IEICE Transactions on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences
Online ISSN : 1745-1337
Print ISSN : 0916-8508
Advance online publication
Displaying 1-50 of 89 articles from this issue
  • Yuanhe WANG, Chao ZHANG
    Article type: LETTER
    Article ID: 2023EAL2108
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: June 14, 2024
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    With the emphasis on personal information privacy protection in wireless communications, the new dimension low-interception covert transmission technology represented by the vortex wave with Orbital Angular Momentum (OAM) has received attention from both academia and industry. However, the current OAM low-interception transmission techniques all assume that the eavesdropper can only receive plane wave signals, which is a very ideal situation. Once the eavesdropper is configured with an OAM sensor, the so-called mode covert channel will be completely exposed. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a vortex microwave photon low-interception transmission method. The proposed method utilizes the differential operation between plane and vortex microwave photons signals to construct the covert differential channel, which can hide the user data in the mode domain. Compared with the traditional spread spectrum transmission, our proposed covert differential channel schemes need less transmitted power to achieve reliable transmission, which means less possibility of being intercepted by the eavesdropper.

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  • Jinfeng CHONG, Niu JIANG, Zepeng ZHUO, Weiyu ZHANG
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2024EAP1008
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: June 14, 2024
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    In this paper, we consider the spectra of Boolean functions with respect to the nega-Hadamard transform. Based on the properties of the nega-Hadamard transform and the solutions of the Diophantine equations, we investigate all possibilities of the nega-Hadamard transform of Boolean functions with exactly two distinct nega-Hadamard coefficients.

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  • Xiangrun LI, Qiyu SHENG, Guangda ZHOU, Jialong WEI, Yanmin SHI, Zhen Z ...
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2024EAP1015
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: May 29, 2024
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    Automated tongue segmentation plays a crucial role in the realm of computer-aided tongue diagnosis. The challenge lies in developing algorithms that achieve higher segmentation accuracy and maintain less memory space and swift inference capabilities. To relieve this issue, we propose a novel Pool-unet integrating Pool-former and Multi-task mask learning for tongue image segmentation. First of all, we collected 756 tongue images taken in various shooting environments and from different angles and accurately labeled the tongue under the guidance of a medical professional. Second, we propose the Pool-unet model, combining a hierarchical Pool-former module and a U-shaped symmetric encoder-decoder with skip-connections, which utilizes a patch expanding layer for up-sampling and a patch embedding layer for down-sampling to maintain spatial resolution, to effectively capture global and local information using fewer parameters and faster inference. Finally, a Multi-task mask learning strategy is designed, which improves the generalization and anti-interference ability of the model through the Multi-task pre-training and self-supervised fine-tuning stages. Experimental results on the tongue dataset show that compared to the state-of-the-art method (OET-NET), our method has 25% fewer model parameters, achieves 22% faster inference times, and exhibits 0.91% and 0.55% improvements in Mean Intersection Over Union (MIOU), and Mean Pixel Accuracy (MPA), respectively.

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  • Meiting XUE, Wenqi WU, Jinfeng LUO, Yixuan ZHANG, Bei ZHAO
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2023EAP1135
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: May 28, 2024
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    Join is an important but data-intensive and compute-intensive operation in database systems. Moreover, there are multiple types of join operations according to different join conditions and data relationships with diverse complexities. Because most existing solutions for accelerating the join operation on field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) focus only on the easiest join application, this study presents a novel architecture that is suitable for multiple types of join operation. This architecture has a modular design and consists of three components that are executed sequentially and in pipeline. Specifically, the top-K sorter is used instead of the full sorter to reduce resource utilization and advance the merge processing. Further, the architecture is perfectly compatible with both N-to-1 and N-to-M join relationships, and can also adapt well to both equi-join and band-join. Experimental results show that this design, which is implemented on an FPGA, achieved a high join throughput of 242.1 million tuples per second, which is better than other reported FPGA implementations.

