Progress in Rehabilitation Medicine
Online ISSN : 2432-1354
ISSN-L : 2432-1354
Current issue
Displaying 1-15 of 15 articles from this issue
  • Sumiya Shibata, Satoko Koganemaru, Tatsuya Mima
    2023 Volume 8 Article ID: 20230015
    Published: 2023
    Released on J-STAGE: May 25, 2023

    Objectives: This study aimed to update the current knowledge on non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) effects, such as repetitive transcranial brain stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation, in patients with post-stroke dysphagia (PSD).

    Methods: We summarized the basic principles and therapeutic strategies of NIBS. We then reviewed nine meta-analyses from 2022 that investigated the efficacy of NIBS in PSD rehabilitation.

    Results: Although dysphagia is a common and devastating sequela of stroke, the efficacy of conventional swallowing therapies remains controversial. NIBS techniques have been proposed as promising approaches for managing PSD via neuromodulation. Recent meta-analyses have shown that NIBS techniques are beneficial for the recovery of patients with PSD.

    Conclusions: NIBS has the potential to become a novel alternative treatment for PSD rehabilitation.

  • Kozo Hatori, Yasuhiro Tagawa, Taku Hatano, Osamu Akiyama, Nana Izawa, ...
    2023 Volume 8 Article ID: 20230014
    Published: 2023
    Released on J-STAGE: May 12, 2023

    Background: Task-specific dystonia (TSD) confined to the lower extremities (LE) is relatively rare. This report describes dystonia confined to the LE only during forward walking. This case required careful neurological and diagnostic assessment because the patient was taking several neuropsychiatric drugs that cause symptomatic dystonia, such as aripiprazole (ARP).

    Case: A 53-year-old man visited our university hospital with a complaint of abnormalities in the LE that appeared only during walking. Neurological examinations other than walking were normal. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed meningioma in the right sphenoid ridge. The patient had been treated for depression with neuropsychiatric medications for a long time, and his abnormal gait appeared about 2 years after additional administration of ARP. After the meningioma was removed, his symptoms remained. Surface electromyography showed dystonia in both LE during forward walking, although his abnormal gait appeared to be accompanied by spasticity. The patient was tentatively diagnosed with tardive dystonia (TD). Although dystonia did not disappear clinically, it was alleviated after discontinuing ARP. Administration of trihexyphenidyl hydrochloride and concomitant rehabilitation improved his dystonia until return to work, but some residual gait abnormalities remained.

    Discussion: We report an unusual case of TD with task specificity confined to the LE. The TD was induced by the administration of ARP in combination with multiple psychotropic medications. Careful consideration was required for clinical diagnosis, rehabilitation, and assessment of its relevance to TSD.

  • Issei Miyagi, Mizuho Ohta, Makoto Tamari
    2023 Volume 8 Article ID: 20230013
    Published: 2023
    Released on J-STAGE: April 21, 2023

    Objectives : It is unclear whether the increased center of mass lateral shift during gait induced by leg length difference induces lateral instability. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of leg length discrepancy (LLD) on dynamic gait stability and the compensatory kinematic and dynamic strategies for this effect by using the extrapolated center of mass and margin of stability.

    Methods : Nineteen healthy male participants walked without insoles (no LLD condition; 0 cm) and with added insoles (LLD condition; 3 cm). Kinematic and kinetic data were analyzed using a three-dimensional motion analyzer and force plates; the values were compared between the two conditions. Correlation analysis was performed on the parameters and the margin of stability and significant changes were identified.

    Results: Compared with the no-LLD condition, in the LLD condition, lateral stability was maintained on both the short leg side and the long leg side. Nonetheless, changes in joint angles and muscle activity on the frontal plane were observed on the short leg side, although the correlations were not significant. On the long leg side, a moderate negative correlation was found between the lateral flexion angle of the trunk and the margin of stability (r=–0.56, P=0.011).

    Conclusions: The short leg side may compensate for lateral stability by complex changes in joint angles and muscle activity, and the long leg side may compensate for lateral stability by actively adjusting the trunk lateral flexion angle.

  • Koki Shiozaki, Makoto Asaeda, Tadaaki Hashimoto, Yasunori Umemoto, Hid ...
    2023 Volume 8 Article ID: 20230012
    Published: 2023
    Released on J-STAGE: April 04, 2023

    Objectives : To ease the burden on care facilities, there is a need to reduce the number of frail older people with multiple chronic and non-communicable diseases (multimorbidity) that require long-term care. We investigated the effects of therapeutic exercise in rehabilitation treatment for older individuals with frailty and multimorbidity.

