The sixth annual of monthly bird census in the Imperial Palace for April 1970-March 1971 is reported. The same route of 4.1km was censused usually from 9.40-11.30 a. m. The number of monthly rceorded species and individuals varied from 18 to 29 species, 70 to 609 birds, with seasonal inclusion of ducks in winter and colonial herons in summer. 52 species were recorded during this year period and the following five were new, Sturnus philippensis, Fringilla montifringilla, Acrocephalus bistrigiceps, Caprimulgus indicus and Gorsakius goisagi. In total 79 species have been recorded.
1. Breeding ecology of Cyanopica cyana studied during 1966-1969 in Nagano City area is reported. 2. Seventy nests were found in 23 species of trees. The percimon was most often used (19 nests) and other trees used were cryptomeria (8), red pine (7), Ichii-tree (6), apple tree (6), maple (4), etc. A Ichii-tree standing at favorable spot was used four times. 3. The nest site differed from 2-10m above the ground, most often 4-8m, and the nest was placed more often on a horizontal branch or a leader. The fledging success was best (44.8%) from the nest of horizontal branch. 4. The nests were found grouped at the western portion of the flock home range, probably subject to the distribution of prefered nesting trees, and orchards were not so used though extensive. 5. The nest is cup-shaped, constructed with external small twigs, some soil at the bottom, and lined inside with moss. The nest material were either picked up from the ground or taken from branches, not far from the nest site. 6. Nest-building pairs did not departed from the flock and worked only some time of the day while acting as members of the flock. 7. The male carried nest material but not worked for nest-building, while the female did the both. 8. Breeding procedure consisted of (confirming previous report), 2 weeks of nesting period 6.5 days of egg-laying period, 15 days of incubation period, 17-18 days of feeding period, 27 days or more of family life (feeding fledglings), some 80 days in total. 9. The clutch size ranged 5-8, average 6.6 eggs. Large clutch size of 8 eggs were found during early season in May and delayed clutches were smaller. 10. The hatching rate was 71%, the average fledging success being 22.5% from egg, and 31.6% from chick (66.5% in pervious study). The best fledging success was 49% from the clutch of 7 eggs. The factors concerned are discussed. 11. Time and behavior of female's egg laying, courtship feeding and incubation behavior are described. The attendance rate of incubation was 66-95% varying by weather, temperature etc. 12. Only nest-site territoriality was noticed during nest-building period. In other time there was no territorial behavior except an incubating pair chased the other pair which intended nest-building close to them.
1. Line transect bird census was bimonthly made 1967-'69 within a home range area of Cyanopica cyana in Nagano to see the avifaunal environment of its habitat. Some previous bird records are also censidered together. The census was made in the afternoon along 2km. 2. Four divisions of the census area and the number of species and individuals recorded were as follows (all seasons inclusive): Division A (Farm villages): 3-8 sp., 22-194 ind. Division B (Rice fields): 0-4 sp., 0-150 ind. Division C (Orchards and rice fields): 2-7 sp., 2-349 ind. Division D (Rice fields): 0-2 sp., 0-10 ind. The Blue Magpie did not occur in Divs. B and D. 3. Census tables are given by species and dates with occurrence rate, average number and dominance rate, and two year records are compared.
During Oct. 6-23, 1970, bird survey was made by line transect-, car- and boat censuses in the Ryu Kyu Is. The party was sent by the Ministry of Wellfare of Japan and included botanical and coral reef surveys particularly of Iriomote I. Bird census was made 11 days on Iriomote I., 4 days on Ishigaki I. and 2 days on Okinawa I. and results are presented by 14 tables classified by habitat and categories such as resident land or winter water birds, etc. In all 81 species were recorded. Among resident land birds, the bulbul Hypsipetes amaurotis was most abundant (No. recorded 258 birds), followed by the white-eye Zosterops palpebrosa (105 bds), the turtle dove Streptopelia orientalis (98 bds), the great tit Parus major (87 bds), the jungle crow Corvus macrorhynchos (85 bds), the tree sparrow Passer montanus (44 bds., very scarce on Iriomote), the varied tit Parus varius (38 bds), the minivet Pericrocotus roseus (36 bds), the fantail warbler Cisticola juncidis (27 bds), the green pigeon Sphenurus sieboldi, the rock thrush Monticola solitaria (13 bds) and the wood pigeon Columba janthina (9 bds), ect. (25 species in all). Thus the bulbul occupied 30% (the next white-eye 12%) of resident land birds counted. The migration of northern land birds was still in early stage, only 9 species having been recorded, among which the swallow Hirundo rustica was most abundant (741 bds). Other marked species was the buzzard hawk Butastur indicus (199 bds) which was observed in scattered soaring flocks steadily migrating southward over Iriomote and Ishigaki Is. and a few tired birds were seen landed on the islands. The next was the red-cheeked myna Sturnus philippensis (145 bds) which is also a regular passage migrant along the Ryukyus and rare Chinese myna St. sinensis (16 bds) was found mixed in its flock. Muscicapa griseisticta (20 bds) and single dirds of Urosphena squameiceps, Eophona migratoria and Cuculus saturatus, etc. were recorded. Some early land winter visitors were just on their arrival, 7 species in all, of which the grey wagtail Motacilla cinerea (90 bds) outnumbered others, which were pipits Anthus (10 bds), the white wagtail M. alba (8 bds), the Philippine red-tailed shrike Lanius cristatus lucionensis (7 bds), single birds of yellow wagtail M. flava subsp., Siberian bluetail Erithacus cyanurus and the ksestrel Falco tinnunculus. Resident water, water-side and wading birds were following ten species: Charadrius alexandrinus (81 bds), Egretta sacra (62 bds., with 64.5% white phase), Gallinula chloropus (48 bds., mainly Ishigaki), Anas poecilorhyncha (39 bds), Ardea purpurea (12 bds., Iriomote), Alcedo atthis (7 bds), Ixobrychus cinnamomeus (6 bds), Pandion haliaetus (4 bds), Porzana fusca (2 bds) and Gorsakius goisagi (1 dbs., Okinawa). Winter and migrant waders were 20 species (4 species as winter visitor), with 5 species of herons. Pluvialis dominicus (131 bds), Tringa incana (71 bds), Numenius phaeopus (64 bds), Tringa hypoleuca (59 bds), Tringa glareola (43 bds), Tringa nebularia (30 bds), Tringa ocrophus (17 bds) were chief species and one Calidris bairdii was observed as a rare straggler. Five herons were Egretta alba, E. intermedia, Bubulcus ibis, Butorides striatus and Ardea cinerea. Sea birds were very scarce. A few Sterna bergii (19 in all) and one Calonectris leucomelas were seen between Ishigaki and Iriomote. A frigatebird is said to have occurted over Ishigaki and the presence of breeding colonies (said to breed in May) of Sterna sumatrana along west coast of Iriomote was reported to the author.
