Progress in Rehabilitation Medicine
Online ISSN : 2432-1354
ISSN-L : 2432-1354
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  • Ryoji Ogura, Shunsuke Iribe, Takahiko Suzuki, Haruka Kuroda, Tatsuki S ...
    2021 Volume 6 20210022
    Published: 2021
    Released: May 11, 2021
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    Objectives: The aim of this prospective follow-up study was to investigate the difference before and after surgery in the six-minute walking distance (6MD) of lung cancer patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and to examine the long-term effect of the change in 6MD in the early postoperative period.

    Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of 25 COPD patients who underwent lung cancer surgery and perioperative rehabilitation in our department. Assessments of 6WD were carried out preoperatively and at 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively. The changes in 6MD at 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively compared with the preoperative value were designated the 1-month Δ6MD, the 3-month Δ6MD, and the 6-month Δ6MD, and the associations between them were investigated.

    Results: The mean 6MD distance was 412.0±27.3 m (95% confidence interval) preoperatively, 369.0±33.8 m at 1 month, 395.6±32.2 m at 3 months, and 400.0±38.2 m at 6 months, with a significant difference between the preoperative and 1-month values (P<0.01). There were strong correlations between 1-month and 3-month Δ6MDs (r =0.74, P<0.0001) and between 1-month and 6-month Δ6MDs (r =0.88, P<0.0001).

    Conclusions: In lung cancer patients with COPD, the 1-month Δ6MD was strongly associated with both the 3-month Δ6MD and the 6-month Δ6MD. These findings suggest that the decrease in exercise tolerance of patients whose 6MD is low at 1 month postoperatively may be prolonged, and such patients may therefore be in greater need of postoperative outpatient rehabilitation.

  • Shino Mori, Aiko Osawa, Shinichiro Maeshima, Takashi Sakurai, Kenichi ...
    2021 Volume 6 20210021
    Published: 2021
    Released: April 29, 2021
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    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical usefulness of the Cube Copying Test (CCT) for quantitative assessment of visuo-spatial function in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD).

    Methods: The CCT, Raven’s Colored Progressive Matrices (RCPM), and other neuropsychological tests were administered to 152 AD outpatients. For the quantitative assessment of CCT, we scored the points of connection (POC) and the number of plane-drawing errors (PDE) and categorized the pattern classification (PAC). We also measured Functional Assessment Staging (FAST) to assess the severity of AD. The relationships among CCT, RCPM, and FAST were then analyzed.

    Results: The mean POC and PDE scores were 2.7 and 3.6, respectively, and the median PAC score was 6.0. PDE and PAC showed a linear relationship, but POC and PDE, and POC and PAC did not. Each component of CCT showed a significant correlation with RCPM scores. PDE and PAC had closer correlations with RCPM scores than POC did. The PDE and PAC results were significantly different among most of the FAST stages.

    Conclusions: Quantitative assessment using CCT may be effective for the quick determination of the visuo-spatial function in AD patients.

  • Ryutaro Matsugaki, Makoto Ohtani, Yuko Mine, Satoru Saeki, Kiyohide Fu ...
    2021 Volume 6 20210020
    Published: 2021
    Released: April 28, 2021
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    Objectives: Pre-transplant rehabilitation for hematological malignancy patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) helps improve physical capacity. However, its benefit with respect to post-transplant hospital length of stay (LOS) is unclear. Consequently, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of pre-transplant rehabilitation on post-transplant LOS for hematological malignancy patients undergoing allo-HSCT.

    Methods: Data on patients diagnosed between April 2014 and March 2017 were collected from the Japanese Diagnosis Procedure Combination database. The patients were identified using the ICD-10 codes C81–85, C90–94, C96, and D46. Multilevel linear regression analyses were conducted to identify the effects of pre-transplant rehabilitation on post-transplant LOS (log transformed).

    Results: In total, 3614 patients were included in the study. Pre-transplant rehabilitation was associated with a significant reduction in post-transplant hospital LOS (β=–0.134, P<0.001).

    Conclusions: Pre-transplant rehabilitation may be an effective strategy for shortening the post-transplant hospital LOS in hematological malignancy patients undergoing allo-HSCT. Consequently, it may be necessary to consider starting rehabilitation before transplantation.

