Spin-polarized STM (SP-STM) is a powerful tool to visualize sample spin-polarization vectors at an atomic scale. A difficulty of SP-STM measurement is how to fabricate a tip with a stable spin-polarization vector. In 1990's, first, many efforts were payed for a GaAs tip with optically pumping, but finally the GaAs tip did not detect sample spin polarization due to quenching of the spin-polarization at the GaAs tip apex. However, in 2000, a W tip coated by a magnetic thin film detected the spin-polarized tunneling current, and spin polarization images of magnetic atoms were successfully obtained. In 2016, more than 15 groups in the world can perform SP-STM measurements. History and issues for further development of SP-STM measurements are discussed.
By scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy (STM/S), the spin state of a magnetic adsorbate which shows Kondo effect on the non-metal surfaces can be explored from the Kondo resonance. Kondo resonance appears as a zero-bias anomaly in the STS spectra, and I introduce the ways to assign the zero-bias anomaly to be the Kondo resonance and to extract the information of the spin state with my recent research, the Kondo effect of iron phthalocyanine (FePc) molecules on Au(111). The control of the spin state of FePc on Au(111) by coordination chemistry is also introduced as another example.
In the magnetic molecules adsorbed on metalic surfaces, the interference of the Kondo effect and molecular characteristics gives rise to novel physical phenomena. As examples, I introduce my recent studies; the Kondo effect originating from the coupling of the spin and orbital degrees of freedom in an iron phthalocyanine molecule on Au(111), and the extended underscreened Kondo resonance induced by the collective molecular spin state resulting from the strong π-d interaction in a manganese phthalocyanine molecule on Pb(111).
The etching characteristics of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and perfluoroalkoxy (PFA) bulk plates were studied in a magnetron enhanced reactive ion etching (M-RIE) system. The etch rates of the plates for oxygen plasma were investigated under the pressure range 0.1-2.0 Pa, and were found to strongly correlate with the self-bias voltage. The plates presented smooth surface in the 0.1-1.0 Pa pressure range, and rough surfaces at 1.5 Pa and 2.0 Pa. The roughness was introduced by a micromask sputtered from the chamber material. The titanium etching mask exhibited lower etch rates for oxygen plasma than aluminum and silicon dioxide. Finally, using the dry-etched titanium mask in low-pressure oxygen plasma, we fabricated a 5-μm pitch line-and-space structure on a PTFE plate and a 4-μm square pillar array on a PFA plate.
This article describes the reason why ULVAC, Inc. tried to become the JCSS calibration Lab, and also describes the advantage to our vacuum gauge users. When operating ISO/IEC 17025 and getting traceability of measurement we needs to understand the concept of uncertainty of measurement. Understanding the difference of the concept of “measurement error” and “uncertainty of measurement” leads to understanding the concept of the traceability of measurement.
Cold spray (CS) technique is a process whereby metallic particles are utilized to form coatings using ballistic impact upon substrate materials. This technique is based on the high velocity (300-1500 m/s) impinging of small solid particle (generally 10-50 μm in diameter) on substrates. In this process, the particles are accelerated by the supersonic gas jet at the heated gas temperature, which is usually lower than melting temperature of powder materials. Consequently, this process solved the problem of thermal spraying, such as high temperature oxidation, phase transformation etc. Until now, the CS has a good track record in almost metallic coatings, such as copper, stainless steels, Ni base superalloys etc. Recently, some kinds of ceramics and polymers can be coated by the CS. The CS is expected as not only coating technique but also thick film formative technique. In this article, the present situation and future prospects of the CS are explained.