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  • Rong WANG, Changjun YU, Zhe LYU, Aijun LIU
    Article type: LETTER
    Article ID: 2023EAL2109
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: May 23, 2024
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    To address the challenge of target signals being completely submerged by ionospheric clutter during typhoon passages, this letter proposes a chaotic detection method for target signals in the background of ionospheric noise under typhoon excitation. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in detecting target signals with harmonic characteristics from strong ionospheric clutter during typhoon passages.

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  • Huijuan ZHOU, Zepeng ZHUO, Guolong CHEN
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2023EAP1158
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: May 23, 2024
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    Constructing new families of APN functions is an important and challenging topic. Up to now, only six infinite families of APN monomials have been found on finite fields of even characteristic. To study APN functions, partially APN functions have attracted plenty of researchers' particular interests recently. In this paper, we propose several new infinite classes of 0-APN power functions over 𝔽2n by using the multivariate method and resultant elimination. Furthermore, we use Magma soft to show that these 0-APN power functions are CCZ-inequivalent to the known 0-APN power functions.

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  • Feifei YAN, Pinhui KE, Zuling CHANG
    Article type: LETTER
    Article ID: 2024EAL2026
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: May 22, 2024
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    Recently, trace representation of a class of balanced quaternary sequences of period p from the classical cyclotomic classes was given by Yang et al. (Cryptogr. Commun.,15 (2023): 921-940). In this letter, based on the generalized cyclotomic classes, we define a class of balanced quaternary sequences of period pn, where p = ef + 1 is an odd prime number and satisfies e ≡ 0 (mod 4). Furthermore, we calculate the defining polynomial of these sequences and obtain the formula for determining their trace representations over ℤ4, by which the linear complexity of these sequences over ℤ4 can be determined.

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  • Manabu HAGIWARA
    Article type: INVITED PAPER
    Article ID: 2024TAI0001
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: May 22, 2024
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    This paper serves as an introductory overview of quantum deletion error-correction codes, a burgeoning field within quantum coding theory. Covering foundational concepts, existing research, and open questions, it aims to be the first accessible resource on the subject. This paper contains basic definitions of terms so that readers can read it regardless of their background. This paper invites readers to explore this primer and take their initial steps into the realm of quantum deletion error-correcting codes research.

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  • Ziqin FENG, Hong WAN, Guan GUI
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2024EAP1033
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: May 15, 2024
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    Radar emitter identification (REI) is a crucial function of electronic radar warfare support systems. The challenge emphasizes identifying and locating unique transmitters, avoiding potential threats, and preparing countermeasures. Due to the remarkable effectiveness of deep learning (DL) in uncovering latent features within data and performing classifications, deep neural networks (DNNs) have seen widespread application in radar emitter identification (REI). In many real-world scenarios, obtaining a large number of annotated radar transmitter samples for training identification models is essential yet challenging. Given the issues of insufficient labeled datasets and abundant unlabeled training datasets, we propose a novel REI method based on a semi-supervised learning (SSL) framework with virtual adversarial training (VAT). Specifically, two objective functions are designed to extract the semantic features of radar signals: computing cross-entropy loss for labeled samples and virtual adversarial training loss for all samples. Additionally, a pseudo-labeling approach is employed for unlabeled samples. The proposed VAT-based SS-REI method is evaluated on a radar dataset. Simulation results indicate that the proposed VAT-based SS-REI method outperforms the latest SS-REI method in recognition performance.

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  • Sungryul LEE
    Article type: LETTER
    Article ID: 2024EAL2019
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: May 13, 2024
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    This study explores adaptive output feedback leader-following in networks of linear systems utilizing switching logic. A local state observer is employed to estimate the true state of each agent within the network. The proposed protocol is based on the estimated states obtained from neighboring agents and employs a switching logic to tune its adaptive gain by utilizing only local neighboring information. The proposed leader-following protocol is fully distributed because it has a distributed adaptive gain and relies on only local information from its neighbors. Consequently, compared to conventional adaptive protocols, the proposed design method provides the advantages of a very simple adaptive law and dynamics with a low dimension.

