There is well established scientific evidence on the role of regular physical activity in promoting health and preventing non communicable disease (NCD) and this provides a solid platform for stronger commitment and national programs aimed at increasing levels of participation in most countries. Globally, NCD's account for 60% of all deaths worldwide and 80% of these occur in low and middle income countries (LMIC). The need to scale up NCD prevention efforts, particularly in LMIC is well recognised, however evidence alone has yet to translate into increased action and investment in prevention strategies. Using an 'active living' approach, national strategies should promote and support physical activity in different settings, including at home, in 'active transport' (e.g. walking and cycling to get from place to place), and in leisure time (e.g. sports, recreation, exercise and play). However, what is missing in most countries is sufficient political commitment and the necessary long term investment. For this reason, there is a need for greater advocacy work to promote the importance of physical activity, its central role in NCD prevention along side tobacco control and healthy diets, and the co benefits for other related agenda's such as environmental sustainability. The development of the Toronto Charter for Physical Activity: A global call for action was undertaken to address these gaps and provide the field with a powerful advocacy tool. Guided by an expert writing group the development used a stepped approach including an open, global web-based consultation phase allowing a wide range of stakeholder, institutions, governments and individuals to comment on the content and structure. The Charter took about 2 years to develop and received over 2000 individual comments from over 450 individuals or organisations from across 55 countries and all regions of the world. Overall, there was strong endorsement on the need for a Charter to articulate 'the case' for physical activity and provide an international consensus on a set of common actions that should be implemented to promote physical activity. The Toronto Charter provides a short, clear internationally agreed consensus highlighting all benefits of physical activity, beyond just health. It outlines specific examples of actions and these address all relevant sectors including: education, transport, sports and recreation and urban planning. The Charter was launched during the closing plenary session of the 3rd International Congress on Physical Activity and Public Health in Toronto, May 2010. Since then, the Charter has been translated into 11 languages and has received over 500 individual and 135 organisational indications of support with representation from around the world. Given the forthcoming United Nation's High Level Meeting of the General Assembly on chronic non-communicable disease (Sept 2011) it is timely to have the Toronto Charter, and the recently released supporting document 'NCD Prevention: Investments that work for physical activity', to present at preceding consultation meetings and to support the inclusion of physical activity in relevant discussions.
“The Toronto Charter for Physical Activity: A Global Call for Action” was adopted at the Third International Congress of Physical Activity and Public Health held in Toronto, Canada, in May, 2010. The Charter was developed by the Global Advocacy Council for Physical Activity of the International Society of Physical Activity and Health. The authors translated the Charter into Japanese. In this article, we explained the background, process of translation, and contents of the Charter. The Japanese version was attached as appendix.
The Charter is a consensus of researchers, practitioners and policymakers involved in physical activity promotion, and calls for the need for increased priority given to physical activity worldwide. It is an advocacy tool, discussing the rationale, nine guiding principles, and four key areas of action for promoting physical activity. We expect the Charter to be used in various ways such as a checklist for existing and future policies and projects, official document to be shared with policymakers, material that helps researchers to identify research directions, and reference for journal articles.
The combined effects of physical activity (PA) and sitting time on health have been inadequately studied. Sitting time has not been thoroughly measured in existing studies. The high prevalence of sitting in modern society may well present a situation where merely meeting guidelines is insufficient to realize health benefits. Identifying a dose of PA that negates the harmful effects of prolonged sitting should be a priority as research into the health effects of sitting progresses. Utilizing a group of high socio-economic status, highly active subjects of varying PA volume may allow identification of such a threshold, which may, in turn, shed light on more effective PA recommendations for highly sedentary individuals. Additional investigations into different sitting contexts, enhanced measurement techniques, and expanded surveillance may also be warranted.
Objective: Several studies have shown that heavy alcohol consumption and low cardiorespiratory fitness are risk factors of type 2 diabetes. However, there is no cohort study that has assessed the interaction between cardiorespiratory fitness and drinking habits on the incidence of type 2 diabetes. We investigated the joint effect of drinking habits and cardiorespiratory fitness on the incidence of type 2 diabetes among Japanese men.
Methods: We evaluated the drinking habits and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) on the incidence of type 2 diabetes in 4,745 (Age: 20-40 yr) nondiabetic Japanese men who were given a submaximal exercise test, a medical examination, and questionnaires on their health habits in 1985. CRF was measured using a cycle ergometer test, and the men were assigned to Low, Moderate, and High CRF categories based on tertiles of the CRF distribution. Also, the men were assigned to Low Drinking (Non or Not-daily), Moderate Drinking (under 45 g/day), and Heavy Drinking (over 45 g/day) categories.
