Background: Descending necrotizing mediastinitis is a potentially fatal polymicrobial infection that often leads to dysphagia after treatment. Such dysphagia is likely the result of fibrosis and scarring from inflammatory changes in the fascial space. A case is presented in which the mechanism of dysphagia was verified using two-dimensional analysis of the muscle lengths of the suprahyoid and infrahyoid muscles. Case: A 57-year-old woman presented with a hyoid and laryngeal movement disorder with pharyngeal residue secondary to descending necrotizing mediastinitis. To treat this disorder, the chin-down maneuver was performed, and it immediately improved hyoid and laryngeal elevation and reduced pharyngeal residue at the epiglottic valleculae and pyriform sinus. Analysis of the mechanism of these improvements revealed that combined head and neck flexion, compared with neck flexion, decreased the distance between the origin and insertion (DOI) of the sternohyoid muscle (SM) and increased the muscle contraction rate and the maximum contraction duration of the geniohyoid muscle (GM) during swallowing. Discussion: In the present case, the patient had restrictions in extension of the SM that applied resistance to GM contraction. Compensation of this condition was achieved by combined head and neck flexion, which decreased the DOI of the SM, thereby improving the contractile function of the GM.
Objective: The success of a client-centred practice depends on the relationship between the client and therapist and on their ability to make constructive decisions together, particularly in the field of occupational therapy. The aim of this study was to develop a Occupational Therapy Collaborative Relationship Scale (OTCRS) to measure the quality of such interaction. Methods: This work included constructing a draft questionnaire and testing its validity and reliability. A Rasch analysis was applied to determine its validity, and several tests were used to confirm its internal consistency. Results: After reviewing more than 130 scientific papers and books, we built explicit selection criteria for issues to be addressed in this instrument, and we developed 40 questions to be included. These were analysed using a standard content validation process and a Rasch analysis to examine confirmation validity. A nine-item scale was finalised for testing (OTCRS-9). This review process revealed the validity, high internal consistency, and item/person separation reliability of OTCRS-9. Conclusion: This study presents only the initial phase of scale development. As suggested by the Consensus-based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN), the OTCRS-9 score should be tested further for validity and reliability and should also be conducted in subjects of other ethnicities to improve its generalizability.