The environment value is divided into several values; use value (UV), option value (OV), vicarious value (VV), bequest value (BV), existence value (EV) and ecosystem value (EcoV). This study tried to measure the environmental improvement benefits by the water purification project at the ISE-Bay Area, which is a prominent bay in Japan. By using the contingent valuation method (CVM) and the zone travel cost method (ZTCM), all environment values improved by the project were measured, and difference between results of two methods were examined. The CVM results indicated that the benefits is 59. 9 [billion yen a pear], where UV/OV/VV/BV/EV/Eco V are 9. 5/9. 4/8. 7/10. 2/10. 4/11.7 [billion yen a pear] respectively. The ZTCM results indicate that the benefits is 41. 6 [billion yena pear], which includes UV only and is about four times of UV evaluated by the CVM.
In recent years, it is concerned the eutrophication by nitrogen or phosphorus in the closed water area like the developed bay area, the inland sea or the lake as one of water pollution problems. For such problems, it is necessary to argue not only about removing pollutants but also about regulatory of inflow pollutants and problems of cost burden. In this paper, we built the spatial economic model based on the concept of general equilibrium theory to evaluate the water quality improvement policy. The model is focused on agent s activities with drawing and exhausting water, and cleared the incidence relationship of benefits/costs among agents by the benefit incidence table. We examined effects or influences of water pricing to improve pollutants.
Today, it is difficult to locate incineration plants in many cities. Therefore coalition of cities for regional waste management is increasing. But, it also causes new conflicts. One of them is an allocation problem of pollution risks and costs among them. But ‘Risk’ has not ever been considered in cost allocation. The aim of this paper is to propose an optimal cost allocation in regional waste management by considering air pollution risk from incineration plants. For that, we did a model analysis by using game theory. This model consists of two functions, those are ‘Cost function’ and ‘Risk function’. This model includes the concept of risk caused by incinerating wastes as ‘Risk Function’.‘Risk Function’ bases on diffusions of air pollution. According to calculated points by ‘Risk Function’, the cost is allocated to the each cities. The model analysis indicates that:(1) There is an optimal population at specific population on each pattern, (2) For the city near the plant, the final payment is more reasonable than that of independently.
At present, a Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) approach is required to enhance the efficiency of governmental activities. One of the important issues in CBA is how to estimate the value of environmental goods not having its trading market. The typical method generally approved for estimating market-less environmental goods, is the Contingent Valuation Method (CVM). CVM has many kinds of bias; therefore, improving the reliability of CVM is important. Therefore, I have set a clarifying scale of Sampling Error in CVM as the objective of this study. In this study, CVM was applied to valuing the Willingness to Pay (WTP) for protecting the coastal environment from oil spills caused by ship accidents. Assuming the case where the demand curve is the same as the curve estimated by a circulated questionnaire, I formulated the functional equation between sample size and rate of sampling error in this case by Monte Carlo Simulation. The functional equation was verified through comparison to the result of partial sampling simulation.
The measurement of non-use value has been of particular interest to civil engineers and environmental economists concerned with the preservation of water resources and its cost benefit analysis. This paper discuss that the prevailing consensus that non-use value can only be measured by Contingent Valuation Method (CVM, we call Stated Preference model.) is questioned. In this field, Larson (1992) and Hayashiyama (1998) proposed that it is possible to evaluate non-use value by using only revealed preference (RP) data. Their papers showed that the Non-use Value of environmental quality is defined by compensating variation within the context of simple partial equilibrium model as RP model. Accordingly, The purpose of this paper is clarified the accuracy and availability of the CVM estimates and RP model estimates by empirical analysis. These methods are applied to the demand for recreation of the Hirose River in Sendai City. To conclude, this paper indicated a method to estimate non-use value of water resources improvement projects.
This paper focuses on evaluating positive effects of snow-removal to reduce damages which are caused by snowfalls whose emergency indicates certain probability distribution. In this evaluation in monetary terms, CVM was used. Positive effects including the quality of residents' life by increasing accessablity. The questionnaire results on which the evaluation was based were analyzed by putting emphasis on the differences observed between WTP and WTA. The CVM used to evaluate the questionnaire results is characterized by the following: Multi Level Dichotomous Choice for respondents to easily understand questions to answer, and the use of videos and models to eliminate respondents' bias.The results indicate that Sapporo citizens estimate that keeping the current snow-removal level is equivalent to an annual benefit of 26, 800 yen / household. Secondly, they reveal that if the snow-removal level is lowered, or in other words, when lowering the snow-removal level gives adverse effects on the environment, an annual equivalent option price of 50, 700 yen/household and an annual supplementary option price of 9, 400 yen/household emerge. The difference is approximately 5.4 times. However, if the environment is improved by snow removal, the calculated annual equivalent option price and annual supplementary option price are, 36, 200 yen/household and 6, 200 yen/household, respectively The difference is approximately 5.8 times.