    Methods : We performed 4 weeks of inpatient rehabilitation treatment for frail older patients with multimorbidity. The therapeutic exercise was performed based on whole-body evaluations by qualified physiatrists and physiotherapists. Sixty-minute sessions were conducted twice a day and six times a week in accordance with the American College of Sports Medicine guidelines. Physical functions (grip strength, isometric lower muscle strength, 10-m walking test, and 6-min walking test) were measured at admission and discharge.

    Results : Of the 33 patients, 8 were unable to complete physical function evaluations, and 1 patient had a stress fracture of the right calcaneus beyond the rehabilitation time. Twenty-four patients were included in the analysis. Compared to the admission period, significant improvements were observed for all evaluated parameters post-therapy (P < 0.05). However, no significant correlation was found between the number of chronic diseases and changes to physical function (P > 0.05).

    Conclusions : Physical function of frail older individuals with multimorbidity improves through rehabilitation treatments supervised by physiatrists and physiotherapists. The number of chronic illnesses and the improvements in physical function were not related. Therefore, rehabilitation treatments for older patients may target both frailty and multimorbidity. Our results will aid in the rehabilitation treatment plans for this demographic.

  • Yasunori Ikenaga, Masami Fudeya, Tadayuki Kusunoki, Hiromi Yamaguchi
    2023 Volume 8 Article ID: 20230011
    Published: 2023
    Released on J-STAGE: March 31, 2023

    Objectives: This study investigated the factors contributing to complete oral intake (COI) in dysphagic stroke patients with enteral feeding tubes in the local clinical setting.

    Methods: Data of patients with percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) or nasogastric tube (NGT) feeding on admission to convalescent rehabilitation wards (CRWs) were extracted from the Kaga Regional Cooperation Clinical Pathway for Stroke database for multiple centers including 19 acute care hospitals and 11 hospitals with CRWs. Patients were divided into two groups based on their status regarding COI or incomplete oral intake (ICOI) at discharge. Logistic regression analysis with forced-entry variables was used to identify factors contributing to COI.

    Results: On discharge from CRWs, COI and ICOI were observed in 140 and 207 cases, respectively. The COI group was younger, had a higher rate of initial stroke, higher Functional Oral Intake Scale (FOIS) scores, higher Functional Independence Measure (FIM) motor and cognitive scores, higher Body Mass Index (BMI), lower rate of patients with PEG, and shorter stays in acute care wards. Logistic regression analysis with forced entry revealed that younger age; initial stroke; higher FOIS score, FIM cognitive score, and BMI; and shorter stay in the acute care ward contributed to COI.

    Conclusions: The primary factors contributing to COI in dysphagic stroke patients with enteral feeding tubes were younger age, initial stroke, higher swallowing and cognitive function, good nutritional status, and shorter stay in the acute care ward.

  • Tsuyoshi Matsumoto, Ryo Yoshikawa, Risa Harada, Yasumitsu Fujii, Akima ...
    2023 Volume 8 Article ID: 20230010
    Published: 2023
    Released on J-STAGE: March 29, 2023

    Objectives: Increased long-term impairment is common among intensive care unit (ICU) survivors. However, predictors of activities of daily living (ADL) in ICU survivors are poorly understood. We aimed to focus on the trajectory of physical function and explore the clinical variables that affect ADL at hospital discharge.

    Methods: We enrolled 411 patients admitted to the ICU from April 2018 to October 2020. Physical function was evaluated at ICU admission, ICU discharge, and hospital discharge. We assessed physical function (grip strength, arm and calf circumference, quadriceps thickness, and Barthel index). Patients were assigned to the high or low ADL group based on their Barthel index at discharge. Propensity score matching analysis was performed to minimize selection biases and differences in clinical characteristics.

    Results: After matching propensity scores, 114 of the 411 patients (aged 65±15 years) were evaluated. The high ADL group showed better physical function at ICU discharge and hospital discharge than the low ADL group. An overall decreasing trend in muscle mass was observed over time; the rates of decline were lower in the high ADL group than in the low ADL group. The cutoff values for relative changes in calf circumference and quadriceps thickness to predict high ADL were −7.89% (sensitivity: 77.8%, specificity: 55.6%) and −28.1% (sensitivity: 81.0%, specificity: 58.8%), respectively.

    Conclusions: The relative decreases in calf circumference and quadriceps thickness during hospitalization were lower in patients who maintained their ADL. Assessment of the trajectory of physical function can predict ADL status at hospital discharge among ICU survivors.

