The relation between adult attachment styles and conscious parental images has received little study, although attachment theory is based on parent–child relationships. The present exploratory study examines the relation between attachment styles and the components and structures of the parental image. A modified version of The Twenty Statement Test and the Japanese version of the Relationship Questionnaire were used as the measures of parental image and attachment styles respectively. Data from 283 graduate and undergraduate students were analyzed by text mining. The results indicated that individuals with secure attachment styles tended to have social and positive parental images. Individuals with dismissive-avoidant attachment styles tended to have parental images from the relationship with themselves. Individuals with anxious-preoccupied and fearful-avoidant attachment styles tended to have parental images from the good relationship with themselves and a negative parental image, and both parental images were similar. The parental images associated with each attachment style are discussed.
The purpose of this study was to a) investigate the relationship between toddlers' temperaments and play and b) discuss the possibility that frequency of play related to the toddlers temperament influences child-rearing anxiety or satisfaction, through the child-rearers' self-evaluation of the way they coped with their children's play. Results showed that negative affect reactions, extroversion, or distractibility were related to play involving interaction with the adult, and high frequency of this play decreased child-rearing anxiety or improved child-rearing satisfaction. On the other hand, sensitivity was inversely proportional to sensory motor play; therefore, this play did not correspond to sensitivity. However, high frequency of sensory motor play improved child-rearing satisfaction. Neither adaptability nor rhythmicity influenced child-rearing anxiety or satisfaction according to the child-rearers' self-evaluation.
This study aimed to develop the Japanese version of psychological scales to evaluate anthropomorphism. This process revealed factors related to subjective anthropomorphism in Japan. Previously Western studies have used two different scales: a scale of agency/experience and a scale of uniquely human/human nature. We translated them for this study. Participants were 1,200 people from Japan who rated six robots and two humans on the two scales. Results showed that the scales had similar factor structures to those revealed in Western studies, which were divided into positive and negative factors. It was suggested that the Japanese population evaluates positive and negative anthropomorphic features differently. The reliability of the scales was satisfactory. Further, we discussed the effect of cultural background and usability of these scales.
This study examined patterns of study approach motive (i.e., utility value) and study avoidance motive (i.e., distress about learning) based on Conley's (2012) framework. We conducted a secondary analysis of a social survey. Participants were 1,723 junior high school students who completed an achievement test and questionnaires about utility value, distress about learning, interest, learning behavior, and health status indicators. Cluster analysis suggested three patterns: (a) in the high motivation cluster, students reported high utility value and low distress about learning; (b) in the low motivation cluster, students reported low utility value and high distress about learning; and (c) in the motivational conflict cluster, students reported high levels of both. One-way ANOVA revealed that the high motivation cluster reported the highest scores for interest, learning behavior, health indicators, and the achievement test. Learning behavior, health indicators, and test scores did not differ significantly between the other two groups. The implications of motivational intervention for students' learning are discussed.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between approach–avoidance commitment and investment model. Participants were 122 undergraduate students involved in romantic relationships. The results indicated that approach commitment was positively associated with satisfaction and investment. On the other hand, avoidance commitment was associated with the interaction term between a) satisfaction and investment and b) satisfaction and quality of alternative. Results of simple slope analysis showed that if satisfaction was low, avoidance commitment was positively associated with investment, and if satisfaction was high, avoidance commitment was positively associated with quality of alternative.
The primary objective of this study was to shed light on Yarigai (objects, feelings) and the reason to live among junior high-school students, and to investigate the relationship between Yarigai using the Meaning in Life Questionnaire (divided into presence and search factors) and life satisfaction. Analysis revealed that Yarigai (objects, feelings) and meaning in life could be divided into certaincategories. Differences in the meaning in life between Yarigai (objects, feelings) were examined. Mean scores of presence were significantly higher for school life compared to games (objects), and for thinking about others compared to the virtual world (feelings).
The purpose of this study was to examine a process model in which children's perceptions of classroom prosocial goal structures were related to cooperative learning through their motivation. Fifth and sixth grade children (N=207) participated in the study. A path analysis revealed that the children's perceptions of classroom prosocial goal structure were related to the identified regulations for cooperative learning, which, in turn, were related to cooperative learning activities. It was suggested that the effects of classroom educational practices regarding social goals could be mediated by children's motivation for cooperative learning.
In this study, we assessed the efficacy of a procedure for cognitive restructuring of abandonment schemas. A two-week intervention was conducted for individuals with borderline personality features. Results showed that the scores for abandonment schemas reduced for participants in the intervention group who were included in the procedure for cognitive restructuring, but not for those in the waiting list. However, no significant differences were observed in scores of borderline personality traits between the two groups. Future studies need to conduct lengthier interventions that enable the generalization of value of cognitive restructuring of abandonment schemas.