Private citizens, industry and government must seek ways to each carry out its own decisive policies, especially industry, which is driven by economic concerns, must strive to implement its own aggressive environmental policies. Kiko Network, Environmental Non-Government-Organization, have researched about the consciousness and policy the rate of operation for 509 companies. To reach this goal our research shows that the possibility for advancing environmental policy is most hopeful when industry works together in partnership with Non Government Organizations to provide incentive to implement environmental protection policy.
The Sinji lake is the 6th biggest lake in Japan and very famous for corbicula production. The Shinji lake is connected to sea trough the Ohashi River and the Naka lake. The river works of the Ohashi had done in 1924-1942. The river works had caused to drastic environmental change to the Shinji Lake. Fish fauna had changed from fresh water fish to blackish fish. People surprised at the change at first but they had become familiar with new environment. Because later ecosystem is much richer than former one. But they need over 20 years until being familiar with the new environment.
The purpose of this study is to examine the preservation of the river environment in closer cooperation with the Katuura River residents. The unfair for regional differences, the cooperation consciousness, the ideal of the Katuura river environment and the effective projects were investigated by the questionnaire surveys. The image of the Katuura River was “a clear stream” and “AYU fish”. Many residents had some unfair consciousness for other regional people, while they thought to preserve the environment in cooperation with others. The factors of the ideal environment were as follows. The flood was controlled, the woods were managed thoroughly, the water quality was pure enough to drink without treatment and the quantity of water was abundance. In spite of satisfied environmental factors that were the infrastructure, the view and the flood control, the water quality still remains among the most unsatisfied one's in the Katuura River. Projects demanded by the residents are to take measurements of the fish amount, the water quality and the forestry management. If the measurement of the fish amount will be done, we will get great benefits. 30% of the Katuura River residents agreed in the sharing system of the forestry management costs with people in the lower reaches. Throughout this study, it was revealed the necessity to plan the forestry management system coping with both the revitalization of the forestry and the the environment conservation in order to preserve the Katuura River environment with a cooperation of basin residents.
The aging and the social advance of womenmove ahead and also the material abundance makes choice of the way of the life various ones. Of course, it thinks that the trend brings a changeof water use structure in the household. Above-mentioned viewpoint is important when thinking of the plan of disaster mitigation against earthquake and drought. It becomes necessary to evaluate the water use structure in the household itself from the viewpoint of dealing with the old society and disaster mitigation. This paper proposes one approach which applied a life style concept to this problem. First, we explain a life style concept and a water use structure model in a household. The model consist of basic attribute of household, apparatus, water use act and consciousness. We analyze about these items in case study and show that each life stage's water use structures are different. Furthermore we consider the water use act in case of disaster from two viewpoints of the life line dependence type and the commercial function dependence type which defined by life style factors and finally we show the effectiveness of the life style approach.
Economic development after the World War II has brought about a number of drastic changes in Japanese people's lifestyles. The change in dietary habit, in particular, took place in the trend of industrialization, diffusion of home electric appliances, increasing number of women working outside, development of food service industries, motorization and increasing transport distance of products, and market globalization. It therefore has far reaching implications for the environment in terms of energy and resources directly and indirectly used for the production, distribution, and consumption of foodstuffs. Based on these considerations, this paper presents a quantitative evaluation of the CO2 emissions related to the food cycle, focusing on rice and wheat.that are the staple food for Japanese people. It demonstrates the sharp rise of the indirect CO2 emissions associated with distribution and transport stages.
Rapid urbanization in East Asian countries is bringing about the ever-increasing pressures on the environment. Improvement of urban infrastructures such as mass transportation and municipal sewage treatment and waste disposal systems is essential for the cities to achieve economic development while preserving the environment. Improvement of civil infrastructures have dual implications: it may mitigate the environmental pressures of human activities while it may cause additional environmental load through the use of energy and resources for the construction and maintenance of the facilities. This paper, therefore, presents a review on the current situation of the urban civil infrastructures in East Asian countries, i. e., China, Korea and Japan, and discusses their environmental implications and environmental assessment of alternative strategies of urban infrastructure improvement, using the life cycle environmental load as indices for evaluation.