  • Kyohei Ichikawa, Takashi Baba, Hiroka Ogata, Kana Fujita, Kei Minemura ...
    2023 Volume 8 Article ID: 20230009
    Published: 2023
    Released on J-STAGE: March 21, 2023

    Objectives: This study aimed to clarify the effect of an intervention using a head-mounted display with a web camera set at a modified pitch angle on spatial awareness, sit-to-stand movement, and standing balance in patients with left and right hemisphere damage.

    Methods: The participants were 12 patients with right hemisphere damage and 12 patients with left hemisphere damage. The line bisection test, a sit-to-stand movement, and balance assessment were performed before and after the intervention. The intervention task involved pointing at targets 48 times in an upward bias condition.

    Results: Significant upward deviation on the line bisection test was noted in patients with right hemisphere damage. The load on the forefoot during the sit-to-stand movement was significantly increased. The range of anterior–posterior sway during forward movement in the balance assessment was reduced.

    Conclusions: An adaptation task performed in an upward bias condition may produce an immediate effect on upward localization, sit-to-stand movement, and balance performance in patients with right hemisphere stroke.

  • Masato Ogawa, Tsuyoshi Matsumoto, Risa Harada, Ryo Yoshikawa, Yuya Ued ...
    2023 Volume 8 Article ID: 20230008
    Published: 2023
    Released on J-STAGE: March 11, 2023

    Objectives: Measurement of skeletal muscle using ultrasonography (US) has received considerable attention as an alternative method of muscle assessment. However, intra- and inter-rater reliability remains controversial. Furthermore, there is no consensus regarding the relationship between muscle assessment using US and muscle mass or physical assessment. We aimed to verify the validity and reliability of muscle measurements using US and its relationships with muscle strength and physical assessment.

    Methods: The 22 participants were all healthy men. Quadriceps muscle thickness was measured by US by three different raters. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to assess inter- and intra-rater reliability. The maximum isokinetic strength of the quadriceps and handgrip strength were used as measures of lower and upper muscle strength, respectively. Leg muscle mass was assessed using the leg skeletal muscle index (SMI), measured by body impedance analysis, and calf circumference.

    Results: The intra-rater reliability was excellent which the ICC(1,1) ranges 0.957-0.993, and ICC(1,3) ranges 0.985-0.998. For inter-rater reliability, the values of 0.904 for ICC(2,1) and 0.966 for ICC(2,3) indicated excellent reliability. Leg SMI was significantly correlated with quadriceps thickness (r=0.36). Maximum isokinetic strength and handgrip strength showed weak but statistically significant correlations with quadriceps thickness (r=0.20, r=0.30, respectively). The correlation between quadriceps thickness and calf circumference was not statistically significant.

    Conclusions: Quadriceps muscle assessment using US is a valid and reliable technique for healthy individuals. Quadriceps muscle thickness was significantly positively correlated with upper and lower muscle strength and leg SMI. Muscle thickness assessment could replace full body muscle assessment in clinical settings.

  • Keiichi Osaki, Shinichiro Morishita, Tetsuhiro Shimokawa, Akiho Kamimu ...
    2023 Volume 8 Article ID: 20230007
    Published: 2023
    Released on J-STAGE: March 11, 2023

    Background: This case report describes the successful management of rehabilitation therapy for a hematological malignancy patient who was receiving chemotherapy and had coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

    Case: A 76-year-old man receiving chemotherapy for relapsed refractory multiple myeloma (MM) presented to our hospital with fever and dyspnea and was hospitalized with a diagnosis of COVID-19. Physical therapy (20 min/day, 5 days/week) was started on day 6 of hospitalization while the patient was receiving oxygen therapy. Conditioning exercises and movement exercises were performed in an isolation room, and blood counts, fracture susceptibility, and respiratory status were monitored. The patient was severely immunocompromised and required 34 days of isolation due to persistent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 virus (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Physical function was assessed by manual muscle testing of the lower extremities and by the extent of lower extremity fatigue and dyspnea on exertion, as assessed using the Borg scale. Motor capacity was assessed using the de Morton Mobility Index (DEMMI) score and the Barthel Index (BI). Muscle weakness and severe dyspnea developed 4 days after physical therapy was started. However, physical therapy led to improvements in DEMMI score and BI. The patient was discharged home on day 43 with home medical care.

    Discussion: Careful management of MM and COVID-19 facilitated safe treatment with physical therapy. The patient’s physical function improved with a carefully planned physical therapy program. Moreover, the patient required prolonged isolation due to persistent viral shedding; however, as a result of the treatment, which was coordinated between physicians and nurses, the patient could be discharged home.