  • Akihisa Watanabe, Qana Ono-matsukubo, Tomohiko Nishigami, Toshiki Mait ...
    2021 Volume 6 20210019
    Published: 2021
    Released: April 14, 2021
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    Objectives: Subacromial pain syndrome is a common problem in primary care. Although several randomized controlled trials have shown that eccentric exercise is effective in patients with subacromial pain syndrome, its generalizability to real-world clinical practice is unknown. This study aimed to investigate, using propensity score analysis, the generalizability of eccentric exercise for patients with subacromial pain syndrome to real-world daily clinical practice.

    Methods: In this study, 78 patients underwent eccentric exercise in addition to traditional exercise, and 77 patients underwent only traditional exercise for 4 weeks. Outcomes measured using a visual analog scale (VAS) and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Society Standardized Shoulder Assessment Form (ASES) scores were assessed at baseline and at 4 weeks.

    Results: In the propensity score-matched analysis, 65 patients in each group were successfully matched (130 of 155 patients, 84% overall). After 4 weeks of exercise, pain intensity was lower in the eccentric exercise group than in the traditional exercise group (VAS −14.5, 95% CI −21.2 to −7.9, P<0.001). No significant difference in the improvement in function was found between the two groups (ASES 4.1, 95% CI −2.0 to 10.2, P=0.18).

    Conclusions: Eccentric and traditional exercise in combination could reduce pain in patients with subacromial pain syndrome to a greater extent than traditional exercise alone. These findings have clinical relevance to primary care practitioners who provide conservative treatment for patients with subacromial pain syndrome.

  • Ryuichi Kasahara, Takaaki Fujita, Ryohei Jinbo, Tatsuyuki Kai, Yuichi ...
    2021 Volume 6 20210018
    Published: 2021
    Released: March 19, 2021
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    Background: A severely obese woman (39.8 kg/m2) with relapsed acute myeloid leukemia was admitted to our hospital to undergo salvage chemotherapy followed by cord blood transplantation (CBT).

    Case: During the salvage chemotherapy period, a 70-day weight loss program addressing diet and exercise was administered. After the 70-day intervention, the patient’s body weight and body fat mass had decreased (8.6% and 15.0%, respectively) without any adverse events. The number of available cord blood units with total nucleated cells per body weight greater than 2 × 107/kg was zero at admission and two after weight loss; therefore, CBT could be performed.

    Discussion: Considering this case, we suggest that a weight loss program combining exercise and nutrition therapy may help patients scheduled for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation by focusing on risk management.

  • Ryo Miyazawa, Yoshitaka Iso, Miki Tsujiuchi, Makoto Shoji, Tetsuya Tak ...
    2021 Volume 6 20210017
    Published: 2021
    Released: March 18, 2021
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    Objectives: In the field of exercise physiology, there has been great interest in exploring circulating microRNAs (miRs) as potential biomarkers. However, it remains to be determined whether circulating miRs reflect cardiorespiratory fitness. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between circulating levels of specific miRs and cardiorespiratory fitness evaluated by cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) after acute myocardial infarction (MI).

    Methods: Twenty patients who had had an acute MI were included. All patients underwent CPET in the convalescent phase. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses for miR-181 members (a/b/c) and miR-484 were performed to determine the expression levels in the peripheral blood of the included patients and healthy control subjects (n=5).

    Results: Post-MI patients showed impaired exercise tolerance and ventilatory efficiency in CPET analysis. Compared with controls, circulating levels of miR-181a and 181c were gradually and significantly elevated through the 1st to 7th days after acute MI, whereas miR-181b and miR-484 were not. Circulating miR levels did not correlate with clinical or echocardiographic parameters. However, circulating levels of miR-181c and miR-484 on the 7th day showed significant positive correlations with the anaerobic threshold and peak oxygen consumption from CPET analysis. Moreover, miR-181c levels were inversely associated with the ventilatory inefficiency index. Patients with high exercise capacity after MI showed significantly higher expressions of circulating miR-181c and miR-484 than those with low exercise capacity.

    Conclusions: The results of this pilot study suggest that circulating levels of miR-181c and miR-484 after acute MI may be predictive biomarkers of post-MI cardiorespiratory fitness.