About six million m3 of municipal sewage is discharged every day in Shanghai, with 2.5 million m3 of it free from any treatment. This has caused serious water pollution in the city, damaging industrial production, public health and urban amenities, directly causing economic loss and constraining Shanghai's development. Improving municipal wastewater treatment system effectively and economically is the key for resolving these problems. Based on a field investigation and available statistical data, this paper attempts to identify the problems with current situation of municipal wastewater treatment in Shanghai, and present some ideas on technological measures and policies to improve the situation through the forecast of the future trends of wastewater discharge and in the light of experiences in other countries. The main problems include: the disposal capacity of Shanghai's Municipal Sewerage Systems lags far behind city's requirement; residential wastewater keeps increasing and becomes the focus to resolve the problems of municipal wastewater; wastewater discharged from hotels and restaurants, Township and Village Enterprises (TVEs) has not been under control yet; and current financing and contraction system can not satisfy the demand of municipal sewerage development. Ideas on technology choice (large-scale wastewater treatment plant, community plant or Johkaso), wastewater reuse system, sewerage charge, Built-Operation-Transfer (BOT) and Private Finance Initiative (PFI) are discussed as improvement strategies in this paper.
LUIS (Land Use Information System) is a digital land use data set covering all Japan with 2 km grid. The land use on each grid point in circa 1850, circa 1900, circa 1955 and circa 1985 were compiled in LUIS. By the numerical simulations with a mesoscale model referring to LUIS, the author attempted to pick up the influence on near surface air temperature by regional warming related with land use change during around 135 years. During 4 periods, the area showing the regional warming related with land use change has expanded. This feature was significant around Tokyo and Osaka. The maximum difference between circa 1850 and circa 1985 emerged at 9PM and the minimum emerged at 6AM. The former was 1.8 Celsius degrees in Tokyo (Otemachi). Urbanization during 4 periods weakened the daytime penetration of sea breeze in south Kanto and it brought a regional warming. The warming area moved to north with expanding on the Kanto Plain by sea breeze since daytime to mid-night. But an effect of recovery of forest in the mountainous area in central Japan was not clear. In Osaka Plain the movement of warming area by sea breeze was smaller than in Kanto Plain.
The shortage of water is emerging as a serious threat to the sustainable development in the North China due to its adverse economic and environmental impacts. Focusing on the Yellow River basin, this paper evaluates the past meteorological data related to climate change, and discusses their implications for water supplyand- demand balance of the region. Firstly, the temperature and precipitation data during 1951-1997 are analyzed. Then, the Yellow River basin is classified into six areas according to the indices derived from the temperature and precipitation data, and the relationship between agricultural water consumption and climate changes is discussed. Finally, an evaluation model about water supply-and-demand balance is proposed.
Activities of education regarding river environment have been conducted in many areas in recent years. However, enthusiastic demand for knowledge of natural history of river seems to differ from place to place. Lack of local natural history museum causes indifference of the people for the environment. Trials are made in the Yasaka River watershed in Oita Prefecture and that of the Ohata River in Aomori Prefecture to provoke the pleasure of river with various potential of the local environment. Some measures to create a better feedback system between river management and people to enhance the understanding of river environment are proposed.
Social breakthrough towards sustainable society is sought in trial actions in strategic research on recycle-oriented regional complex systems. Social dimensions of innovative initiatives in production and consumption systems are characterized and identified in the framework of product chain management and emission-minimized metabolism management. The author presents societal requirements in the total life design of engineering pumps in product chain management and socio-economical perspectives of operation and performance of gasification plants or composting plants as major conversion process in environmentally sound metabolism of industrial systems.
The need for overall transformation of today's social, economic and technology systems has been advocated for realizing the “recycle society.” With respect to the energy and material flows related to people's daily life, the waste management system plays an especially important role for promoting recycling: it governs the people's lifestyles and the reuse and recycle of municipal wastewater and solid wastes. However, the wastewater treatment and solid waste disposal systems have been designed and constructed based on different thoughts and principles. Although the both systems tended to rely on advanced technologies, solid waste management, in particular, has come to give more emphasis on the human role such as the change in lifestyles and the separation of items by households. This paper discusses the problems with these separated systems, and examines the possibilities of their integration. As a technological option for integration, the use of disposers and its effect on the existing systems are discussed.
This paper presents a method of estimating the energy demand for air conditioning in cities, by using a numerical simulation model of urban climate. The grid data of outdoor air temperature distribution were obtained from the numerical calculation results for Fukuoka City, while a simple house model was used to estimate thedifference between the outdoor air and room temperatures for each grid. The hourly change of air conditioning load for a typical household was calculated. Then, the load maps were prepared usingthe digital national land information database, thenumber of households and the total floor space of households. These mapscan demonstrate the estimated amount and the spatial distribution of the energy demand for air conditioning.
