Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the leading causes of death in the United States and results in a significant reduction in lung function and exercise tolerance. In addition, there is a significant decline in muscle mass and strength in these individuals. Unfortunately, other comorbidities associated with this disease such as osteoporosis, osteoarthritis and obesity may prevent them from exercising at sufficiently high loads to promote muscle hypertrophy. Also, acute exacerbations may prevent them from performing exercise at all. Objectives: This brief review will discuss the potential benefits of using blood flow restriction (BFR) when combined with walking, resistance training and electrical stimulation in COPD patients and possible safety concerns. Design and Methods: Non-systematic review. Results: BFR improves muscle size and function when combined with low-intensity walking or low-load resistance training. This treatment appears to be safe and has been used by many different populations including individuals with ischaemic heart disease. For COPD patients who are contraindicated to perform exercise, a potential treatment may be to combine neuromuscular electrical stimulation with BFR. Conclusions: BFR appears to be a potential treatment for increasing strength and muscle mass for COPD patients when high intensity exercise may not be tolerated. In addition, BFR may provide benefits for COPD patients who are unable to exercise by combining it with neuromuscular electrical stimulation.
Very little peer-reviewed information is available to aid military personnel in selecting training programs to enhance performance on fitness tests and direct fitness-related military policy. Objective: This review provides recommendations on training programs for enhancing performance on 1.5-mile and 2-mile runs based on the available relevant literature. Design: Short review article. Methods: Collected relevant research articles by using search terms such as aerobic power, military physical fitness test, strength training, resistance training, endurance training, high intensity interval training, running economy, 3 km run, 5 km run, and 1.5/2-mile run. Results: Evidence has shown running performance can improve with a combination of traditional strength training, high intensity interval training, and distance training. Conclusion: A combination of traditional strength training, high intensity interval training, and distance training should be used to enhance running performance on the 1.5 and 2-mile run tests used by the military.
Objectives: Recently attention has been brought to potentially unsafe training methods within the practice of resistance training. Thus purpose of this commentary is to highlight the importance of the moral injunction Primum non nocere, and of weighing risks to rewards of training methods, for those providing resistance training recommendations and practitioners of it as a training approach. Design & Methods: Narrative review Results: It appears that many popular resistance training methods that make use of either explosive movements or unstable platforms with heavy external loading may present an increased risk of injury. In addition they may not offer any greater improvements to measures of health and fitness above safer alternatives that utilise more controlled repetition durations and avoid use of unstable platforms. Indeed, as resistance type and load may not be as important for determining strength or hypertrophic adaptations as previously thought, nor does there appear to be much supporting evidence for the transfer of balance skills developed using unstable platforms to other movement skills, the necessity of such unsafe practices appears further questionable. Conclusions: It is recommended that persons wishing to engage in resistance training for the purposes of health and fitness whilst reducing risk of injury should utilise a controlled repetition duration that maintains muscular tension and avoid use of unstable platforms. Indeed, practices involving use of lower external loads, or even the absence of external loads such as bodyweight training or isometric co-contraction, may also be effective and may pose an even lower risk of injury.
Objectives: The purpose of this investigation was to determine what effect a bilateral strength training regimen has on isometric force production symmetry and if changes in force production symmetry can be accounted for by differences in pre-intervention strength levels. Design: Sixteen recreationally trained males (1-RM squat: 146.8 ± 23.0 kg.) were assigned to two groups for the 7-week training intervention: strong (S) and weak (W) based on pre-training squat isometric peak force allometrically scaled (IPFa) at 120° knee angle. Methods: Subjects completed a 7-week training intervention following a block-periodized model and were tested on mea sures of dynamic (1RM squat) and isometric (isometric squat at 90° and 120° knee angle) strength pre- and post-intervention. The degree of bilateral lower limb asymmetry was calculated as a percentage where 0% symmetry index (SI) indicates perfect symmetry on the isometric squat. Results: ANCOVA results showed no statistical difference between groups for all dependent variables when pre-intervention IPFa 120° scores were used as the covariate. Paired t-tests results showed both groups statistically improved 1RM squat and IPFa 120° (p <0.05). IPFa 120° SI decreased statistically from pre-training in the W group (p =0.03). Independent t-test results showed the W group had statistically larger pre-intervention SI scores for IPFa 90° (p =0.045) and IPFa 120° (p =0.007); however this difference was no longer present following strength training. There was a strong inverse relationship between pooled IPFa 120° and IPFa 120° SI (r =-0.64, p =0.004). Conclusions: The findings of the current study support the notion that weaker individuals can augment lower limb symme try with strength training. The same does not seem to be true for stronger individuals who already have a low symmetry index score. These findings indicate that strength training improves force production symmetry in relatively weak males, which may be important for bilateral tasks and injury potential reduction.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to describe the morphological, somatotype, and body composition characteristics of Indian university level football players based upon their field position. Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: A total of 204 male football players from sixteen different Indian universities volunteered for this study. Anthropometric measurements included body weight and height, five muscle girths (upper arm, forearm, chest, thigh and calf), four bone widths (humerus biepicondylar, bistyloideus, femur biepicondylar and bimalleolar) and eight skinfold thicknesses (triceps, subscapular, pectoral, axilla, abdominal, suprailiac, mid thigh and calf) were measured. Further, somatotype (endomorphy, mesomorphy, ectomorphy) and body composition (BMI, % fat, skeletal muscle mass, skeletal mass) were assessed. Results: One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to observe differences of means among the groups. In order to determine which group was different from other group Tukey post hoc test applied. Compared to other field players, goalkeepers showed higher values for body height, body weight, upper arm girth (p <0.05), more but not excessive body fat. Defenders, midfielders and strikers were ectomorphic mesomorph whereas goalkeepers were endomorphic mesomorph in physique. Conclusion: University level Indian footballers were average in height, weight, and muscle mass.