  • Hiroshi Mano, Emi Inakazu, Satoko Noguchi, Chika Nishizaka, Sayaka Fuj ...
    2021 Volume 6 20210016
    Published: 2021
    Released: March 18, 2021
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    Background: Congenital limb deficiency is a rare and intractable anomaly of the limbs; however, prostheses can partially complement the motor function and appearance of the missing limbs. The first prosthesis is usually prescribed for children with upper limb deficiencies at approximately 6–8 months of age. In affected children with additional problems associated with motor function, such as limb paralysis, the age for initiating prosthetic therapy and the benefit of prostheses in promoting and expanding their motor function and activities is unknown.

    Case: In this case presentation, we describe a 25-month-old boy with cerebral palsy and left unilateral congenital upper limb deficiency caused by congenital constriction band syndrome. The patient could stand with assistance and crawl on his hands and knees. However, he was unable to walk with assistance or to stand on his own. A forearm prosthesis with a passive hand was prescribed and issued, and rehabilitation therapy for wearing and using the prosthesis was performed. At 34 months of age, the patient was able to walk forward using a walker with the prosthesis. Without the prosthesis, he still could not walk using a walker. The upper limb prosthesis also improved other movements such as sitting, standing, and tasks performed on a desk or on the floor.

    Discussion: The prosthesis was apparently effective in improving motor function. Prosthesis prescription should be considered at an appropriate and early age considering individual developmental stages and needs, regardless of the existence of additional problems associated with motor function.

  • Noritaka Hamano, Hitoshi Shitara, Tsuyoshi Tajika, Tsuyoshi Ichinose, ...
    2021 Volume 6 20210015
    Published: 2021
    Released: March 10, 2021
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    Objectives: We aimed to examine the relationship between the hip range of motion (ROM) and ankle ROM and throwing-related shoulder and elbow injuries in elementary school baseball pitchers.

    Methods: This retrospective comparative study (Level of evidence: Level III) included 195 baseball pitchers (mean age 10.8±1.0 years, range 8–12 years). All pitchers underwent physical function measurements, including height, weight, shoulder strength, and hip and ankle ROM. Shoulder and elbow injury was defined as shoulder and elbow pain that the pitchers had been aware of in the past or at the time of medical checkups. The results for the injured and non-injured groups were then compared.

    Results: The shoulder ROM and strength in the injured and non-injured groups did not differ to a statistically significant extent. The hip external rotation on the dominant side (injured vs. non-injured: 48.9±11.1° vs. 53.3±9.7°, P<0.01), the hip internal rotation on the non-dominant side (injured vs. non-injured: 36.6±12.0° vs. 40.9±11.0°, P=0.01), and ankle plantar flexion on the non-dominant side (injured vs. non-injured: 52.0±6.8° vs. 54.3±6.7°, P=0.02) were significantly smaller in the injured group than in the non-injured group.

    Conclusions: The hip external rotation ROM on the dominant side and the hip internal rotation and ankle plantar flexion on the non-dominant side were significantly lower in the injured group than in the non-injured group. These results may suggest measures to reduce the incidence of elbow and shoulder injuries in elementary school baseball pitchers.

  • Shinpei Osaki, Kazu Amimoto, Yasuhiro Miyazaki, Junpei Tanabe, Nao Yos ...
    2021 Volume 6 20210014
    Published: 2021
    Released: March 06, 2021
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    Objectives: Patients identified as asymptomatic for unilateral spatial neglect (USN) based on paper-and-pen tests nonetheless often collide with objects to their left while walking. This study aimed to investigate chronic USN in subjects who experienced collisions while walking.

    Methods: Two patients with chronic USN who experienced collisions while walking were evaluated using the Behavioral Inattention Test-conventional (BIT-c). Additionally, the modified Posner task (MPT) was used to evaluate the left and right reaction times. MPT targets randomly appeared either on the side indicated by the cue (valid condition) or on the opposite side (invalid condition). This study used an alternating treatments single-case design. The valid and invalid conditions of the MPT alternated rapidly and randomly to determine differences in reaction time. Statistical analysis compared left and right reaction times using a one-tailed randomization test to study valid and invalid conditions.