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  • Feng WANG, Xiangyu WEN, Lisheng LI, Yan WEN, Shidong ZHANG, Yang LIU
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2024EAP1011
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: May 13, 2024
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    The rapid advancement of cloud-edge-end collaboration offers a feasible solution to realize low-delay and low-energy-consumption data processing for internet of things (IoT)-based smart distribution grid. The major concern of cloud-edge-end collaboration lies on resource management. However, the joint optimization of heterogeneous resources involves multiple timescales, and the optimization decisions of different timescales are intertwined. In addition, burst electromagnetic interference will affect the channel environment of the distribution grid, leading to inaccuracies in optimization decisions, which can result in negative influences such as slow convergence and strong fluctuations. Hence, we propose a cloud-edge-end collaborative multi-timescale multi-service resource management algorithm. Large-timescale device scheduling is optimized by sliding window pricing matching, which enables accurate matching estimation and effective conflict elimination. Small-timescale compression level selection and power control are jointly optimized by disturbance-robust upper confidence bound (UCB), which perceives the presence of electromagnetic interference and adjusts exploration tendency for convergence improvement. Simulation outcomes illustrate the excellent performance of the proposed algorithm.

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  • Yanjun LI, Jinjie GAO, Haibin KAN, Jie PENG, Lijing ZHENG, Changhui CH ...
    Article type: LETTER
    Article ID: 2024EAL2032
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: May 07, 2024
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    In this letter, we give a characterization for a generic construction of bent functions. This characterization enables us to obtain another efficient construction of bent functions and to give a positive answer on a problem of bent functions.

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  • Ho-Lim CHOI
    Article type: LETTER
    Article ID: 2024EAL2030
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: April 30, 2024
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    We propose a pre-T event-triggered controller (ETC) for the stabilization of a chain of integrators. Our per-T event-triggered controller is a modified event-triggered controller by adding a pre-defined positive constant T to the event-triggering condition. With this pre-T, the immediate advantages are (i) the often complicated additional analysis regarding the Zeno behavior is no longer needed, (ii) the positive lower bound of interexecution times can be specified, (iii) the number of control input updates can be further reduced. We carry out the rigorous system analysis and simulations to illustrate the advantages of our proposed method over the traditional event-triggered control method.

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  • Feng WEN, Haixin HUANG, Xiangyang YIN, Junguang MA, Xiaojie HU
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2023EAP1162
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: April 22, 2024
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    Multi-object tracking (MOT) algorithms are typically classified as one-shot or two-step algorithms. The one-shot MOT algorithm is widely studied and applied due to its fast inference speed. However, one-shot algorithms include two sub-tasks of detection and re-ID, which have conflicting directions for model optimization, thus limiting tracking performance. Additionally, MOT algorithms often suffer from serious ID switching issues, which can negatively affect the tracking effect. To address these challenges, this study proposes the DETrack algorithm, which consists of feature decomposition and feature enhancement modules. The feature decomposition module can effectively exploit the differences and correlations of different tasks to solve the conflict problem. Moreover, it can effectively mitigate the competition between the detection and re-ID tasks, while simultaneously enhancing their cooperation. The feature enhancement module can improve feature quality and alleviate the problem of target ID switching. Experimental results demonstrate that DETrack has achieved improvements in multi-object tracking performance, while reducing the number of ID switching. The designed method of feature decomposition and feature enhancement can significantly enhance target tracking effectiveness.

