This paper argues that the expansion of Southeast Asian trade in the first half of the nineteenth century was based partly on the growth of intra-regional trade. Singapore played a significant role as a British free port in the connection between Western long-distance trade and intra-regional trade.According to my estimates, intra-regional trade centered on the British andDutch colonies grew from the 1820s to 1852, with the focus shifting from Java to Singapore. As background to this growth, attention is drawn to the relaxation of Dutch protectionist tariffs imposed on British cotton goods imported via Singapore. Prompted by British diplomatic protests, tariff levels were reduced, and Singapore increased its exports of European cotton goods across the region. The importance of the distribution system for regional products in the rise of trade in Singapore is also discussed. As Southeast Asian products exported to the Asian market were traded through Singapore, local merchants such as the Chinese and Bugis often conducted transactions of those regional products in exchange for European cotton goods. Thus, the distribution system for regional products facilitated the influx of European cotton goods into the region via Singapore.
This article investigates the trade pattern of Java from the late eighteenth centur to the mid-nineteenth century from a long-term perspective. There is no comprehensive data on Javanese trade during the period in question, with information on local and regional trade being particularly scarce. To fill in the missing pieces and identify a broad trend, this paper attempts to examine data on both the late eighteenth century and the second quarter of the nineteenth century and put them together with the scattered data available on the first half of the nineteenth century.This paper suggests, first, that while it is known that Java's economic relations with the outside world were heavily oriented toward trade with the Netherlands, this trend began in the late eighteenth century rather than with the introduction of the Cultivation System in 1830. Second, Java's coastal trade also began to develop in the late eighteenth century. This trade was conducted by European traders and Asian indigenous traders, including overseas Chinese traders settled in Java.Third, trade with the Outer Islands declined in the late eighteenth century but resumed its expansion in the second quarter of the nineteenth century. Fourth, intra-Asian trade with the region outside insular Southeast Asia declined in the long run, along with the decline and bankruptcy of the VOC, which had successfully engaged in this branch of intra-Asian trade since the seventeenth century.
This paper discusses the trade structure in the Dutch Outer Islands ports, in which the Dutch checked the volume and value of traded items in order to levy customs duty and created trade statistics in the Indonesian Archipelago outside Java and Madura. Although these ports do not include those in independent ports such as those in Aceh and Bali, the statistics contain precious information on the entireimports and exports of each port. Analyzing this set of statistics, this paper argues that the Dutch Outer Islands ports continued to export China-bound (partly Southeast Asia-bound) tropical products, such as pepper, forest products, and other kinds of local products, as well as colonial products such as coffee. On the other hand, these ports imported increasing amounts of British cotton goods after the Anglo-Dutch tariff arrangement in the 1840s. In this way the existing China-oriented tradeand the new colonial trade, linked to Western capitalism, interacted and combinedwith each other. This transborder network beyond the Dutch sphere of influence was a source of the strength that the regions around these ports maintained, in the form of a steady development of trade.
Hồ Chí Minh, the Vietnamese revolutionary leader who sacrificed his life for his country’s
independence, was in Siam from 1928–29 and briefly from March–April 1930.
Siam was well placed to serve as an anti-colonial base for the Vietnamese fighting for
independence in the west of central Vietnam, especially after the repression of the
Chinese communists in Guangdong by Chiang Kai Shek in 1927. Northern Siam is
connected to central Vietnam by land via Laos, while southern China is also accessible
from Bangkok by sea routes.
Hồ Chí Minh arrived in Bangkok in 1928. He went to Ban Dong in Phichit and
then to Udon Thani, Nong Khai, Sakon Nakhon, and Nakhon Phanom in the northeast
of Siam. The paper studies when and how Hồ Chí Minh arrived in Siam; his mission
there; the places he visited; and his activities during his sojourn. We also enquire how
Hồ Chí Minh carried out his mission: who accompanied him in Siam; what pseudonyms
he and his collaborators used; and what strategies he used to elude arrest by local
It cannot be denied that the instruction Hồ Chí Minh imparted to his compatriots
during his stay contributed tremendously to the struggle for Vietnamese independence.
By the end of the 1920s and the beginning of the 1930s, he had accomplished his task
of reorganizing and strengthening the network, and educating the Vietnamese anticolonial
and revolutionary movement in Siam. In addition, he contributed to the founding
of the communist party in the region, which was the task assigned to him by the
Nonetheless, we should recognize that his mission in Siam was facilitated and
supported by Đặng Thúc Hứa, who, prior to Hồ’s arrival, had gathered the Vietnamese
into communities and set up several bases for long-term anti-colonial movements with
the help of his compatriots.
Hồ Chí Minh’s presence in Siam has been commemorated by the Thai and Vietnamese
through the Thai-Vietnamese Friendship Village and the memorial houses built
after 2000 in Nakhon Phanom and Udon Thani in northeastern Thailand. These memorials
have become a symbol of the good relationship between Thailand and Vietnam.
As Buddhism spread from India to cover much of Asia, sculptures depicting the Buddha varied regionally, reflecting both the original Indian iconography and local ethnic and cultural influences. This study considers how statues of the Buddha evolved in Thailand, focusing on the Sukhothai period (1238–1438 CE), during which a distinctly Thai style developed; this style is still characteristic of Thailand today. The Sukhothai style primarily reflects features of the Pala, Sri Lankan, Pagan, and Lan Na styles, yet contains new stylistic innovations and a refinement over the four successive schools that were subsequently lost in later Thai Buddhist styles. To analyze this evolution, first a conventional "visual vocabulary" approach is used, wherein 12 styles (precursors, contemporaries, and successors of the Sukhothaistyle) are described and summarized in a style matrix that highlights commonalities and differences. Then a novel application of digital "blend-shape animation" is adopted to assist in the visualization of differing styles and to better illustrate style evolution. Rather than comparing styles by shifting attention between sample images, the viewer can now appreciate style differences by watching one style metamorphose into another. Common stylistic features remain relatively unchangedand visually ignored, while differing features draw attention. While applied here to the study of Buddhist sculptures, this technique has other potential applications to art history, architecture, and graphic design generally.
This paper discusses farmers’ perceptions of Imperata infestation and its impact on agricultural land uses in a slash-and-burn area of Nambak District in Luang Prabang Province, northern Laos. Our study showed that slash-and-burn cultivation (SBC), which has been practiced for generations, remains the main agricultural land use system and provides an important source of food and income for farmers. Imperata, which first took root one and a half decades ago, is gradually proliferating, affecting the livelihoods of nearly 38% of households in the five target villages of this study. The positive cause-and-effect relationship among such factors as accelerated land clearing, young fallows, declining soil fertility, and land shortages—suggested to be the main cause of the Imperata infestation—has reduced not only cultivable land but also its productivity. According to the majority of farmers, the most significant problems caused by Imperata infestation are reduced crop yields, increased weeding, and reduced crop growth. To overcome the problems, farmers employ a combination of strategies—the most common being weeding, fallowing the land, applying chemicals, and exchanging labor. However, the implementation of these strategies is encumbered by many constraints, primarily lack of labor and capital, rice insufficiency, and limited land. Given the constraints and the available technologies, it will be very difficult for farmers in the study area to adopt a more permanent, diversified, and productive agricultural system, which is a high priority of government development policy in the uplands. To meet this challenge, the thrust of research and development communities working in the uplands should be on more systematic and integrated interventions that combine technological, social, economic, and political resolutions based on knowledge of the causes of Imperata infestation, the problems it creates, management strategies to cope with the infestation, and the specific constraints perceived by farmers.