animal model of human essential hypertension, regulate systemic blood pressure (BP). An abnormal vascular reactivity is involved in the onset and progression of hypertension. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that plasma sEV may affect the reactivity of isolated blood vessels. sEV were isolated from plasma in male WKY and SHR (WsEV and SsEV, respectively) by precipitation with polyethylene-glycol and ultracentrifugation. The particle distribution and concentration of sEV were measured by a tunable resistive pulse sensing method. Isolated mesenteric arteries from normal male Wistar rats were cultured for 24 hr with WsEV, SsEV, or vehicle. There was no difference in particle distribution and total concentration between WsEV and SsEV. Both SsEV and WsEV had no significant effect on the KCl-induced maximal contraction, while SsEV specifically attenuated contraction induced by noradrenaline compared with WsEV- and vehicle-treatment. In summary, it was for the first time revealed that SsEV attenuate the agonist-induced contractility of isolated blood vessels, which might be at least partly responsible for the BP regulation by SsEV.

  • Eloiza May S. GALON, Rochelle Haidee D. YBAÑEZ, Paul Franck ADJOU MOUM ...
    論文ID: 19-0636
    発行日: 2020年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2020/05/15
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    Tick-borne diseases (TBD) cause enormous losses for farmers. Backyard raising comprises majority of the livestock population in the Philippines, but TBD information in backyard livestock is scarce. In this study, 48 cattle and 114 water buffalo samples from Quezon province, Philippines were molecularly screened for tick-borne pathogens. Anaplasmamarginale (16.67%) and hemoplasma (20.99%) were detected in the samples. A. marginale infection (P=0.0001) was significantly higher in cattle, while hemoplasma infection (P=0.011) was significantly higher in water buffaloes. A. marginale isolates from this study were highly similar to previous isolates from the Philippines while Mycoplasma wenyonii and Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos were the identified hemoplasma species. Our findings reveal additional information on the TBD situation of Philippine backyard livestock.

  • Shu HADATE, Naoki TAKAHASHI, Kiyokazu KAMETANI, Tomohito IWASAKI, Yasu ...
    論文ID: 20-0120
    発行日: 2020年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2020/05/15
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    The lateral cytoplasmic processes of tenocytes extend to form three-dimensional network surrounding collagen fibers. It is unknown whether connections between two cytoplasmic processes involve overlapping of the processes or merely surface contact. In this study, the two-dimensional and three-dimensional structure of tenocytes in the Achilles tendons of the newly hatched chicks were studied using transmission electron microscopy and serial blocked face-scanning electron microscopy. Observation of the two-dimensional structures revealed various forms of cellular connections, including connections between the cytoplasmic processes of adjacent tenocytes and between the cytoplasmic process of tenocytes and fibroblasts. Three-dimensional observation showed spike-like cytoplasmic processes extending from one tenocyte that interlocked with cytoplasmic processes from other tenocytes. Cytoplasmic processes from each tenocyte within the chick tendons interlocked to ensure a tight cell-to-cell connection around growing collagen fibers. A cellular network formed by these cytoplasmic processes surrounds each collagen fiber. Cell-cell junctions, which were suggested to be gap junctions, observed at sites of cytoplasmic process overlap most likely represent the major route for communication between tenocytes associated with fibroblasts, enabling vital signals important for maintaining the cell and tendon integrity to be transmitted.

  • Mikako SHINOHARA, Masaharu KIYOSUE, Takumi TOCHIO, Seiji KIMURA, Yasuh ...
    論文ID: 19-0640
    発行日: 2020年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2020/05/09
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

    1-kestose is a structural component of fructo-oligosaccharides and is composed of 2 fructose residues bound to sucrose through β2-1 bonds. In the present study, the influence of the ingestion of 1-kestose on the intestinal microbiota was investigated in cats. Six healthy cats were administered 1 g/day of 1-kestose for 8 weeks followed by a 2-week wash-out period. Fecal samples were collected from cats after 0, 4, 8, and 10 weeks. The intestinal microbiota was examined by a 16S rRNA gene metagenomic analysis and real-time PCR. Short-chain fatty acids were measured by GC/MS. The results suggested that the intestinal bacterial community structure in feline assigned to this study was divided into 2 types: one group mainly composed of the genus Lactobacillus (GA) and the other mainly composed of the genus Blautia with very few bacteria of Lactobacillus (GB). Furthermore, the number of Bifidobacterium slightly increased after the administration of 1-kestose (at 4 and 8 weeks) (P<0.1). The administration of 1-kestose also increased the abundance of Megasphaera, the butyric acid-producing bacteria, at 4 and 8 weeks (P<0.1). Furthermore, an increase in butyric acid levels was observed after the administration of 1-kestose for 4 weeks (P<0.1). These results suggest that 1-kestose activated butyrate-producing bacteria as well as bifidobacteria and propose its potential as a new generation prebiotic.

feedback
Top