This paper predicts the effects of the capital relocation on a thermal environment using a meso-scale meteorological model. Five candidate cities, Tomakomai, Nasu, Hamamatsu, Toki and Ueno, are chosen for study areas. The simulation results show that temperature will rise in all the candidate cities after the relocation. The temperature rise averaged over a day is from 0.5 to 1.0 degree centigrade in each candidate city. In the coastal candidate cities, Tomakomai and Hamamatsu, the temperature will rise not only in new capital regions but also in the leeward regions because of the sea breeze. Relative contribution of land cover changes and anthropogenic heat to the temperature rise are also compared. The temperature rise in the daytime is brought mostly by land cover changes. At night the influence of anthropogenic heat becomes large, and in some candidate cities it becomes greater than that of land cover changes. These results imply the energy-saving at night is effective for controllingthe temperature rise in a new capital.
It is important to estimate environmentalloads by road traffic in composition of urban transportation planning as well as land use planning. Because there is close relationship between traffic and land use in urban area. This study aims to propose an estimation system which can estimate environmental loads by road traffic. The system is based on traffic analysis taking account of urban land use using GIS. In this study, environmental loads by road traffic are “air pollution”, “vibration” and “noise”. The system is applied to Tokushima urban area, and estimated values are compared to measured data in order to inspect the accuracy of the system. As a result of evaluation for this system, it has adequate level for estimation of the environmental loads by interaction road traffic andurban landuse.
Emission of nitrogen oxides (NOx) in Northeast Asia (China, , South Korea, Taiwan and Japan) has been predicted in the near future of 21st century (2000, 2010 and 2020). In order to increase accuracy of estimate of NOx emission from automobiles accompanying with “motorization” in this region, a new method of predicting automobile owning per capita based on GDP per capita converted by purchasing power parity (PPP) has been developed. Total amounts of NOx emissions from automobiles in the Northeast Asia was estimated to be 2.69, 3.91, 6.04 M t/yr in 2000, 2010, and 2020, respectively, which is larger than the value, 2.51 M t/y r, in 1995 by a factor of 1.1, 1.6, 2.4, respectively. The contribution of China to the total NOx emission from automobiles in the Northeast Asia are 41, 63, 77% in 2000, 2010, and 2020 as compared to 38% in 1995.
In this study, we propose a methodology to determine quantitatively diffuse pollution loads by using GIS (Geographical Information System) and monthly water-quality data. This methodology was applied to 26 river basins, which are contained in the Lake Biwa basin. Firstly, we collected information concerning point source pollutant loads in this basin in detail and entered them into GIS. For example, concerning industrial effluents, we collected the daily average effluent volume from 1, 657 factories, and the quality of about 99% of the effluents was recorded. Moreover, based on their sewer-treatment type, 1, 789 villages were divided into 5 categories. With these detailed data, we could estimate the daily average amount of pollutant loads from the point sources in each sub-basin using the information collected in GIS. Secondly, we estimated non-point pollutant loads in each river basin from these calculated results and measured pollutant loads. The quality of the observed water is considerably affected by various complex processes such as rain, irrigation, and snow melting. Not taking these influences into account, the quality of the observed river water shows the essential pollution loads generated by human activities. We defined this pollution load as ‘own basic pollutant load’, including pollutants from non-point sources, such as forests. Then, we tried to compare these pollutants with loads based on the geographical information of each basin including land use, geographical features, and vegetation. In this way, the characteristics of non-point pollutant loads could be evaluated, and potential pollution loads were estimated.
In this paper, we report a projection of carbon dioxide emission of Japan using an end-use type energy model and an analysis on factors of CO2 emission changes. The projected emission in year 2020 amounts to 378.4 MtC/a (non-Intervention case), compared with 302.2 MtC/a in year 1990 while, with an economic countermeasure to reduce the emission, it amounts to 257.5 MtC/a in year 2020 (Countermeasure case). In order to attain the countermeasure-case which requires 0.7%/a decrease of CO2 emission, not only energy-efficiency improvement by 2.4%/a but also carbon-intensity decrease by 0.4%/a are necessary. The factor-analysis on the countermeasure-case shows the importance of both energy-efficiency improvements in residential/transport sectors and carbon-intensity decreases in residential/service sectors. With regard to a respective countermeasure, the analysis extracts some key technologies, which contribute to reduce CO2 emission substantially and suggests that the dissemination of key technologies such as energy-efficient air-conditioners and automobiles should be promoted intensively.
