Papillomatous digital dermatitis (PDD) is a polymicrobial infection causing lameness in dairy cattle. Culture-independent analysis has shown that Treponema phagedenis is present consistently and predominantly in the lesions. However, the pathogenesis of PDD, especially the tissue penetration pathway, has not been examined. In the present study, we investigated whether T. phagedenis strains isolated from PDD produce proteolytic enzyme (s) for disruption of the epithelial cell barrier and have the ability to translocate in polarized normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) in vitro. Ten strains of T. phagedenis isolated from lesions did not show proteolytic activity on modified skim milk agar, although a human strain of T. denticola used as a control showed such activity. The integrity of tight junctions was monitored by measurement of transepithelial electrical resistance (TER). The TER values after inoculation of the T. phagedenis strains examined did not change during the experimental period; however, apical to basolateral translocation of T. phagedenis was confirmed after 24 hr by microscopy and Treponema-specific PCR. We further confirmed that translocation of T. phagedenis was accelerated by co-inoculation with live T. denticola, but not with heat-killed organisms. Furthermore, tight junction ZO-1 protein was not lost intensity after inoculation with T. phagedenis and the organism was observed in NHEK cells using a florescence microscope. These results suggest that T. phagedenis strains may translocate via a transcellular route in vitro and that the invasion is accelerated by other bacteria, such as T. denticola, producing proteolytic activity.
Enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) is typically observed in cattle over 3 years old. However, some cases of EBL onset in young beef cattle have been reported in Japan. The mechanism for early EBL onset is unclear. In Japan, beef cattle are given large amounts of concentrated feed with low vitamin A. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are regulators of cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis, and thought to represent one of the key players in tumor malignancy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the differences in BMP-6 methylation status between EBL beef cattle under 3 years old and other cattle. We investigated the methylation status of the BMP-6 promoter region in 32 EBL beef cattle under 3 years old. We also compared the methylation status of EBL dairy cattle to that of healthy cattle. Median methylation rate of the BMP-6 promoter region in EBL beef cattle under 3 years old was 8.9%, which was significantly higher than that of other groups. Hypermethylation of the BMP-6 promoter region might contribute to early onset of EBL in beef cattle under 3 years old, and animal feeding management practices specific to beef cattle may affect the methylation status of the BMP-6 promoter region.
The effects of anti-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) antibody on rumen fermentation and LPS activity were investigated during subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) challenge. Eleven Holstein cattle (164 ± 14 kg) were used in a 3 × 3 Latin square design. Cattle were fed a roughage diet on days −11 to −1 (pre-challenge) and day 2 (post-challenge), and a high-grain diet on days 0 and 1 (SARA challenge). For 14 days, 0-, 2-, or 4-g of anti-LPS antibody was administered once daily through a rumen fistula. Ruminal pH was measured continuously, and rumen fluid and blood samples were collected on days −1, 0, 1, and 2. Significantly lower ruminal LPS activity on day 1 was observed in the 2- and 4-g groups than those in the 0-g group. In addition, significantly higher 1-hr mean ruminal pH on SARA challenge period (days 0 and 1) was identified in the 4-g group than in the 0-g group. However, rumen fermentation measurements (total volatile fatty acid [VFA], VFA components, NH3-N and lactic acid) and peripheral blood metabolites (glucose, free fatty acid, beta-hydroxybutyrate, total cholesterol, blood urea nitrogen, aspartate aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyl transferase) were not different among the groups during the experimental periods. Therefore, anti-LPS antibody administration mitigates LPS release and pH depression without the depression of rumen fermentation and peripheral blood metabolites during SARA challenge in Holstein cattle.
A male 25-month-old Dalmatian dog attended our veterinary hospital because of anorexia and high circulating liver enzyme activities. Abdominal computed tomography showed a slightly small liver with rounded edges, and laparoscopic examination showed that the liver was yellowish. Histopathological examination revealed multifocal necrosis of hepatocytes and severe chronic hepatitis. Rhodanine staining showed severe copper accumulation in hepatocytes and a quantitative analysis of the copper content of the liver showed substantial accumulation (10.3 mg/g dry mass), suggesting a diagnosis of copper-associated hepatitis. Previously reported canine mutation in the COMMD1, the gene responsible for the copper-associated hepatitis in the Bedlington terrier, was not identified. To our knowledge, this is the first report of copper-associated hepatitis in a Dalmatian in Japan.