  • Mami Hirasaki, Daisuke Takagi, Yoshiko Umeda, Motoki Moriwaki, Norimas ...
    2023 Volume 8 Article ID: 20230006
    Published: 2023
    Released on J-STAGE: March 01, 2023

    Background: Palatal augmentation prosthesis (PAP) and palatal lift prosthesis (PLP) have been used to improve dysphagia and dysarthria. However, to date, there are few reports on their combined use. We report a quantitative evaluation of the effectiveness of a flexible-palatal lift/augmentation combination prosthesis (fPL/ACP) based on videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) and speech intelligibility testing.

    Case: An 83-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a hip fracture. She developed aspiration pneumonia at 1 month after partial hip replacement. Oral motor function tests revealed a motor deficit of the tongue and soft palate. VFSS showed delayed oral transit, nasopharyngeal reflux, and excessive pharyngeal residue. The cause of her dysphagia was assumed to be pre-existing diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and sarcopenia. To improve the dysphagia, an fPL/ACP was fabricated and applied. It improved the patient’s oral and pharyngeal swallowing and speech intelligibility. In addition to prosthetic treatment, rehabilitation and nutritional support allowed her to be discharged.

    Discussion: The effects of fPL/ACP in the present case were similar to those of flexible-PLP and PAP. f-PLP assists in elevation of the soft palate and improved the nasopharyngeal reflux and hypernasal speech. PAP promotes tongue movement and results in improved oral transit and speech intelligibility. Therefore, fPL/ACP may be effective in patients with motor deficits in both the tongue and soft palate. To maximize the effect of the intraoral prosthesis, a transdisciplinary approach with concurrent swallowing rehabilitation, nutritional support, and physical and occupational therapy is necessary.

  • Toshifumi Chino, Shoji Kinoshita, Masahiro Abo
    2023 Volume 8 Article ID: 20230005
    Published: 2023
    Released on J-STAGE: March 01, 2023

    Recent technological advances in non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) have led to the development of therapies for post-stroke upper extremity paralysis. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), a NIBS technique, controls regional activity by non-invasively stimulating selected areas of the cerebral cortex. The therapeutic principle by which rTMS is thought to work is the correction of interhemispheric inhibition imbalances. The guidelines for rTMS for post-stroke upper limb paralysis have graded it as a highly effective treatment, and, based on functional brain imaging and neurophysiological testing, it has been shown to result in progress toward normalization. Our research group has published many reports showing improvement in upper limb function after administration of the NovEl Intervention Using Repetitive TMS and intensive one-to-one therapy (NEURO), demonstrating its safety and efficacy. Based on the findings to date, rTMS should be considered as a treatment strategy based on a functional assessment of the severity of upper extremity paralysis (Fugl-Meyer Assessment), and NEURO should be combined with pharmacotherapy, botulinum treatment, and extracorporeal shockwave therapy to maximize therapeutic effects. In the future, it will be important to establish tailormade treatments in which stimulation frequency and sites are adjusted according to the pathological conditions of interhemispheric imbalance, as revealed by functional brain imaging.

  • Nobuyuki Sasaki, Masato Yamatoku, Tomoya Tsuchida, Hiroyuki Sato, Keii ...
    2023 Volume 8 Article ID: 20230004
    Published: 2023
    Released on J-STAGE: February 28, 2023

    Objectives: There is no established treatment for chronic fatigue and various cognitive dysfunctions (brain fog) caused by long coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We aimed to clarify the effectiveness of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for treating these symptoms.

    Methods: High-frequency rTMS was applied to occipital and frontal lobes in 12 patients with chronic fatigue and cognitive dysfunction 3 months after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. Before and after ten sessions of rTMS, Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI), Apathy Scale (AS), and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-fourth edition (WAIS4) were determined and N-isopropyl-p-[123I]iodoamphetamine single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was performed.

    Results: Twelve subjects completed ten sessions of rTMS without adverse events. The mean age of the subjects was 44.3 ± 10.7 years, and the mean duration of illness was 202.4 ± 114.5 days. BFI, which was 5.7 ± 2.3 before the intervention, decreased significantly to 1.9 ± 1.8 after the intervention. The AS was significantly decreased after the intervention from 19.2 ± 8.7 to 10.3 ± 7.2. All WAIS4 sub-items were significantly improved after rTMS intervention, and the full-scale intelligence quotient increased from 94.6 ± 10.9 to 104.4 ± 13.0. Hypoperfusion in the bilateral occipital and frontal lobes observed on SPECT improved in extent and severity after ten sessions of rTMS.

    Conclusions: Although we are still in the early stages of exploring the effects of rTMS, the procedure has the potential for use as a new non-invasive treatment for the symptoms of long COVID.