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  • Shi BAO, Xiaoyan SONG, Xufei ZHUANG, Min LU, Gao LE
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2024EAP1026
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: April 22, 2024
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    Images with rich color information are an important source of information that people obtain from the objective world. Occasionally, it is difficult for people with red-green color vision deficiencies to obtain color information from color images. We propose a method of color correction for dichromats based on the physiological characteristics of dichromats, considering hue information. First, the hue loss of color pairs under normal color vision was defined, an objective function was constructed on its basis, and the resultant image was obtained by minimizing it. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method is verified through comparison tests. Red-green color vision deficient people fail to distinguish between partial red and green colors. When the red and green connecting lines are parallel to the a* axis of CIE L*a*b*, red and green perception defectives cannot distinguish the color pair, but can distinguish the color pair parallel to the b* axis. Therefore, when two colors are parallel to the a* axis, their color correction yields good results. When color correction is performed on a color, the hue loss between the two colors under normal color vision is supplemented with b* so that red-green color vision-deficient individuals can distinguish the color difference between the color pairs. The magnitude of the correction is greatest when the connecting lines of the color pairs are parallel to the a* axis, and no color correction is applied when the connecting lines are parallel to the b* axis. The objective evaluation results show that the method achieves a higher score, indicating that the proposed method can maintain the naturalness of the image while reducing confusing colors.

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  • Chen ZHONG, Chegnyu WU, Xiangyang LI, Ao ZHAN, Zhengqiang WANG
    Article type: LETTER
    Article ID: 2023EAL2095
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: April 19, 2024
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    A novel temporal convolution network-gated recurrent unit (NTCN-GRU) algorithm is proposed for the greatest of constant false alarm rate (GO-CFAR) frequency hopping (FH) prediction, integrating GRU and Bayesian optimization (BO). GRU efficiently captures the semantic associations among long FH sequences, and mitigates the phenomenon of gradient vanishing or explosion. BO improves extracting data features by optimizing hyperparameters besides. Simulations demonstrate that the proposed algorithm effectively reduces the loss in the training process, greatly improves the FH prediction effect, and outperforms the existing FH sequence prediction model. The model runtime is also reduced by three-quarters compared with others FH sequence prediction models.

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  • Izumi TSUNOKUNI, Gen SATO, Yusuke IKEDA, Yasuhiro OIKAWA
    Article type: LETTER
    Article ID: 2024EAL2015
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: April 08, 2024
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    This paper reports a spatial extrapolation of the sound field with a physics-informed neural network. We investigate the spatial extrapolation of the room impulse responses with physics-informed SIREN architecture. Furthermore, we proposed a noise-robust extrapolation method by introducing a tolerance term to the loss function.

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  • Feng LIU, Helin WANG, Conggai LI, Yanli XU
    Article type: LETTER
    Article ID: 2024EAL2023
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: April 05, 2024
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    This letter proposes a scheme for the backward transmission of the propagation-delay based three-user X channel, which is reciprocal to the forward transmission. The given scheme successfully delivers 10 expected messages in 6 time-slots by cyclic interference alignment without loss of degrees of freedom, which supports efficient bidirectional transmission between the two ends of the three-user X channel.

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  • Hongtian ZHAO, Hua YANG, Shibao ZHENG
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2024EAP1043
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: April 05, 2024
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    Minutiae pattern extraction plays a crucial role in finger print registration and identification for electronic applications. However, the extraction accuracy is seriously compromised by the presence of contaminated ridge lines and complex background scenarios. General image processing-based methods, which rely on many prior hypotheses, fail to effectively handle minutiae extraction in complex scenarios. Previous works have shown that CNN-based methods can perform well in object detection tasks. However, the deep neural networks (DNNs)-based methods are restricted by the limitation of public labeled datasets due to legitimate privacy concerns. To address these challenges comprehensively, this paper presents a fully automated minutiae extraction method leveraging DNNs. Firstly, we create a fingerprint minutiae dataset using a semi-automated minutiae annotation algorithm. Subsequently, we propose a minutiae extraction model based on Residual Networks (Resnet) that enables end-to-end prediction of minutiae. Moreover, we introduce a novel non-maximal suppression (NMS) procedure, guided by the Generalized Intersection over Union (GIoU) metric, during the inference phase to effectively handle outliers. Experimental evaluations conducted on the NIST SD4 and FVC 2004 databases demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method over existing state-of-the-art minutiae extraction approaches.