Recently, attempts aimed for original designs of the cities are seen in various places all over the country. But when inhabitants leads them, there are many difficulties, especially concerning about consistency of the designs. Then there is a need for an objective index of sceneries. Because of such backgrounds, we studied sceneries of downtown streets from a standpoint of inducing designs of sceneries. At downtown streets, sceneries are composed of information sent from shops along the streets. So, we measured such information, mainly using “Information Theory” and proposed the indices named ‘Quantity of visual stimulus’, ‘ Intensity of disclosure’, ‘Information selection entropy’ and categorized shops based on them. Moreover, we, analyzed the relationship between intentions of sending information and facades of the shops by them. Findings of this study are below. First of all, we made an explanation for categorization of shops made in former studies and categorized them from other viewpoint. Secondly, we pointed out a relationship between shops' intention of sending information and their visual elements such as advertisements on their facades. Finally, we showed that a concept of the entropy above mentioned which expresses diversity has possibilities for an useful index of sceneries.
The objective of spatial planning of waterside has been changed in order to minimize the distance between water and people. This means that people can easily enjoy river through human five senses. However, many examples of waterside have been tested in small areas but they failed when they were applied at a regional level. In this paper, we discuss when and where and how to improve the model watersides at an urban river. Therefore, firstly we formulate the ground design mathematics model. And next, though case study at TURUMI river basin, we consider the optimal solution from some view points, equity, diversity, efficiency, and creativeness.
The environmental change of braided river in the decades may be stabilization of channels. It has been caused by river works, dredge of river bed materials and construction of dam. It has brought us safety land use from flood, but it has been diminishing the natural feature of braided rivers, such as reduction of disturbance and dynamism. In this paper we proposed the indices for river restoration in braided river, such as Gravel-bar and Frequent area. Gravel-bar indicates dynamism and shows the percentage of gravel bar area without covered vegetation in river area. Frequent area means the lateral continuum (the aquatic area-the terrestrial area) and habitat diversity of the active flood plain, it shows the percentage flooding area of the river area. And we showed environmental change using these indices at Nagata area on the upper Tama river.
Recently, we must make public enterprises cost effective and environmental friendly. Methods of environmental conservation for water pollution are not exception. We examined environmental quality of a small river which was improved by the methods of environmental conservation. The conservation methods are sewer construction, the spread of private sewerage treatment tank for household wastewater, stream purification system in the flood plain and flow back system of advanced treated water for upstream of the river in a sub-urban area. And we estimated the costs and environmental loads of the environmental conservation for entire their life cycle. Moreover, we investigated the relation between environmental quality and cost or environmental loads. Therefore, we presented more cost effective and more environmental conscious methods of environmental conservation.
“Yarimizu” is water flows in gardens designed in a traditional way of landscape gardening. Most of them in Kyoto are drawn from natural rivers or from artificial water flows drawn from natural rivers. In this study, we deal with the network of water flows formed by natural rivers and artificial water flows drawn from natural rivers, including “Yarimizu” in gardens. The results of our study show that water flow network has hierarchical structure and it suggests the hierarchical spatial relationship between human and natural environment. Based on this hierarchical network of water flows, and using the concept of “space as the extended human body”, we set out to give a new conceptual model to discuss landscape and amenity planning of water space.
Significance of the integrated watershed management was quantified considering individuals' daily activity-travel patterns in Lake Biwa and the Yodo River basin. Time taken to move in the basin by car and railway was calculated using geographic information system (GIS) to establish a “person trip model”. The condition of person trip to attend office and school was estimated and its variation tendency in the future was evaluated. The results show that the interchange region in Lake Biwa and the Yodo River basin has been expanded and the basin has been united.
High-level purification of water have been begun since 1998 in Osaka prefecture. In this study, we have cleared evaluation of the drinking high-level purification of water by residents of Osaka prefecture. We measured willingness to pay toward the high-level purification of drinking water based on CVM, and examined what influenced their willingness to pay. The willingness to pay of the residents of Osaka prefecture was more expensive than the operating cost of high-level water purification plant. We have cleared the willingness to pay was influenced by generation and frequency to buy bottled water.
This study is to evaluate and plan ecological network of waters and greenspaces in urban landscape. The dragonfly, which is closely connected with Japanese culture and familiar naturescape, is chosen as indicator. For this purpose, firstly, the impact of biotope connectivity on species richness is estimated, in which several connectivity index are compared. Secondly, the relationship between occurrence probability of individual species as well as species richness and biotope factors-pond area, pond connectivity, greenspace connectivity-is investigated using multiple regression analysis, and species richness of each biotope is predicted. Thirdly, biotopes are classified on the basis of criteria for selecting ecological network elements-core area, nature development area, corridor-by rating assessment. Furthermore, the effects of biotope creation, that is the creation of 1 ha pond in open space of seven public facilities, for the development of ecological network is predicted. From this study, it is expected that more robust models to evaluate landscape planning scenarios for biodiversity conservation will be constructed and guidelines for the design of dragonfly biotope network including ecologically sustainable land-use system be developed.