  • Koichiro Sota, Yuki Uchiyama, Katsuji Kaida, Tatsushi Wakasugi, Daiki ...
    2023 Volume 8 Article ID: 20230003
    Published: 2023
    Released on J-STAGE: February 08, 2023

    Objectives: This study compared the balance function in patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) with their balance function after subsequent training sessions with a Balance Exercise Assist Robot (BEAR).

    Methods: In this prospective observational study, inpatients who underwent allo-HSCT from human leukocyte antigen-mismatched relatives were enrolled from December 2015 to October 2017. Patients were allowed to leave their clean room after allo-HSCT and underwent balance exercise training using the BEAR. Sessions (20–40 min) were performed 5 days per week and consisted of three games that were performed four times each. A total of 15 sessions were performed by each patient. Patient balance function was assessed before BEAR therapy according to the mini-balance evaluation systems test (mini-BESTest), and patients were divided into two groups (Low and High) based on a 70% cut-off value for the total mini-BESTest score. Patient balance was also assessed after BEAR therapy.

    Results: Fourteen patients providing written informed consent fulfilled the protocol: six patients in the Low group, and eight patients in the High group. In the Low group, there was a statistically significant difference between pre- and post-evaluations in postural response, which a sub-item of the mini-BESTest. In the High group, there was no significant difference between pre- and post-evaluations in the mini-BESTest.

    Conclusions: BEAR sessions improve balance function in patients undergoing allo-HSCT.

  • Ryozo Tanaka, Hiroaki Fushiki, Reiko Tsunoda, Tomohiko Kamo, Takumi Ka ...
    2023 Volume 8 Article ID: 20230002
    Published: 2023
    Released on J-STAGE: January 14, 2023

    Objectives: This study investigated the effects of a supervised home-based vestibular rehabilitation program using a booklet on gait function and dizziness in patients with chronic peripheral vestibular hypofunction.

    Methods: This was a non-blinded, randomized, controlled trial. Patients (n=42) with chronic peripheral vestibular hypofunction were randomly divided into the vestibular rehabilitation group (VR group; n=20) or the control group (n=22). Patients in the VR group received a supervised home-based vestibular rehabilitation program using a booklet in addition to physician care for 4 weeks. The physical therapist checked the home program when the VR group visited the outpatient clinic once a week. Patients in the control group received physician care only during the trial period. The primary outcome was functional gait assessment (FGA). The secondary outcomes were the dynamic gait index (DGI) and the dizziness handicap inventory (DHI).

    Results: Two-way repeated measures analysis of variance showed a significant interaction for FGA, DGI, DHI total, and DHI emotional scores (P<0.05) with the VR group improving more than the control group. No significant interactions were found for DHI physical and DHI functional scores (P≥0.05).

    Conclusions: The home-based vestibular rehabilitation program in this study was effective in improving gait function and dizziness in patients with chronic peripheral vestibular hypofunction. Regular supervision may have improved adherence to home exercise and contributed to the effectiveness of vestibular rehabilitation.

  • Ceri Houldsworth, Krishnan Padmakumari Sivaraman Nair, Ram Pankajam Ha ...
    2023 Volume 8 Article ID: 20230001
    Published: 2023
    Released on J-STAGE: January 14, 2023

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the cognitive abilities of people with spinal cord injury (SCI) using the Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavior Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Screen (ECAS), a tool designed for testing cognition in individuals with limited hand motor function. The impact of cognitive dysfunction on quality of life was also assessed.

    Methods: Forty-one patients with SCI were assessed using ECAS, the brief version of the World Health Organisation Quality of Life questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF), and the Spinal Cord Independence Measure.

    Results: Overall, 28 of the 41 participants scored below the cut-off threshold for normal population in ECAS. The domains affected were language, 63%; memory, 51%; executive function, 44%; verbal fluency, 44%; and visuospatial skills, 24%. On multiple regression analysis, the ECAS total score moderately strongly explained the variance in the WHOQOL-BREF psychological (β = 0.428, t = 2.958, P = 0.005) and environmental (β = 0.411, t = 2.819, P = 0.008) domains. ECAS memory scores independently influenced WHOQOL-BREF physical (β = 0.398, t = 2.67, P = 0.011) and environmental (β = 0.37, t = 2.697, P = 0.010) domains. WHOQOL-BREF psychological scores were significantly influenced by ECAS executive scores (β = 0.415, t = 2.85, P = 0.007), whereas the social domain was not significantly influenced by ECAS scores.

    Conclusions: It was feasible to use ECAS in individuals with SCI. Cognitive ability influenced the quality of life of people with SCI.