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  • Kento TSUJI, Tetsu IWATA
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2024EAP1006
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: March 29, 2024
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    We consider Feistel ciphers instantiated with tweakable block ciphers (TBCs) and ideal ciphers (ICs). The indistinguishability security of the TBC-based Feistel cipher is known, and the indifferentiability security of the IC-based Feistel cipher is also known, where independently keyed TBCs and independent ICs are assumed. In this paper, we analyze the security of a single-keyed TBC-based Feistel cipher and a single IC-based Feistel cipher. We characterize the security depending on the number of rounds. More precisely, we cover the case of contracting Feistel ciphers that have d ≥ 2 lines, and the results on Feistel ciphers are obtained as a special case by setting d = 2. Our indistinguishability security analysis shows that it is provably secure with d + 1 rounds. Our indifferentiability result shows that, regardless of the number of rounds, it cannot be secure. Our attacks are a type of a slide attack, and we consider a structure that uses a round constant, which is a well-known counter measure against slide attacks. We show an indifferentiability attack for the case d = 2 and 3 rounds.

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  • Yueying LOU, Qichun WANG
    Article type: LETTER
    Article ID: 2023EAL2111
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: March 28, 2024
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    Boolean functions play an important role in symmetric ciphers. One of important open problems on Boolean functions is determining the maximum possible resiliency order of n-variable Boolean functions with optimal algebraic immunity. In this letter, we search Boolean functions in the rotation symmetric class, and determine the maximum possible resiliency order of 9-variable Boolean functions with optimal algebraic immunity. Moreover, the maximum possible nonlinearity of 9-variable rotation symmetric Boolean functions with optimal algebraic immunity-resiliency trade-off is determined to be 224.

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  • Menglong WU, Jianwen ZHANG, Yongfa XIE, Yongchao SHI, Tianao YAO
    Article type: LETTER
    Article ID: 2023EAL2113
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: March 22, 2024
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    Direct-current biased optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (DCO-OFDM) exhibits a high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR), which leads to nonlinear distortion in the system. In response to the above, the study proposes a scheme that combines direct-current biased optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing with index modulation (DCO-OFDM-IM) and convex optimization algorithms. The proposed scheme utilizes partially activated subcarriers of the system to transmit constellation modulated symbol information, and transmits additional symbol information of the system through the combination of activated carrier index. Additionally, a dither signal is added to the system's idle subcarriers, and the convex optimization algorithm is applied to solve for the optimal values of this dither signal. Therefore, by ensuring the system's peak power remains unchanged, the scheme enhances the system's average transmission power and thus achieves a reduction in the PAPR. Experimental results indicate that at a system's complementary cumulative distribution function (CCDF) of 10-4, the proposed scheme reduces the PAPR by approximately 3.5 dB compared to the conventional DCO-OFDM system. Moreover, at a bit error rate (BER) of 10-3, the proposed scheme can lower the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) by about 1 dB relative to the traditional DCO-OFDM system. Therefore, the proposed scheme enables a more substantial reduction in PAPR and improvement in BER performance compared to the conventional DCO-OFDM approach.

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  • Jiao DU, Ziwei ZHAO, Shaojing FU, Longjiang QU, Chao LI
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2023EAP1144
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: March 22, 2024
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    In this paper, we first recall the concept of 2-tuples distribution matrix, and further study its properties. Based on these properties, we find four special classes of 2-tuples distribution matrices. Then, we provide a new sufficient and necessary condition for n-variable rotation symmetric Boolean functions to be 2-correlation immune. Finally, we give a new method for constructing such functions when n = 4t - 1 is prime, and we show an illustrative example.

