Effects of the type of microplates and solvent for preparation of caspofungin (CPFG) on antifungal susceptibility testing of CPFG against clinical isolates of Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, and Candida krusei (20 strains each) by broth microdilution method according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute were evaluated. When CPFG was dissolved in water, MICs against the three Candida species decreased 3.1-6.0-fold in surface-untreated microplates compared to those in treated microplates. When CPFG was dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide, MICs against the three Candida species decreased 1.3-2.5-fold in surface-untreated microplates compared to those in treated microplates. Differences in MICs according to the type of solvent did not exceed the difference for one dilution interval (0.5-2-fold MIC ratio) regardless of whether the microplate surface was treated or not. These findings suggest that differences in CPFG MICs may depend mainly on the type of surface treatment of assay microplates.
Azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus containing unique mutation(s) of cyp51A with tandem repeats in the promoter region has emerged and has become dispersed in environments worldwide. For this study, we designed primers and cycling probes to detect mutations associated with tandem repeats. Substitutions at the 293rd nucleotide (leucine or histidine at the 98th amino acid residue), at the 362nd nucleotide (tyrosine or phenylalanine at the 121st amino acid residue), and at the 865th nucleotide (threonine or alanine at the 289th amino acid residue) in cyp51A were detected using these primers and probes. These results suggest that the primer and probe sets are helpful in detecting these mutations and in differentiating the types of tandem repeats in cyp51A.
Ravuconazole (RVCZ) is a newly available human azole drug in Japan since 2018 and is a broad-spectrum antifungal agent that exhibits excellent activity against Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans (formerly: Cryptococcus grubii). The drug is also highly active against isolates that are resistant to fluconazole (FLCZ). In the present study, the in vitro susceptibility to ravuconazole (RVCZ) of Japanese clinical isolates and multi-azole-resistant strains of C. neoformans was investigated using the Clinical & Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M27-A3 test. The minimum inhibitory concentrations for the 14 clinical isolates and the multi-azole-resistant strains were 0.003125-0.125 mg/L and 0.25-0.5 mg/L for RVCZ, respectively. RVCZ is as effective as ITCZ and VRCZ for treating clinical isolates from cats and humans. Moreover, RVCZ is highly effective against multi-azole-resistant strains that encode a protein with a G344S substitution in ERG11. Consequently, RVCZ has considerable potential for use as a therapeutic agent for multi-azole resistant cryptococcosis.