The damselfly, Mortonagrion hirosei, was designated as an endangered species by the Environment Agency in 1991, because its habitat is vulnerable to the effects of land reclamation and river improvement. The low-flying insect lives in reed plains and measures about three centimeters long when fully grown. Relationships between the habitat of the damselfly, salinity, topography and vegetation were studied at 9 tidal rivers from Hinuma marsh in Ibaraki Prefecture to the Nagaitaura Bay in the Tsushima Islands. The larvae of the damselfly were collected only from the pool in a sunken place covered with dead leaves on the riverside. Salinity and the time required for the completion of the habitat of the damselfly were above 0.50‰ and about 4 years, respectively. The damselfly which lived on the riverside at Suigo ohashi bridge across the Tonegawa River was died out in 1998, because the salinity of its habitat was not enough for their life. It was supposed that the salinity of the habitat was the most important environmental element required for holding communities of the damselfly.
In Japan, lakeshore vegetation has been decreasing in many places. Lakeshore erosion due to wind waves is one of the main reasons. Recent study reveals critical wave condition for creation of the stable lakeshore. The artificial floating island (AFI) is a breakwater to control wave condition, which functions for production of vegetation habitat and improvement of water quality as well. AFI was experimentally installed at Shimanami Area in Lake Kasumigaura in 1998 in order to protect lakeshore and vegetation against waves. In this area lakeshore vegetation has been rapidly decreasing due to wave action. AFI is designed to attenuate significant wave height from 64 cm to 30 cm. As a result, lakeshore vegetation area has expanded 3.4% after 1-year period experiment. Annual wave energy behind AFI becomes half of that in the offshore. However, wave intrusion from lateral sides is significant in AFI and it causes lateral erosion of lakeshore. Installation of a breakwater made of riprap is recommended at lateral side in order to decrease wave reflection by covering the vertical seawall.
The purpose of this research is to evaluate riverside open space vegetation with restoration from the ecological viewpoint. The species composition at riverside open space was investigated in order to examine life-form composition, degree of succession and species diversity. The site refilling with topsoil; a kind of restoration was completed by annual species (Ambrosia artemisiaefolia and Kummerowia striata) in the first year after construction. In the next year, the site refilling with topsoil was dominated by perennial species (Artemisia princeps and Solidago altissima). The value of degree of succession was identified as the general stage of secondary succession. It was judged that the secondary succession was on a progressing state. But, it was afraid if an alien species (Solidago altissima) remains overgrown on the refilling site for a long time, it would cease a natural succession.
ABSTRACT: A detailed meshed vegetation map is presented based on the results of a full vegetation survey performed on a sand-bar formed in a downstream reach of the Yoshino River, Shikoku, Japan. The physical condition at each mesh element, for a period of 12 years prior to the time of the vegetation survey, is represented by a set of five hydrogeomorphic parameters calculated from geomorphic and hydrologic data. Each plant community is not disntictly characterized by community-specific averages of the parameters but rather by using histograms drawn with regard to all mesh elements in that community. Referring to the concept of PHABSIM (Physical Habitat Simulation System) developed for ecological estimation of riparian fish habitats, the histograms of each parameter are taken to be the preference curves for existing plants. A simple method to predict community distribution using the preference curves is proposed, and an example of its application is described. It is shown that this method is useful for rough prediction, however it should be refined for practical use.
Distribution of Salix spp. community and Elaeagnus umbellata community on bars was surveyed in middle and down reaches of Yoshino River, Shikoku, Japan and recorded on 1:5, 000 map. Physical conditions of bars, namely distance from the river mouth, width of bars, mean maximum size of bar-bed materials and elevation, were also detected through field survey and checking cross-sectional data measured by the Ministry of Construction of Japan. The abundance of both communities at an every bar was quantified by two methods; mesh and line-transect methods. The reliability of line-transect method to know relative abundance of the communities in a large area was confirmed by comparing the results of two methods. As the result of multiple regression analysis, the abundance of each community could be explained by using some physical factors. The width of Salix community appearing on a transect line can be expressed in terms of a bar width and its partial widths divided by elevation intervals of one meter. The width of Elaeagnus umbellata can be expressed in terms of mean maximum size of bar-bed materials and the partial widths of a bar divided in every one meter elevation.
In this study, we analysed the relationships between the plant coverage with number of species in the herb layer of Quercus serrata stand and the trampling pressure, the area of the stand, the land use around the stand, and population around the stands in Musashino tarrace in Tokyo. The following results were obtained. 1) The trampling pressure is the major factor cause to reduce the plant coverage with number of species in the herb layer. 2) To conserve the vegetation in the herb layer with a lot of plant species, the soil hardness should be required to maintain less than 21.9mm. 3) To maintain the soil hardness less than 21.9mm, the opened stand area should be required to keep more than 140.8m2 per a person living within 250m far from the stand.