    Results: The total BIT-c score was in the normal range for both subjects, whereas MPT reaction times were higher on the left side than on the right side for the invalid condition. However, for the valid condition, only Case B had increased reaction times on the left side.

    Conclusions: The MPT valid condition evaluates voluntary attention, whereas the invalid condition evaluates the reorientation of attention. Consequently, for Case A, a left reorientation of attention deficit was observed, whereas, for Case B, left voluntary attention and left reorientation of attention deficits were observed. The MPT results revealed the characteristics of covert neglect signs. USN evaluation would benefit from additional research using MPT.

  • Tomoko Sakai, Chisato Hoshino, Masanobu Hirao, Reiko Yamaguchi, Rui Na ...
    2021 Volume 6 20210013
    Published: 2021
    Released: March 04, 2021
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    Objectives: The aim of the study was to describe the characteristics and efficiency of rehabilitation for patients diagnosed with moderate-to-severe coronavirus disease (COVID-19).

    Methods: We retrospectively assessed the medical records of patients with COVID-19 who underwent rehabilitation for early mobilization and to maintain activities of daily living at our hospital between April 21 and August 20, 2020. The following patient data were evaluated: age, sex, diseases, and the total number of sessions completed by patients with severe COVID-19 in the intensive care unit (ICU) and by patients with moderate disease in the general COVID-19 wards. The number of daily sessions performed by physiotherapists was also evaluated.

    Results: Of 161 patients with COVID-19 admitted during the study period, 95 underwent rehabilitation (78 in the general COVID-19 wards and 17 in the ICU). These 95 COVID-19 patients completed 1035 rehabilitation sessions in total (882 in the general ward and 153 in the ICU). Polymerase chain reaction test results for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) were positive for 79 patients on the initiation of rehabilitation. Moreover, 86 sessions were supervised remotely, thereby reducing the duration of the medical staff’s stay in the SARS-CoV-2 isolation area. Patients with COVID-19 in the ICU received significantly more daily physiotherapy sessions than general ward patients (P<0.001). Each physiotherapist performed, on average, 4.6 sessions daily, with 4.3 daily sessions being performed wearing personal protective equipment (PPE).

    Conclusions: COVID-19 rehabilitation required more efforts as wearing PPE was necessary for most cases although tried with remote rehabilitation in some cases. Overall, a longer rehabilitation period was needed for ICU patients.

  • Sonoko Nozaki, Masako Fujiu-kurachi, Takako Tanimura, Kimiyo Ishizuka, ...
    2021 Volume 6 20210012
    Published: 2021
    Released: February 20, 2021
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    Objectives: Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is an uncommon progressive neurodegenerative disease with no effective cure at present. The initial symptoms resemble those of Parkinson’s disease; however, the prevalence of PSP is about one-tenth that of Parkinson’s disease. In many cases, dysphagia is severe, and the development of dysphagia is an early predictor of life expectancy. The aim of the current study was to define the effects of Lee Silverman Voice Treatment (LSVT LOUD) on swallowing and voice/speech in seven patients with PSP.

    Methods : Each patient underwent swallowing and voice/speech evaluations before and after 4 weeks of LSVT. Swallowing motility disorders were defined, temporal measures of swallowing were determined by videofluoroscopic evaluation, and voice measures of maximum phonation and speech intelligibility in reading and monologue were examined.

    Results: After LSVT, the median duration of opening of the upper esophageal sphincter (from the beginning of the posterior movement of the bolus to upper esophageal sphincter opening) on videofluoroscopy was significantly shortened from 0.42 to 0.38 s (Wilcoxon signed-rank test P=0.016). The oral transit duration was decreased in five patients, but the decrease was not significant. Voice changes after LSVT included increases in voice intensity and in sustained duration were not significant.

    Conclusion: In this small study, it was found that LSVT may improve swallowing functions in patients with PSP.

  • Saya Iwasa, Yuki Uchiyama, Norihiko Kodama, Tetsuo Koyama, Kazuhisa Do ...
    2021 Volume 6 20210011
    Published: 2021
    Released: February 16, 2021
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    Background: Hip prostheses are generally avoided in elderly patients because of cognitive decline and/or reduced muscle strength. The present report describes the case of an elderly woman who regained gait using a prosthesis prescribed during the early postoperative phase following hip disarticulation.

