Activin E, a secreted peptide encoded by the inhibin/activin βE subunit gene, is a member of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily, which is predominantly expressed in the liver. Recent reports have suggested that activin E plays a role in energy homeostasis as a hepatokine. Here, using transgenic mice overexpressing activin E under the control of the β-actin promoter, we demonstrate that activin E controls energy metabolism through brown/beige adipocytes. The glucose tolerance test and insulin tolerance test showed that the insulin sensitivity was improved in the transgenic mice. Furthermore, the mice had a high body temperature compared with wild-type mice. The transgenic brown adipose tissue and mesenteric white adipose tissue showed upregulation of uncoupling protein 1, which enables energy dissipation as heat by uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation from ATP production. Present results indicate that activin E activates energy expenditure through brown/beige adipocyte activation, suggesting that activin E has high potential for obesity therapy.
The spinal nerves supplying the wing membranes of Japanese little horseshoe bats, Rhinolophus cornutus were studied. The wing membrane was innervated by nerve branches of the radial, ulnar, and median nerves, showing that the membrane was formed from the skin of the forelimb rather than that of the thoracolumbar skin. The radial nerve was mainly composed of the ventral rami of C7–T1, the ulnar nerve by C8–T2, and the median nerve by C8–T1. These components of R. cornutus tended to be from a narrower range of spinal nerves and to position more caudally than those of humans. In addition, the ulnar nerve showed a distribution pattern different from that of other mammals.
A captured Japanese wild boar (Sus scrofa leucomystax) fetus was dicephalic. The fetus had two heads, but one body from the cranial neck region. Computed tomography imaging revealed that the two crania merged at the occipital bone, and the vertebral bodies between the atlas and the seventh thoracic vertebra were deformed. The fetus was found to have two tongues and laryngopharynges, but its esophagus and trachea were not duplicated. Each head contained a cerebrum and cerebellum, but the brains merged at the obex of the medulla oblongata, and the cervical spinal cord had duplicated ventral clefts. The heart was composed of three atria and four ventricles. This is the first report of a dicephalus with cardiac malformation in a wild boar.
The present paper describes Felis catus papillomavirus (FcaPV) type 5-associated cutaneous mass in a Domestic Shorthair cat. Histological examination revealed multicentric epidermal acanthosis with papillomavirus-associated cytopathic changes, which progressed to a tumor lobule with intact basement membrane. An association between FcaPV-5 and the cutaneous lesions was confirmed by detection of virus antigen and genes using immunohistochemistry, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), sequencing analysis, and in situ hybridization. Based on these findings, the lesions were diagnosed as FcaPV-5-associated viral plaques and Bowenoid in situ carcinoma (BISC). To date, this is the first reported case of FcaPV-5 infection in a cat in Japan, and the second case reported worldwide. For the first time this papillomavirus type is associated with BISC development.
Ludwigia octovalvis extract (LOE) is a widely used traditional Chinese herbal medicine. To date, few studies have demonstrated the effect of LOE supplementation on exercise performance, physical fatigue and biochemical profile. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the potential beneficial effects of LOE extract on fatigue and ergogenic functions following physiological challenge. Male ICR mice from 3 groups (n=8 per group) were orally administered LOE for 4 weeks at 0 (vehicle), 61.5 (LOE-1X) or 307.5 (LOE-5X) mg/kg/day. LOE supplementation was able to dose-dependently increase endurance swimming time (P<0.0001) and decrease levels of serum lactate (P=0.0022), ammonia (P<0.0001), creatine kinase (P<0.0001), blood urea nitrogen (P<0.0001) and glucose utilization (P<0.0001) after acute exercise challenge. The glycogen in gastrocnemius muscle also increased with LOE treatment in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.0001). Biochemically, AST, ALT, LDH, CK, BUN, creatinine and UA levels were decreased with LOE treatment. Our study shows that 4-week supplementation with LOE increases muscle glycogen content storage to enhance exercise performance and anti-fatigue effects.
The present study was designed to describe the clinical presentation of abdominal hernias and to evaluate the efficacy of polypropylene mesh in repair of such affection in camels. Twenty-six dromedary camels were included in this study on the basis of clinical and ultrasonographic evidence of abdominal hernia. Factors associated with prevalence and clinical findings of hernia were presented and hernioplasty using polypropylene mesh was evaluated as a surgical intervention. Out of 26 studied camels, abdominal hernia was prevalent in Wadeh camels than other breeds (17 vs. 9, P<0.01). Camels <6 years of age exhibited more hernias than other age groups (18 vs. 8, P<0.01). Moreover, females showed a significantly higher prevalence (19 vs. 7, P<0.01) of abdominal hernia compared to males (26.9%, n=7). The sensitivity (96.8%) and specificity (93.1%) of ultrasonography (US) for diagnosing hernia were higher in comparison to clinical examination (88.3%). At 3 weeks postoperatively, the clinical index score of 26 operated camels was significantly reduced in comparison with pretreated (22 vs. 4, P<0.005). However, only 2 cases had recurrence of the hernia and 2 camels had slight swelling in situ. By the 6th month post treatment, all treated camels were completely recovered. In conclusion, the polypropylene mesh is a viable and consistent alternative effective treatment for abdominal hernias in camels. In addition, the clinical index scores and US provide a precise paradigm for diagnosis and preoperative planning for abdominal hernias in dromedary camels.