The material input per unit service (MIPS) is a concept presented by Schmidt-Bleek, as a useful index for discussing the design of new socioeconomic systems in which higher welfare level should be achieved with less input of energy and materials. In this paper, the concept of MIPS is examined by applying it to the material stocks embodied in urban civil infrastructures. Kitakyushu City is taken up for case study and the concept is applied to a small residential area and the entire municipal area. Firstly, the total weight amount of material stock in urban civil infrastructure and facilities such as sewerage system, road, buildings and houses are estimated. Then, the services provided by the input of material to each type of these facilities are quantified. In this estimation, GIS (geographical information system) is used to assist the analysis of the location and size of facilities.
Environmental impacts from urban renewal process are caused either through urban activities or construction of urban structures. Strategic environmental improvement methods are devised and their implemented effects are analyzed as a case study in Nakanoshima, West District, a downtown area of Osaka. First, an estimation method of environmental emission, such as carbon dioxide and solid wastes on urban renewal process is discussed. Second, the estimation method is applied by utilizing Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) methodology for buildings, urban and metabolic infrastructures. Material inventory is combined with the quantitative estimation sub-system for environmental emissions. Third, various policy tools for environmental improvement are adopted for their effects to reduce life cycle impacts by identifying effective urban environmental management scenarios at district, societal and regional levels. Finally, policy scenarios are planned as combinations of multiple environmental improvement methods and their comparative effects are investigated. The scenarios are composed by various calculation assumptions taking into consideration future growth of building floors and renewal process of the specified area.
Environmental loads in cement production from sewage sludge and tile production from municipal solid wastes (MSW) were assessed using life cycle assessment (LCA) as the examples of waste management directed toward zero emission. Inventory analysis of cement production from sewage sludge shows that consumption of clay, iron material and energy, and CO2 emission are reduced. On the other hand, consumption of silica stone is increased. Inventory analysis of tile production from MSW shows that consumption of feldspar and pottery stone is reduced. On the other hand, energy consumption and CO2 emission are increased. As impact assessment, change of mass balance in Japan is evaluated in case if zero emission is put into practice. Impact assessment of cement production from sewage sludge shows that 25% of sewage sludge (dry sludge base) and 0.10% of CO2 emission are reduced in Japan. If dewatering process is changed, the effect of zero emission is increased. Impact assessment of tile production from MSW shows that 3.32% of MSW ash is reduced and 0.01% of CO2 emission is increased. If melting process is omitted, increase of energy consumption and CO2 emission is eliminated. Assessment of regional mass balance shows that cement production from sewage sludge is effective in Chugoku, Shikoku and Kyushu area, and tile production from MSW is effective in Gifu prefecture.
In order to examine the present state of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Management in Kathmandu (Nepal), field-survey was conducted two times in 1997 and 1998. The first-hand data and information, regarding various aspects of MSW management covering waste generation, collection, transportation, final disposal, recycling and regulation/legislation, were collected from several governmental and municipal sections. The structure of the poor MSW management, which caused severe degradation in urban environment aesthetics and public health threatening, was analyzed by categorizing into three hierarchical levels: the primary, the internal, and the external factors. Improvement in management of operation, of man-power/labor and of waste dumping site was suggested to be the nearest crosscut to betterment of MSW management in Kathmandu Valley under insufficient financial constraint.
The various kinds of high efficiency systems for waste-to-energy are developed and proposed. RDF (Refuse Derived Fuel) is included as one of these systems. In this paper, we compared a RDF incinerator system with a direct refuse incinerator system from the view point of environmental load and amount of produced energy in entire these life cycle. We applied LCA method to assess energy consumption, energy recovery, carbon dioxide emission volume, NOx gas emission volume and SOx gas emission volume. As the result, it became clear that the RDF system consumed more energy resources than the refuse incineration system, because the refuse contained much water (content of 60%) and it required a lot of burning oil to dry the refuse.
In urban area, people face various kinds of environmental risk as a result of such activity as consumption, production, and their interaction. The characteristics of environmental risk are uncertainty about the environmental damage, the probability it occurs, its severity, and non-reversal effect it causes. To deal with environmental risk properly, especially in efficient public investment, it is necessary to know the economic value of the risk. In this paper, we propose a model for evaluating environmental changes in risk and apply it to the risk of health in the case of drinking water. The model based on the revealed preference theory shows that individual make choices in which an environmental risk is one argument in their preference function and derives measures of willingness to pay for change in risk through the choice data. First, we conducted a questionnaire to get preliminary knowledge about the attitude toward risk people take when they drink water or substitutions. Next, the data of private expenditure and public investment to prevent the additional risk of health was put into the model; we can get a sum of the marginal willingness to pay for reducing the health risk of drinking water.