1. Breeding behavior of the Japanese Hawk Eagle Spizaetus nipalensis japonensis was studied for 12 years, 1957-1969, in the mountain ranges mostly below 1, 000m of altitude, from Mt. Nijyo to Mt. Izumikatsuragi(with the ridge area of ca. 40×1km), in Mt. Kongo and Mt. Izumi, along the prefectural borders of Osaka, Nara and Wakayama. 2. Here, the observations during early nesting stage are reported and analysed based on 19 nest records. 3. The nesting behavior occurred from as early as late January or early February. 4. The nest is completed by average 30 days and if damaged by snow or winds the second one is renested again by about 30 days. 5. Eleven of the 19 nests observed were newly built and old nest was repaired in four cases and in one example a complete new nest was built on an old one. 6. There were three types in nest-site in 18 nests recorded, near tree-trunk type (7, 38.9%), tree-top type (4, 22.2%) and out on branch type (7, 38.9%). The branch type seems to be characteristic to this species. 7. The nest size was 80-150cm in diameter and 25-85cm deep and chief nesting material were dead twigs of red pine, the largest one measuring 3.5cm in diameter and 110cm long. Some twigs with green needle-leaves of red pine, Japanese cedar, Japanese cypres or Pinus pentaphylla are placed on the nest. 8. The nest was usually found at about the middle of the mountain bight, between 250m to 600m (av. 450m) above the sea level. 9. The most nests, 84%, were built in Japanese red pine wood, 5% in cryptomeria plantation and 11% in mixed woods of red pine and hinoki. One nest was as close as 150m to a human house. 10. The nesting tree was at least 39cm in diameter at man's breast hight and 5m tall, and 49% of nests were on red pine with 6% on cryptomeria. 11. The nesting location was usually at a lower part of the mountain slope where there were bigger trees fitted for nesting. But no preference of wood edge or inside was noticed. 12. The change of nest site of the same pair (probably) by year was average 590m, and 75% of nests were located in the same wood. In one area, 8 nests were found during 12 years, the 6 of which having been located in a same wood. The distances of two nests in other wood were 1.500m. 800m and 600m.
1. This report describes the breeding observations of the Grey Thrush Turdus cardis, made in 1968 and 1969 in the campus of Shinshu University in Nagano, 780m above sea level. 2. It arrives here in late April. A pair raised average 2.1 brood per season including unsuccessful cases. The interval from the first brood flying to the laying of the first egg of second brood was average 5.6 days. 3. The female only worked for nest-building and the nest material were collected within the territory. 4. Normally eggs were laid daily between 8 and 12 a. m. 5. The female only incubated and brooded. The incubation was gradually commenced before the clutch is completed and night incubation was started on the day before the laying of the last egg. The incubation period was 12-13 days. 6. The female's brooding decreased as the chicks grew, but her night brooding was continued all through the nestling period. The chicks grew from 5.29 gr. to 45.54 gr. while their nestling life. 7. Both sexes fed the chicks from the day of hatching and the feeding frequency ranged from 70 to 158 times a day. 8. The nestling period was 11-13 days (counting from the hatching of the first chick). The post-fledging family life lasted 20 days and when the female began her second nest-building, she usually fed the young only for about a week. 9. The female shared 100% nest-building, incubation and brooding, 38.4% feeding (male 61.6%) and the male engaged 81.6% in territory defense (the female 18.4%). 10. The territory was Type A of Mayr (1935) and was average 7, 300m2 in size. It was defended principally against the same species but was also aggressive to some other larger species. 11. The clutch ranged 3-5 eggs with the mean 3.9 and the hatching rate was 64.1%, the fledging rate being 48.7% from the egg and 76.0% from number hatched. In 24 nest examined the average 4.7 young was produced per pair per season. 12. Snakes may be one of the important predator in this species.