    Case: A 78-year-old woman suffered from a pathological fracture caused by liposarcoma of the left thigh. Before hospitalization, the patient was fully independent in her activities of daily living, including gait. The right and left handgrip strengths were 12.9 and 14.2 kg, respectively, and the patient had no signs of cognitive decline. Radical treatment involving hip disarticulation was scheduled. Before surgery, the possibility of fitting a hip prothesis that would allow the patient to walk was discussed, to which she consented. On postoperative day 23, the patient was fitted with a hip prosthesis and began gait training. On day 31, she was able to walk using a fixed walker and, eventually, using a crutch.

    Discussion: The present case demonstrated the successful reacquisition of gait using a hip prothesis prescribed during the early postoperative phase after amputation, suggesting that the applicability of hip prostheses may be widely considered even for elderly patients.

  • Shingo Nobuta, Hiroshi Okuno, Taku Hatta, Ryo Sato, Eiji Itoi
    2021 Volume 6 20210010
    Published: 2021
    Released: February 13, 2021
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    Objectives: The purposes of this study were to assess the clinical features of ulnar tunnel syndrome (UTS) and to investigate the diagnostic value of nerve conduction measurements for UTS.

    Methods: Eighteen patients with UTS were reviewed retrospectively. Fifteen patients had intrinsic muscle atrophy and motor weakness, and 15 had numbness with hypesthesia. The compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) from the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle and the abductor digiti minimi (ADM) muscle and the sensory nerve action potential (SNAP) from the little finger were recorded and analyzed. All patients underwent ulnar tunnel release surgery and neurolysis. Static two-point discrimination test results and pinch strengths were assessed before and after surgery.

    Results: Before surgery, FDI-CMAP was recorded in 17 patients, and ADM-CMAP in 16, and all showed delayed latency and/or low amplitude. SNAP was recorded in eight patients and two showed delayed latency. The causes of ulnar nerve lesions were ganglion in five patients, traumatic adhesion in four, ulnar artery aberrancy in four, pisohamate arch in three, anomalous muscle in one, and ulnar vein varix in one. The sites of the lesions were in zone 1 of the ulnar tunnel anatomy in 12 patients, in zone 2 in 2, and in zones 1 and 2 in 4. After surgery, all patients obtained recovery of motor function and sensation; however, postoperative FDI-CMAP and ADM-CMAP did not improve to the normal range.

    Conclusions: The causes of UTS were ganglion, traumatic adhesion, ulnar artery aberrancy, and pisohamate arch. Both FDI-CMAP and ADM-CMAP were valuable for electrophysiological diagnosis of UTS.

  • Hiroaki Tsukamoto, Kimio Saito, Toshiki Matsunaga, Takehiro Iwami, Hid ...
    2021 Volume 6 20210009
    Published: 2021
    Released: February 06, 2021
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    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to clarify the diagnostic accuracy of the mobile assessment of varus thrust using inertial measurement units (IMUs).

    Methods: A total of 80 knees in 49 patients were enrolled in this study. On visual analysis of gait to determine the presence or absence of varus thrust, 23 knees were assigned to the Present group, 17 to the Ambiguous group, and 40 to the Absent group. The peak knee varus angular velocities (PVVs), measured by quantitative gait analysis using nine-axis IMUs, were compared between these three groups. A receiver operating characteristic curve for the relationship between the visual assessment of varus thrust (Present and Ambiguous) and the measured PVV was created, and the cut-off PVV for visualized varus thrust was determined as the highest point for both sensitivity and specificity.

    Results: The mean PVVs were significantly different between the three groups (Present, 47.7 ± 8.2 degree/s, Ambiguous, 34.1 ± 10.5 degree/s, and Absent, 28.1 ± 8.3 degree/s, respectively, ANOVA P=0.000). The PVV cut-off value for visualized varus thrust was 28.1 degree/s, yielding a sensitivity of 0.957 and a specificity of 0.579.

    Conclusions: A PVV <28.1 degree/s is useful for ruling out varus thrust during gait. This quantitative varus thrust assessment method using IMUs has clinical utility as a screening test.

