This paper mainly discusses the Buddhist thought and moral training theory of Zhao Dazhou, a scholar of the Taizhou school. In the Chinese Buddhist history of the Late Ming period, the prevalence of the Surangama-Sutra was an important factor. Yugangzhai Bichen had an article that Dazhou instructed students to read from the Surangama-Sutra at the Imperial Academy in the Longqing period. If this article was a historical fact, it would have had a huge influence on the trend of thought of the Wanli period, but there is almost no archive about the Surangama-Sutra in his biography that was written during the Ming Dynasty and his collected works ─ Zhao Wensu Gong Wenji ─ so it is difficult to attest whether or not the article of Yugangzhai Bichen was a historical artifact.
To clarify the relationship between Zhao Dazhou and the SurangamaSutra, the author analyzed the moral training theory of Zhao Dazhou, mainly using his writings and related documents. Through this research, the author reached the following conclusions: First, like another scholar of the Taizhou School, he emphasized the theory of “Mind Means Principle” in his early days, and he emphasized on consistency in mind and action. However, after he met with a political setback, he emphasized the necessity of gradual cultivation and noted that its way was to improve wisdom and meditation. Therefore, while the credibility of the article cannot be established, the philosophy of Zhao Dazhou should be an impetus that leads to the prevalence of the Surangama-Sutra in the Wanli period.
This paper deals with the Gyoja-Buddhism temple “Hannya-in” located in Kumamoto, Yatsushiro. Noboru Sawada, chief priest of Hannya-in, was tourist bus driver initially. When he visited the Sasaguri sacred place on business, he had a mystical experience although he was with his tourist passengers. This mystical experience caused him to begin his career as a Gyoja. Hannya-in is currently famous for Mizuko-kuyo, and many clients and believers come from the neighboring district for monthly and annual celebrations. In addition, this temple＇s cultural heritage embodies the history and tradition of Yatsushiro as a castle town.
The founder of Hannya-in was a Yamabushi. He came to Yatsushiro as a retainer of Tadaoki Hosokawa in 1632, and then became a Yamabushi. The characteristics of Hannya-in are drawn from an interview with Sawada. It is not only the style of Sawada＇s religious practice, but also the history and tradition of this region.
The author would introduce that this case is a corner of some fact, the Gyoja and Gyoja-Buddhism temple present many and varied forms in modern Japanese society.
From the late Qing Dynasty to the Republic of China, there existed a hierarchy in the population of the Jiangnan district. Specifically, the upper class, which included rich traders, the retired bureaucrat, and the landlords who lived in the city; the middle class, which comprised people with skills in commerce and industry; the farming class, and last in the hierarchy was the working class, which comprised the people who had no skills or were looking for work. These people had their own way of carrying out religious rituals, and these rituals were very important for the autonomy of the city. The family groups played an important role where the upper class was predominant, whereas. The ritual group played an important role where the middle class was predominant. However, the lower class sometimes caused some conflicts.
Zhimen Guangzuo 智門光祚（ it is not known when he was born or when he died） was a Chan master of the Yunmen 雲門 School’s third existence. Overshadowed by the fame of Yunmen Wenyan 雲 門 文 偃（ 864–949） and Xuedou Chongxian 雪 竇 重 顕（ 980–1052）, Guangzuo is usually mentioned only briefly in the history of Chan Buddhism, as noted by Mr. Huang Yi-hsun 黄釈勲. In fact, we cannot say that a study on him has ever really been completed.
For the study, I first examined his biography, paying close attention to his first ritual preaching at Chongsheng Yuan 崇勝院 temple. He declared who his teacher would be at that time. The text is remarkable as it allows us an insight into his thoughts on the Buddhist community and the influence of the other Chan schools and sects at that time, and also his thoughts on his own position, especially regarding his teacher-student relationships.
Next, I study his philosophy mainly using The Record of Sayings of Chan Master Zhimen Zuo 智門祚禅師語録, which was edited by Xuedou Chongxian who was a direct student of Guangzuo.
I am certain that an analysis of The Record of Sayings of Chan Master Zhimen Zuo and the other records of Guangzuo’s sayings will contribute to the clarification of Chan’s philosophy in the Song Era.
The Zen sect is based on the concept “Zazen,” which means “to sit in meditation.” It is said that it was introduced from China by Doushou（ 道昭） in the Nara period.
While Zen＇s important religious mission of saving people was introduced at that time, it first became a formal sect in the Kamakura period. This was only after Dougen （道元） wrote “Bendouwa,” a book with the purpose of spreading the Zen sect. Its contents describe in detail how he introduced Zen and its message was meant to be the answer to people＇s questions about life.
In its early manuscript, the basis of the missionary work was to continue the practice of Zazen, which involved meditations inspired by the idea of Buddha （ 仏） praying for the dead (Hotoke) for whom people wished salvation.
Dougen answered the people＇s questions and expectations of Buddhism with Zen. He showed it mainly through the practice of sitting in contemplation. The actual activity of the Zen sect was not established until Keizan＇s（ 瑩山） missionary work.