The sparing effects of tramadol and tramadol-lidocaine infusion on the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of sevoflurane in dogs as well as the entropy indices were investigated. Anesthesia was induced in eight young, healthy German shepherds weighing 27.6 ± 3.2 kg (mean ± SD) and maintained with sevoflurane. A standard tail-clamp technique was used to determine sevoflurane MAC during infusion with: sevoflurane alone to measure baseline MAC (MACB); tramadol (intravenous loading dose of 1.5 mg/kg and constant rate infusion [CRI] of 2.6 mg/kg/hr; MACT); and tramadol-lidocaine (tramadol CRI of 2.6 mg/kg/hr; and lidocaine intravenous loading dose of 1.0 mg/kg and CRI of 6 mg/kg/hr; MACTL). The state entropy (SE), response entropy (RE), and RE-SE difference were recorded 5 min prior to and during tail clamping. MACB was 2.4 ± 0.2%. Tramadol and tramadol-lidocaine CRI decreased MAC to 2.2 ± 0.3% and 1.7 ± 0.3%, respectively. The MAC-sparing effect of tramadol-lidocaine was greater than that of tramadol alone (8.2 ± 8.9% vs. 30.1 ± 10.7%; P<0.01). SE and RE in all subjects, and RE-SE difference in most subjects, were increased (all P<0.05) when they responded purposefully to noxious stimulation. A tramadol-lidocaine combination infusion can reduce anesthetic requirements to a higher degree than tramadol alone. Furthermore, MACentropy, MAC required to prevent increased entropy in response to a painful stimulation, and MAC of sevoflurane were similar in dogs.
Six Thoroughbred racehorses with palmar process fractures of the distal phalanx were evaluated with standing magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI). In all the cases, the fractures were detectable on T1-weighted images and fat-suppressed images. Furthermore, multi-planar reconstruction images were useful for assessing the articular involvement of the fractures. Follow-up sMRI was obtainable in 3 cases, which revealed that the area of high signal intensity on fat-suppressed images decreased over time as symptoms improved. Our findings support the use of sMRI for the detailed evaluation of distal phalanx fractures including their articular involvement and the healing process.
This study aimed to improve the staining of frozen-thawed Japanese Black bull sperm acrosomes with fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated peanut agglutinin (FITC-PNA). Spermatozoa were washed, fixed with 1–3% paraformaldehyde (PFA) in suspension for 10, 20, and 30 min, permeabilized with 0–2% Triton X-100 for 5 min, stained with FITC-PNA, and mounted with different antifade agents (0.22 M 1,4-diazabicyclo [2,2,2] octane (DABCO), SlowFade®, and ProLong®) in suspension (In-suspension) or on a smear (On-smear). The spermatozoa were categorized into seven pattern types either immediately or after storage for 24 hr. Experiment 1 showed that 1) the In-suspension method was better than the On-smear method; 2) if spermatozoa were stained using the In-suspension method and examined immediately, the best antifade agent was SlowFade®; 3) if samples were to be stored after staining using the On-smear method, DABCO should be avoided; 4) if spermatozoa were stained using the In-suspension method, storage of the stained samples was not recommended; and 5) if samples were to be stored after staining using the In-suspension method, ProLong® might be the best antifade agent. The results of experiment 2 showed that the concentration of Triton X-100 could be reduced to 0.1 from 1%. The results of experiment 3 showed that the paraformaldehyde concentration used for a 30 min fixation could be reduced from 3 to 2%. It is expected that the improved staining protocol will be useful to determine bull sperm acrosomal integrity.
We describe the successful surgical repair of third-degree perineal lacerations with rectovestibular fistulae in four cases using the single-stage modified Aanes method with purse-string suture of the vaginal vestibule and rectum. Fistulae formation and dehiscence of the repair were not observed after surgery. Two cows had five calves and one cow had four calves after surgery. The pregnant cows delivered normally. Additionally, there was no dehiscence of the suture line during the subsequent parturition. The breeding and fertility results obtained after the surgery are presented. According to the results of the present study, the modified Aanes method for the repair of third-degree perineal lacerations with rectovestibular fistulae appears to have a good prognosis for fertility following surgery in cows.
The Misaki horse is a Japanese native horse, known as the “feral horse of Cape Toi”. In this study, we acquired the genetic information to establish their studbook, and analyzed their genetic characteristics for conservation. We genotyped 32 microsatellites and a mitochondrial D-loop region in 77 Misaki horses (80.2% of the population). The average number of alleles, observed heterozygosity, and expected heterozygosity were 3.4, 0.509, and 0.497, respectively. A neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree of individuals was constructed. Moreover, the results suggested that Misaki horses experienced a bottleneck, but it was neither severe nor recent. In addition, three mitochondrial haplotypes were confirmed. Consequently, we clarified the genetic background of Misaki horses that have been resident at Cape Toi for a long time.