  • Masahiro Iwakura, Masahiko Wakasa, Kazuki Okura, Atsuyoshi Kawagoshi, ...
    2021 Volume 6 20210008
    Published: 2021
    Released: February 06, 2021
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    Objectives: We aimed to identify the quadriceps muscle strength (QMS) thresholds below which exercise capacity is compromised in men with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

    Methods: We measured the quadriceps isometric maximum voluntary contraction (QMVC) and calculated the QMVC values normalized to weight (QMVC-BW), height squared (QMVC-H2), and body mass index (QMVC-BMI) in 113 patients with COPD. The functional exercise capacity was evaluated using the 6-minute walk distance (6MWD), and 6MWD <350 m was defined as functional exercise intolerance. Thresholds were determined for QMVC and its normalized values to achieve high specificity (>0.90) with maximal sensitivity. P-values <0.01 were considered statistically significant.

    Results: Data from 99 male patients (age, 74 ± 6 years; percentages of predicted forced expiratory volume in 1-s, 56.9 ± 26.4%) were analyzed; 3 women and 11 participants with the missing data were excluded. Multivariate logistic regression models identified significant associations of QMVC and QMVC-H2 with 6MWD, after adjustment for age and dyspnea. C-statistics showed that the area under the curves of all QMVC parameters were comparable. The thresholds of QMVC and QMVC-H2 for predicting compromised exercise capacity were 26.2 kg and 9.6 kg/m2, respectively.

    Conclusions: QMS thresholds in men with COPD could help clinicians evaluate whether QMS is insufficient to achieve 6MWD ≥350 m and thereby identify patients who should be specifically targeted for muscle strengthening training during their pulmonary rehabilitation program.

  • Tokio Kinoshita, Tatsuya Yoshikawa, Yukio Mikami, Shinnosuke Hori, Yum ...
    2021 Volume 6 20210007
    Published: 2021
    Released: January 30, 2021
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    Background: After the emergence of novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), cluster infections occurred at several rehabilitation facilities in Japan. Because rehabilitation is necessary for deconditioned COVID-19 patients, preventing cluster infections and providing rehabilitation while protecting therapists were also essential in the Wakayama region.

    Webinar The rehabilitation medicine department and division of Wakayama Medical University Hospital, which consists of physiatrists and registered therapists, proposed that the Wakayama Physical Therapy Association hold an urgent webinar for therapists in the Wakayama region. The webinar (120 min in duration) comprised an overview of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, the significance of rehabilitation therapy for COVID-19 patients, instruction in personal protective equipment, and case reports on COVID-19 patients from an affiliated university hospital. The webinar was held on May 16, 2020, after only 9 days of preparation. Ninety-six members of 29 facilities in the Wakayama region participated, including therapists who lived far from the university. Moreover, the webinar was implemented at a lower cost than a conventional meeting. An opportunity was provided to share information among participants, speakers, instructors, and a supervisor after the presentations. The overall level of satisfaction of participants after the webinar was high.

    details: The rehabilitation medicine department and division of Wakayama Medical University Hospital, which consists of physiatrists and registered therapists, proposed that the Wakayama Physical Therapy Association hold an urgent webinar for therapists in the Wakayama region. The webinar (120 min in duration) comprised an overview of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, the significance of rehabilitation therapy for COVID-19 patients, instruction in personal protective equipment, and case reports on COVID-19 patients from an affiliated university hospital. The webinar was held on May 16, 2020, after only 9 days of preparation. Ninety-six members of 29 facilities in the Wakayama region participated, including therapists who lived far from the university. Moreover, the webinar was implemented at a lower cost than a conventional meeting. An opportunity was provided to share information among participants, speakers, instructors, and a supervisor after the presentations. The overall level of satisfaction of participants after the webinar was high.

    Conclusion: This webinar for therapists in local facilities was held by physiatrists and therapists at Wakayama Medical University, a regional core hospital, in collaboration with the regional therapy association. The preparation time was only 9 days and the cost was lower than that for a conventional meeting, thereby allowing participants to share information about infection control for COVID-19 in an efficient and cost-effective manner.

