This review discusses how the theories and frameworks of population health intervention researches can be used to produce evidence for effective population strategies in promoting physical activity. Researchers should consider the 1) study design, 2) intervention strategy, and 3) evaluation framework. Many study design options are available and range from cluster randomized controlled trials to pre/post evaluations. The strategies that apply social marketing, network theory, and ecological models to community-wide interventions are generating a great deal of attention. To evaluate these interventions properly, it is useful to set up a hypothetical logic model and use a RE-AIM (reach, effectiveness/efficacy, adoption, implementation, maintenance) framework. The future challenge is to evaluate physical activity objectively with low cost and low bias in a large population. In conclusion, more population health intervention researches are needed to identify best practices and show the role of population strategies in promoting physical activity. This evidence will hopefully improve public health practices in various sectors.
Objective: Several investigators have observed that Tai chi Yuttari-exercise improves the physical function in frail elderly people. However, the effect of Tai chi Yuttari-exercise in preventing arteriosclerotic disease has been unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a three-month program of Tai chi Yuttari-exercise on the arterial stiffness.
Methods: Forty-seven elderly people 60 years of age and over were randomized to either an intervention group (n = 24) or a control group (n = 23). The intervention program performed Tai chi Yuttari-exercise once a week for three months. They were also instructed to perform the same exercise at home. The control group was not given any intervention. The cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI), as an indicator of the arterial stiffness, physical compositions and physical functions were evaluated before and after the intervention period. We analyzed 46 people (24 people in the intervention group and 22 people in the control group) who could be followed up after three-month intervention. A two-way repeated measures of analysis of variance was used to compare the outcome variables.
Results: In the intervention group, subjects exercised for 2.9 ± 1.3 times per week. In the intervention group, a statistically significant improvement was observed in CAVI (F = 4.41, P = 0.04; pre: 8.52 ± 0.93, post: 8.24 ± 0.89) and the grip strength (F = 8.33, P < 0.01; pre: 27.5 ± 5.8 kgf, post: 28.7 ± 6.2 kgf). There were no significant changes in the control group.
Conclusion: Tai chi Yuttari-exercise is a low-intensity exercise suitable for elderly people, and our findings suggest that performing Tai chi Yuttari-exercise approximately 3 times a week for 3 months leads to an improvement in arterial stiffness in elderly people. (UMIN Clinical Trials Registry number, UMIN000006991).
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine how the perception, attitude, action, and belief to power saving were associated with the physical activity level.
Method: A web based survey was conducted to 20-79 years old people who live in the metropolitan area and the Keihanshin area in Japan. The survey was carried out from 22nd to 25th September 2012. 1,650 responses were obtained. The survey items consisted of the perception, attitude, action, belief to power saving. The levels of physical activity were evaluated by International Physical Activity Questionnaire Short Version (the duration of walking time and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA)). Path analysis was conducted in order to clarify the relationship between the power-saving action regulation factors, walk time (150 minutes or more / week), and MVPA (150 minutes or more / week).
Result: The indices of goodness of fit for path models were acceptable: GFI = 0.988 AGFI = 0.973, CFI = 0.969, RMSEA = 0.038 in walking time; GFI = 0.987, AGFI = 0.974, CFI = 0.968, RMSEA = 0.036 in MVPA. The perception of other people’s engagements in power saving (path coefficient: 0.14) and the feeling of threat were positively associated with walk time. The limited perception of effectiveness in power saving (path coefficient: －0.13) and the awareness and habit of power saving (path coefficient: －0.15) were negatively related to walk time. The power-saving action (path coefficient: 0.08) was positively associated with MVPA.
Conclusion: The perception, attitude, action, and belief to power saving were associated with the physical activity level. However, each association was weak. Moreover, some associations were inconsistent with our hypotheses. Further examination would be needed to confirm the relationships between power-saving-related behavioral factors and physical activity.