Results: During a 14 year follow-up, 280 men developed type 2 diabetes. Relative risks and 95% confidence intervals for the incidence of type 2 diabetes were obtained using the Cox proportional hazards model while adjusting for age, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, family history of diabetes, and smoking habits. Using the Low CRF & Heavy Drinking group as reference, the relative risks and 95% confidence intervals were 0.16 (0.05-0.50) for the High CRF & Low-Drinking group, 0.50 (0.26-0.94) for the Low CRF & Low-Drinking group, and 0.82 (0.30-2.27) for the High CRF & Heavy Drinking group, respectively.
Conclusion: These results suggest that there is a strong interaction effect of cardiorespiratory fitness and drinking habits on the incidence of type 2 diabetes. Health care professionals should encourage physical activity and low-level, or abstaining from, drinking.
Purpose: Many studies have reported the effects of sports participation on health status. However, the effects of watching sports and volunteering to support sports, on health status have not been well researched. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of sports participation, watching sports, and volunteering to support sports on health status.
Methods: We analyzed data from the National Sport-Life Survey 2006 conducted by the Sasakawa Sports Foundation. This survey contained items pertaining to sports participation, watching sports and volunteering to support sports. The following items were also surveyed: self-rated health (SRH), sex, age, body mass index (BMI), job, family status, and walking time. SRH is the one of the most commonly used measures of health status. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), with SRH as the dependent variable (good SRH = 1, bad SRH = 0), and sports-related activities as independent variables. The associations were adjusted for age, BMI, job, family status, and walking time.
Results: Sports participation was significantly associated with good SRH among both men and women (men: ORs = 2.44, 95%CI = 1.75-3.40; women: ORs =1.88, 95%CI = 1.37-2.59). Watching sports was significantly associated with good SRH among men (ORs = 2.53, 95%CI = 1.78-3.59), but the association was not as strong as it was for women (ORs = 1.34, 95%CI = 0.92-1.97). Volunteering to support sports was significantly associated with good SRH among men, but not among women (men: ORs = 2.03, 95%CI = 1.09-3.75; women: ORs = 1.28, 95%CI = 0.60-2.72).
Conclusion: These results suggest that watching sports and volunteering to support sports promote good health, especially in men. However, we could not establish a causal relationship because our study was a cross-sectional study. Very few studies have focused on watching and volunteering. More studies are needed to explore the relationships between sports-related activities and health status.
Purpose: Although many surveys on physical activity exist, studies on sports activity and frequency are limited. This study aims to determine the state of sports participation, discussing such aspects as type of sport and participation frequency, of Japanese adults aged 20 to 59 using a cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis.
Methods: We analyzed the data from the Survey on Time Use and Leisure Activities, conducted by the Japanese Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications, for 1991, 1996, 2001, and 2006. Sample selection was via a two-stage stratified sampling method, with the sample size ranging between 180,000 and 250,000. (1) We analyzed the data for 2006 to obtain the current state of sports participation. We calculated the high-frequency (<1 time/week) and low-frequency (21 time/week) participation rates of 21 types of sports by age categories. (2) We analyzed the data for 1991, 1996, 2001, and 2006 to obtain the longitudinal participation figures. We calculated the age-adjusted participation rates, and compared sports participation in 1991 and 2006 for 12 types of sports. Nine types of sports, including "walking and light physical exercise,” were excluded in this longitudinal analysis.
Results: (1) In the analysis of high-frequency participation rate, walking and light physical exercise had the highest participation rate (age-adjusted rate: 13.5% for males, 20.8% for females). Training with gym equipment and cycling also had high participation rates. In the analysis of low-frequency participation rate, bowling had the highest participation rate (age-adjusted rate: 25.2% for males, 22.0% for females). Swimming, and walking and light physical exercise also had high participation rates. (2) For longitudinal analysis, jogging and marathon running had a high age-adjusted high-frequency participation rate (3.4-4.1% for males, 1.4-1.8% for females), and bowling had the highest age-adjusted low-frequency participation rate (25.2-38.5% for males, 22.0-30.0% for females) consistently. The low-frequency participation rate decreased for all sports, while the high-frequency participation rate decreased in all but a few sports.
Conclusions: (1) In the analysis of high-frequency participation rate, walking and light physical exercise had
nighest participation rate. Further, the participation rate for walking and light physical exercise was considerably higher than those for the other sports. In the analysis of low-frequency participation rate, bowling had the highest participation rate. People participate in many other sports less frequently. (2) Although walking and light physical exercise was not included in the longitudinal analyses, the number of people participating in sports activities decreased, particularly for low-frequency sports.