  • Tomohiro Yamada, Yu Yamato, Tomohiko Hasegawa, Go Yoshida, Tatsuya Yas ...
    2021 Volume 6 20210006
    Published: 2021
    Released: January 30, 2021
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    Objectives: This longitudinal study aimed to evaluate the effect of acquisition of an exercise habit on locomotive dysfunction (LD).

    Methods: The subjects were 121 male and 196 female volunteers aged more than 50 years who attended health checkups in Toei, central Japan, in 2012 and 2014. We divided the subjects into three groups: an acquiring exercise group (Ac-Ex) composed of those who acquired an exercise habit between 2012 and 2014, a non-exercise group (Non-Ex) who did not acquire an exercise habit, and an exercise group (Ex) who already had an exercise habit in 2012. We compared the 25-question Geriatric Locomotive Function Scale (GLFS-25) score among the three groups.

    Results: In men in the Ac-Ex group, the GLFS-25 score improved significantly between 2012 and 2014 (P=0.046), and sub-analysis of the GLFS-25 responses showed that fundamental and instrumental activities of daily living (ADL) improved significantly. In women in the Ac-Ex group, the prevalence of radiologically diagnosed knee osteoarthritis was significantly higher (P=0.027) than that for the other two groups, and there was no significant improvement in GLFS-25 score over the 2-year period.

    Conclusions: The acquisition of an exercise habit had a positive effect on the locomotive function in men. Orthopedic surgeons must enlighten people on the need for a continuous exercise habit.

  • Takashi Ariie, Masami Nakahara, Masaharu Morita
    2021 Volume 6 20210005
    Published: 2021
    Released: January 27, 2021
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    Objectives : The aim of the study was to understand the physical therapist’s experience and perception of the support they give to their older patients or clients to continue exercising.

    Methods : Using purposive sampling, we recruited fifteen physical therapists with more than 5 years of clinical experience and conducted semi-structured interviews. We analyzed the transcribed data using thematic analysis.

    Results : Three main themes emerged: (1) the expected results as healthcare professionals, (2) clinical experience and continuing professional development, and (3) limited educational opportunities. Physical therapists struggled to achieve a certain level of exercise adherence in their patients, and the low success rate decreased their confidence. We found that physical therapists needed not only to rely on clinical experience but also to integrate scientific evidence to implement better behavioral change techniques; they would also appreciate receiving appropriate educational opportunities.

    Conclusions : This study revealed a possibility of educational insufficiency for physical therapist to support of behavior change to improve exercise adherence in the older population.

  • Yoshitaka Wada, Tomokazu Masaoka, Nobuo Morotomi, Nobuyuki Kawate
    2021 Volume 6 20210004
    Published: 2021
    Released: January 27, 2021
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    Background: Pirogoff amputation is a calcaneal amputation invented by Nicolás Pirogoff that involves partial preservation of the calcaneus.

    Case: A 59-year-old woman was diagnosed with left Lisfranc and Chopart joint fracture-dislocation 9 months after a fall. The patient underwent debridement together with Pirogoff amputation and surgery to place an Ilizarov external fixator. Five months later, the patient was transferred to a rehabilitation hospital. Because of inadequate bone fusion, for 3 months after the amputation the patient underwent gait training with a patellar tendon weight-bearing orthosis to avoid loading the amputated side. After fusion of the bone, the patient was able to walk using a Syme prosthesis and a cane. Three months after discharge from the rehabilitation hospital, the patient was diagnosed with hallux osteomyelitis of the other foot that was associated with the exacerbation of hallux valgus. The patient underwent hallux correction surgery. Three and a half months after the second hospital admission, the patient was again admitted to the rehabilitation hospital. At the end of the rehabilitation program, the patient was able to walk using a cane and a prosthesis.

    Discussion: Appropriate orthotic treatment and care of the non-amputated limb are of great importance in patients who have undergone a partial foot amputation.

