Trigeminal neuralgia is caused by compression of the trigeminal nerve by arteries or veins in the posterior fossa. A persistent primitive trigeminal artery variant (PPTAv) is an anomalous artery that may cause trigeminal neuralgia. A 65-year-old man presented with left facial pain. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed a PPTAv. Constructive interference in steady state showed that both the PPTAv and the superior cerebellar artery (SCA) compressed the trigeminal nerve. Thus, we performed microvascular decompression and the patient’s symptoms improved. PPTAv is a rare anomaly in the posterior fossa that can cause trigeminal neuralgia. Dual compression of the trigeminal nerve by the SCA and PPTAv demonstrates that trigeminal neuralgia may originate from multiple sources. It is therefore important to check preoperative images to adequately treat trigeminal neuralgia.
The middle meningeal artery (MMA) is suggested to play an important role in the recurrence of chronic subdural hematomas (CSDHs). However, the exact mechanisms involved in the recurrence of CSDHs still remain unknown. For recurring CSDHs, MMA embolization is performed using low-concentration n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (NBCA) at our hospital. We report new findings and a discussion related to the mechanism of CSDH recurrence based on the imaging findings after MMA embolization, and cases that required craniotomy due to recurrence. The study included eight patients with recurrent CSDH, defined as ipsilateral hematoma re-enlargement within 3 months, and treated with MMA embolization. MMA embolization was performed successfully in all eight patients with no complications. Of the eight patients treated, one patient required craniotomy for the evacuation of CSDHs due to hematoma re-enlargement. NBCA casts were observed in the inner membrane of CSDHs in five of the eight patients by postoperative computed tomography scans. In the case that required craniotomy, the formation of neovasculatures was observed in the inner membrane of the CSDH. Our results suggested that angiogenesis also occurs in the septum and inner membrane through the MMA and the outer membrane of the CSDH. Additionally, these neovascular vessels may be involved in the recurrence of CSDH after MMA embolization. In a future larger study, it is necessary to elucidate in detail the vascular architecture of the CSDH membrane associated with the hematoma re-enlargement, and the effectiveness of MMA embolization that embolized to these peripheral neovascular vessels.
Intracavernous hemangiopericytoma/solitary fibrous tumor is an extremely rare tumor, with only seven cases reported. We present a case of intracavernous hemangiopericytoma/solitary fibrous tumor and review all cases reported in the literature. A 67-year-old man experienced numbness over the left half of the face. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a left intracavernous tumor extending into Meckel’s cave and the posterior fossa. We performed gamma knife surgery (GKS) which a prescribed dose to the tumor of 12 Gy, but tumor recurred 43 months after GKS. We performed partial tumor resection via a subtemporal interdural approach. The pathological diagnosis was hemangiopericytoma. Postoperatively, we performed second GKS with a prescribed dose of 15 Gy. Diplopia and ptosis improved markedly and the tumor initially reduced in size, but tumor regrowth was seen again 29 months after second GKS. Third GKS was performed with a prescribed dose of 15 Gy. Recurrence was not seen at 18 months after third GKS, but was identified about 2 years after third GKS. We performed fourth GKS with a prescribed dose to the residual tumor of 16 Gy. We report a rare case of intracavernous hemangiopericytoma originating in the cavernous sinus, but distinguishing between hemangiopericytoma and schwannoma is difficult for round, intracavernous tumors showing homogeneous enhancement without flow voids. GKS might be one of the options for residual and recurrent intracavernous hemangiopericytomas.
A 63-year-old man was admitted in our hospital with the chief complaint of upper limb numbness 3 years after undergoing spinous process-splitting laminoplasty (C3–C7) in another hospital. The hydroxyapatite spacers used for the laminoplasty had dislocated, resulting sensory disorders of the upper extremities. Additionally, loosened hydroxyapatite intraspinous spacers and syringomyelia were confirmed. A revision operation was performed, during which the C5 spacer was observed to have dislodged into the spinal canal, and a dural membrane defect, arachnoid membrane tear, cerebrospinal fluid leakage, and marked adhesion change were observed. The adhesion was exfoliated as far as possible; moreover, to prevent the reflux of syringomyelia, a syrinx-subarachnoid shunt (SS shunt) was placed. Although there was concern of further adhesion by putting foreign matter, SS shunt indwelling was chosen to obtain sure disappearance of syringomyelia. The postoperative course was uneventful. A gradual improvement in the upper limb numbness was observed without a recurrence of syringomyelia at 9 years of follow-up.
Adult orbital xanthogranuloma is rare and usually associated with systemic disease. There are several options available to treat this disorder. Periorbital lesions are treated with steroids, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or local excision; however, there is still no consensus regarding optimal treatment. Here, we report a rare case of orbital xanthogranuloma that was not associated with systemic disease and was treated by transcranial surgery. The patient was a 52-year-old man who presented with a 2-year history of unilateral eye symptoms. A computed tomography scan revealed a well-defined mass in the right orbit. The mass was completely removed via a transcranial orbital approach. The histopathologic diagnosis was xanthogranuloma. No recurrence was observed during 15 months of postoperative follow-up. Complete surgical resection might be an effective treatment option for locally growing sporadic adult xanthogranulomatous disease of the orbit, and allows systemic steroids, chemotherapy, and irradiation to be avoided.
Metastases from meningioma grade I are especially rare. We describe a case of a 65-year-old male with meningioma WHO grade I with a history of local recurrence and distant metastasis to the lung 26 years after the initial surgery. The original tumor was localized at the occipital low convex and invaded into the venous sinus and posterior cranial fossa; it was resected. About 15 years later, the tumor recurred in the posterior cranial fossa and γ-knife radiosurgery was performed. About 4 years later, the recurred tumor was resected at our hospital. Another 7 years later, the tumor recurred in the same area and right middle cranial fossa. All tumors except that inside the venous sinus were excised. All specimens obtained were classified as meningioma WHO grade I. Preoperative examination of the third operation revealed a nodule in the lower lobe of the right lung. The nodule grew gradually. Four months after the third surgery, partial resection of the right lung was performed. Histology indicated meningioma WHO grade I. The two lesions in the cranium and lung lesions were subjected to fluorescence in situ hybridization of the NF2 gene, and the three specimens had similar findings, genetically confirming them to be metastases of the intracranial meningioma. A literature review of past cases of meningioma progression revealed that the mean duration to metastasis is 12.5, 6.8, 3.7 years for grades I, II, and III, respectively. The current case therefore has an extended time frame.
Cerebral infarction related to traumatic vertebral artery (VA) injuries is not common. However, if VA injuries cause ischemic and/or hemorrhage stroke, these subsequent problems can result in severe residual impairment and mortality. Herein, we present five patients with cervical vertebra fractures due to blunt cervical trauma who underwent preoperative endovascular therapy. Between June 2010 and April 2018 in our hospital, five patients with traumatic occlusion of a unilateral VA underwent coil embolization to prevent post-surgical stroke due to reperfusion in the VA. Because of cervical instability or subluxation, all of the patients received endovascular therapy before surgery for their cervical fracture. None of the patients presented with stroke after presurgical embolization and direct surgery. When stagnated blood, including thrombi, in the occluded VA is released during cervical surgery, brain embolism may occur. Therefore, early cerebrovascular vessel assessment and presurgical endovascular treatment must be considered to prevent stroke after direct surgery.