Kawasaki disease (KD) is an inflammatory disease that was identified by Professor Tomisaku Kawasaki in 1961. Candida albicans-derived substances (CADS) such as the hot water extract of C. albicans and Candida water-soluble fractions (CAWS) induce coronary vasculitis similar to KD in mice. An increasing proportion of deep-seated candidiasis cases are caused by non-albicans Candida and are often resistant to antifungal drugs. We herein investigated whether the mannoprotein fractions (MN fractions) of clinically isolated Candida species induce vasculitis in mice. We prepared MN fractions from 26 strains of Candida species by conventional hot water extraction and compared vasculitis in DBA/2 mice. The results obtained revealed that the induction of vasculitis and resulting heart failure were significantly dependent on the species; namely, death rates on day 200 were as follows: Candida krusei (100%), Candida albicans (84%), Candida dubliniensis (47%), Candida parapsilosis (44%), Candida glabrata (32%), Candida guilliermondii (20%), and Candida tropicalis (20%). Even for C. albicans, some strains did not induce vasculitis. The present results suggest that MN-induced vasculitis is strongly dependent on the species and strains of Candida, and also that the MN fractions of some non-albicans Candida induce similar toxicity to those of C. albicans.
Background: Cerebral aspergillosis usually affects immunocompromised hosts and may rarely occur in immunocompetent individuals. Due to its angio-invasive nature, Aspergillus may cause various vascular complications, particularly mycotic aneurysms and infarcts. Case presentation: A 22-year-old immunocompetent male with diagnosed case of sino-cerebral aspergillosis was taking voriconazole for two months. His headache worsened and repeat imaging showed an increase in the size of the lesion. The patient was managed with right frontal craniotomy and surgical debridement, and voriconazole was continued. After ten days of uneventful post-operative course, the patient developed left-sided hemispheric infarct. The patient is doing well at nine months' follow-up, and he is off voriconazole for three months after the follow-up imaging showed complete resolution of disease. Conclusion: Treatment of choice for cerebral aspergillosis is voriconazole. Surgical debridement may be a useful adjunct in patients not responding to voriconazole alone.