  • Satoshi Kamada, Naoki Kise, Koichi Kinoshita, Etsuji Shiota, Takuaki Y ...
    2021 Volume 6 20210003
    Published: 2021
    Released: January 22, 2021
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    Background: Surgical treatment of femoral neck fractures is usually performed as an urgent procedure so that restoration of the ability to stand and walk can be achieved as quickly as possible. However, orthopedic surgeons need to be aware of undertreated or untreated diseases in their patients. Organ transplant recipients require immunosuppressive agents and steroids postoperatively. Hemodialysis patients also exhibit immunological deterioration and are included among immunocompromised patients. We report a case in which conservative treatment was chosen for a hepatic transplant recipient on hemodialysis who suffered a femoral neck fracture because signs of inflammation of unknown etiology were intermittently seen.

    Case: The patient was a 70-year-old man who had undergone liver transplantation from a living donor as treatment for hepatocellular cancer and hepatic failure with cirrhosis. Dialysis for end-stage renal failure was initiated at approximately 1 year postoperatively. Cyclosporine was administered as an immunosuppressive agent. The patient subsequently fell off a bicycle and was unable to walk because of right hip pain. He was brought to our hospital by ambulance, and a right hip radiograph revealed a femoral neck fracture. His white blood cell count and C-reactive protein levels were intermittently elevated with unknown etiology. Conservative treatment was finally adopted, although a bipolar hip arthroplasty was planned. At 5 months after the injury, the patient was able to walk alone in a stable manner using a pair of crutches and was discharged.

    Discussion: Conservative treatment for a femoral neck fracture, which generally requires surgery, may be acceptable in organ transplant recipients on hemodialysis.

  • Naoya Akiyama, Ichiro Fujishima, Satoshi Tanaka, Nobuhiro Matsuura, Hi ...
    2021 Volume 6 20210002
    Published: 2021
    Released: January 08, 2021
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    Objectives : A pilot study was conducted primarily to examine the effect of rehabilitation using the Screw Block® kit on the upper limb function of hemiplegic stroke patients.

    Methods : In this pilot, single-center, quasi-randomized, controlled trial, 30 stroke patients were randomly allocated to either the experimental group or the control group. They received training with either Screw Block® for 20 min in addition to conventional occupational therapy (20–40 min) or conventional occupational therapy, which included upper limb functional training for 40–60 min. In both groups, training was conducted 5 days a week for 3 weeks (15 sessions in total). Upper extremity function on the paralyzed side, which was the primary outcome, was evaluated using the Simple Test for Evaluating Hand Function (STEF) before and after the interventions.

    Results : The study sample included 28 men and 2 women (mean age, 62.5 years). The experimental group showed a significant improvement in mean STEF score compared with the control group (T=2.252, P=0.032, Cohen’s d=0.82).

    Conclusion : Occupational therapy using Screw Block® was more effective than conventional occupational therapy alone in improving the upper limb function in stroke patients.

  • Tsuyoshi Hara, Eisuke Kogure, Akira Kubo, Wataru Kakuda
    2021 Volume 6 20210001
    Published: 2021
    Released: January 08, 2021
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    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate how baseline laboratory data and changes in physical function due to preoperative rehabilitation training in gastrointestinal cancer (GIC) patients can influence the frequency of postoperative complications (PCs).

    Methods: We enrolled 45 patients who were scheduled for elective surgery for GIC (27 men and 18 women, mean age 63.6±9.5 years). All patients underwent a medical examination and received general instruction from a rehabilitation physician and exercise instruction from a physical therapist from 7 to 34 days before the surgery. PCs were graded using the Clavien-Dindo classification based on the medical records 1 month postoperatively. We measured the grip strength and the isometric knee extension torque and conducted the 6-min walk test (6MWT) at baseline and just before surgery. The surgical duration, blood loss, and blood transfusion data were collected. Baseline laboratory information, including C-reactive protein levels, serum albumin levels, platelet count, white blood cell count, and the estimated glomerular filtration rate, was recorded.

    Results: The frequency of PCs was negatively correlated to the change in the 6MWT (β=−0.36) and positively correlated to the surgical duration (β=0.41). Baseline albumin was positively correlated to the change in the 6MWT distance (β=0.35). This model demonstrated an acceptable fit to the data (goodness of fit index=0.980, comparative fit index=1.000, root mean square error of approximation=0.000).

    Conclusions: The improvement of gait ability achieved with preoperative rehabilitation training in patients undergoing elective GIC surgery led to decreased PCs.

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