Ischemic stroke is a fatal disease that has long-term disability. It induces excessive oxidative stress generation and cellular metabolic disorders, result in tissue damage. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is a naturally derived flavonoid with strong antioxidant property. We previously reported the neuroprotective effect of EGCG in ischemic stroke. The defensive mechanisms of stroke are very diverse and complex. This study investigated specific proteins that are regulated by EGCG treatment in the ischemic brain damage. Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was performed to induce focal cerebral ischemia. EGCG (50 mg/kg) or vehicle was intraperitoneally administered just prior to MCAO. MCAO induced severe neurological deficits and disorders. EGCG treatment alleviated these neurological disorder and damage. Cerebral cortex was used for this study. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry were performed to detect the proteins altered by EGCG. We identified various proteins that were changed between vehicle- and EGCG-treated animals. Among these proteins, isocitrate dehydrogenase, dynamin-like protein 1, and γ-enolase were decreased in vehicle-treated animals, while EGCG treatment prevented these decreases. However, pyridoxal-5’-phosphate phosphatase and 60 kDa heat shock protein were increased in vehicle-treated animals with MCAO injury. EGCG treatment attenuated these increases. The changes in these proteins were confirmed by Western blot and reverse transcription-PCR analyses. These proteins were associated with cellular metabolism and neuronal regeneration. Thus, these findings can suggest that EGCG performs a defensive mechanism in ischemic damage by regulating specific proteins related to energy metabolism and neuronal protection.
The definitive hosts of Metagonimus hakubaensis are reported to be hamsters, rats, mice, dogs, cats, chickens, and quails in experimental infection and Japanese water shrews in natural infection. Here we report that raccoon dogs are new natural definitive hosts of M. hakubaensis, based on morphological and molecular analyses of Metagonimus flukes collected from the host species from Aomori Prefecture, Japan. Moreover, M. hakubaensis recovered from raccoon dogs showed higher fecundity than those recovered from Japanese water shrews. Therefore, raccoon dogs were considered as a more suitable natural definitive host of M. hakubaensis than Japanese water shrews.
A total of ten 1–2-year-old rabbits died within 2 weeks at a facility in Ehime prefecture in May 2019. Necropsy revealed liver discoloration and fragility, hemorrhage of some organs and blood coagulation failure. On histopathologic examination, necrotizing hepatitis was a common finding, together with fibrin thrombi in the small vessels and hemorrhage in some organs. Rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHD) virus gene was detected in liver samples, and viral particles of approximately 32 nm in diameter were found in the cytoplasm of degenerated hepatocytes by electron microscopy. Phylogenetic analysis based on the partial VP60 gene sequence classified it as Lagovirus europaeus GI.2/RHDV2. This is the first confirmed outbreak of RHD caused by globally emerging GI.2/RHDV2 in Japan.
Amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis is a lethal disease characterized by systemic AA amyloid deposition, and is reported in many animal species. Despite experiments have shown that AA amyloidosis can be transmitted orally, horizontal transmission and cross-species transmission are concerns, the transmission mechanism has been unknown. In this study, we examined the oral transmission efficiency of AA amyloidosis using oxazolone-induced gastrointestinal disorder mice. As a result, the upper or lower gastrointestinal disorder groups developed more severe amyloid deposition in systemic tissues than the group without gastrointestinal disorders. The results of this study suggest that gastrointestinal damage promotes the oral transmission of AA amyloidosis.
Flexural and hyperextension deformities are congenital problems in calves. We, therefore, aimed to investigate the distal limb conformation in 1 day- and 28-day-old female Holstein-Friesian (HF) calves (n=21), male Japanese Black (JB) calves (n=15), and female JB calves (n=15). The claw angle of the forelimb dorsal claw wall in a standing position and recorded other parameters, including body weight, withers height, circumference of forelimbs, and flexor tendon thickness in the forelimbs, were measured and compared these between the three groups. At 1 day old, the mean claw angles were 51.1° in female HF calves, 47.0° in male JB calves, and 41.8° in female JB calves; the 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of the claw angles showed large distributions in all three groups. One female HF and one male JB calves showed mild flexural deformity, whereas four JB calves showed hyperextension deformity. At 28 days old, the mean claw angles were 51.7° in female HF calves, 51.2° in male JB calves, and 48.4° in female JB calves; the 95% CIs of the claw angles showed smaller distributions than those at 1 day old in all groups. For all groups, the limb deformities had improved without treatment at 28 days old. As a feature of the breed, female JB calves were apt to show hyperextended deformities inversely proportional to the body weight. These limb deformities healed spontaneously and were thought to be physiological.
An adult female red deer died of a severe seizure and dysbasia. Postmortem computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed. On CT, deciduous right maxillary second and third premolar teeth were observed, and the right infraorbital canal was disrupted. MRI showed that the right trigeminal nerve was enlarged and the right subarachnoid cavity was occupied by fluid and gas. On gross examination, the right paranasal sinus, swollen muscles of the orbit and tonsils, right trigeminal nerve, and right cerebrum surface contained a yellowish-white, cheese-like pus. Based on these findings, the deer was believed to have developed pyogenic meningitis caused by a neuropathic infection secondary to periodontogenic paranasal sinusitis.