Rainfall brings urban residents both blessings, such as water resources, and inundation risk. Recently, it is recognized that wet weather flow discharges pollutant load and transfer chemicals and pathogen bacteria into aquatic ecosystem. Wet weather flow causes not only deterioration of water quality but also environmental pollution risk. The authors think that rainfall brings about negative influences and risks, including inundation, on this social environment. Therefore, the authors will call inundation risk and environmental pollution risk “rainfall related environmental risks”. Although these risks are quite different in their characteristics, to decrease these risks is main purpose of urban wet weather flow management. Furthermore, these risks have similar background concerned with urban structure and life-style of urban residents. In this paper, the authors will summarize resembling and different points of these risks. In addition, risk management process and control options of rainfall related risks will be discussed.
A WWW based unique supporting system is designed for promoting environmentally sound actions in basis of individuals, families, and also changing their lifestyle for sustainable consumption. However, varies points have not been clarified in this system such as the definitions and models of the concepts for environmentally friendly action with WWW, etc. Therefore this paper;(1) gives the clear definition and the model of its concepts; and (2) evaluates its usefulness and comparison the model with Eco-keeping book. Finally, it (3) clarifies the current problems and shows the its ideal method for the future. The results reveal that:(1) Environmentally friendly action has 5stages with rising up to spiral with plan-do-see model;(2) interactive communication promote environmentally sound action rather than one way communication.(3) more effectiveness was found in this system than the paper-based eco-keeping book.(4) Webmaster (coordinater) owes to help individuals to seize environmentally awareness for environmentally sound action.
The objective of this study is to define the effects on the distribution patterns of riparian vegetation by the river structures that were constructed perpendicularly to the river course. The study river is the Ashida River that runs through the eastern part of Hiroshima Prefecture, southwestern Japan, and the present investigation was performed on the area covering from the river mouth up to 43 km from the estuary. The vegetation map was made to clarify the distribution patterns of riparian vegetation and land-use in study area. The distribution area of Miscanthus sacchariflorus community and Phragmites japonica community were measured at 25 meter intervals around 7 river structures. M. sacchariflorus community was mainly distributed on lower reaches, contrastively P. japonica community was mainly distributed on upper reaches in whole study area. But, around 7 river structures, P. japonica community was distributed on just lower parts of river structures, and M. sacchariflorus community was distributed on upper parts of river structures. It was recognized that the distribution patterns of these communities were reversed around river structures and this phenomenon was caused by the constructions of these river structures.
This study models larger designated area for regional waste management to synthesize municipal solid waste incinerators by making clusters. Following three scenarios are evaluated in views of environmental impact, energy, cost. All of municipal solid waste incinerators in the area are synthesized A.(1) in order of average distance between clusters not to remain incinerators which scale are below 100 (ton/day), A.(2) in order of average distance between clusters not to remain incinerators which scale are below 300 (ton/day) or B. in order of small scale incinerators. As a result in this case study, we conclude.(1) Scenario A.(2) synthesized in order of average distance between clusters not to remain incinerators which scale are below 300 (ton/day) is most appropriate in energy and cost evaluative indices.(2) Some cluster phases in scenarios of larger designated area bring less gross environmental impacts and costs evaluative indices in the area, but in the same time bring some of municipal solid waste incinerators that have much environmental impacts and costs than before making clusters.
In this study, we evaluated the economic effects of potential flood risk in the Neya River basin with the hedonic approach which relates land price to a variety of environment factors. We introduced height difference between land elevation, high water level, distance from the river, land subsidence of ground, and etc. as environmental factors into a hedonic price function. We found out that the land price is closely influenced by the height difference in the region relatively near the Neya River and that the subsidence, improvement of sewerage system and flood experience has influence on the land price in the region relatively far from the river.
In Life Environment Study class in elementary school, they use outdoor life space around the school to realize nature and local community. There are some characteristics in this class; to have integrated and continuous viewpoint, to learn from authentic nature, to have close relationship with community. These are also important to provide high quality outdoor life space. We made up a questionnaire and some hearing research for elementary school teachers in Tokushima Prefecture in 1995. We made up another questionnaire in 1998 as a continuous research. Based on these two questionnaires, we analyzed the characteristics of relationship between elementary school education and outdoor life space. To put it concretely, we show how outdoor life space is used in Life Environment Study class, importance of outdoor life space and its relationship with people in community.