In this article, potential dangers of vacuum technologies are revealed, and safety measures for these dangers have been suggested. These dangers include considerable difference between the vessels' inner and outer pressures, condensation of flammable gases to the pump, electric shock due to a high voltage or electric leakage, involution to mechanical motion, touching of a high temperature during baking. Furthermore, many dangers exist when the system is under repair or maintenance. In addition to the vacuum system itself, the materials used for its operation such as liquid cryogen and organic solvents are more hazardous. Finally, some of the safety measures are proposed for the aforementioned dangers.
We have developed a compact sample transfer vessel with a battery-driven ion pump. The size of the vessel is about 67 cm in length, and 7.8 kg in weight. The ion pump can operate for more than 30 hours with 16 commercial AA batteries. The lowest vacuum pressure achieved by this device was ∼10−6 Pa. It is improved by two orders of magnitude, compared to the previous device. We examined the performance of this device by observing adsorbed oxygen species on a cobalt metal plate with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. We found that the cobalt metal plate kept in this new device adsorbed about 1/20 as much oxygen as the same plate exposed to the air.