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  • Yun JIANG, Huiyang LIU, Xiaopeng JIAO, Ji WANG, Qiaoqiao XIA
    Article type: LETTER
    Article ID: 2023EAL2104
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: March 18, 2024
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    In this letter, a novel projection algorithm is proposed in which projection onto a triangle consisting of the three even-vertices closest to the vector to be projected replaces check polytope projection, achieving the same FER performance as exact projection algorithm in both high-iteration and low-iteration regime. Simulation results show that compared with the sparse affine projection algorithm (SAPA), it can improve the FER performance by 0.2 dB as well as save average number of iterations by 4.3%.

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  • Qi QI, Liuyi MENG, Ming XU, Bing BAI
    Article type: LETTER
    Article ID: 2024EAL2004
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: March 18, 2024
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    In face super-resolution reconstruction, the interference caused by the texture and color of the hair region on the details and contours of the face region can negatively affect the reconstruction results. This paper proposes a semantic-based, dual-branch face super-resolution algorithm to address the issue of varying reconstruction complexities and mutual interference among different pixel semantics in face images. The algorithm clusters pixel semantic data to create a hierarchical representation, distinguishing between facial pixel regions and hair pixel regions. Subsequently, independent image enhancement is applied to these distinct pixel regions to mitigate their interference, resulting in a vivid, super-resolution face image.

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  • Nihad A. A. ELHAG, Liang LIU, Ping WEI, Hongshu LIAO, Lin GAO
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2023EAP1138
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: March 15, 2024
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    The concept of dual function radar-communication (DFRC) provides solution to the problem of spectrum scarcity. This paper examines a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) DFRC system with the assistance of a reconfigurable intelligent surface (RIS). The system is capable of sensing multiple spatial directions while serving multiple users via orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). The objective of this study is to design the radiated waveforms and receive filters utilized by both the radar and users. The mutual information (MI) is used as an objective function, on average transmit power, for multiple targets while adhering to constraints on power leakage in specific directions and maintaining each user's error rate. To address this problem, we propose an optimal solution based on a computational genetic algorithm (GA) using bisection method. The performance of the solution is demonstrated by numerical examples and it is shown that, our proposed algorithm can achieve optimum MI and the use of RIS with the MIMO DFRC system improving the system performance.

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  • Dong Jae LEE, Deukjo HONG, Jaechul SUNG, Seokhie HONG
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2023EAP1145
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: March 15, 2024
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    In this study, we focus on evaluating the false-positive probability of the Demirci-Selçuk meet-in-the-middle attack, particularly within the context of configuring precomputed tables with multisets. During the attack, the adversary effectively reduces the size of the key space by filtering out the wrong keys, subsequently recovering the master key from the reduced key space. The false-positive probability is defined as the probability that a wrong key will pass through the filtering process. Due to its direct impact on the post-filtering key space size, the false-positive probability is an important factor that influences the complexity and feasibility of the attack. However, despite its significance, the false-positive probability of the multiset-based Demirci-Selçuk meet-in-the-middle attack has not been thoroughly discussed, to the best of our knowledge. We generalize the Demirci-Selçuk meet-in-the-middle attack and present a sophisticated method for accurately calculating the false-positive probability. We validate our methodology through toy experiments, demonstrating its high precision. Additionally, we propose a method to optimize an attack by determining the optimal format of precomputed data, which requires the precise false-positive probability. Applying our approach to previous attacks on AES and ARIA,we have achieved modest improvements. Specifically, we enhance the memory complexity and time complexity of the offline phase of previous attacks on 7-round AES-128/192/256, 7-round ARIA-192/256, and 8-round ARIA-256 by factors ranging from 20.56 to 23. Additionally, we have improved the overall time complexity of attacks on 7-round ARIA-192/256 by factors of 20.13 and 20.42, respectively.

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  • Tetsuya ARAKI, Shin-ichi NAKANO
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2023DMP0010
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: March 11, 2024
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    The dispersion problem is a variant of facility location problems, that has been extensively studied. Given a polygon with n edges on a plane we want to find k points in the polygon so that the minimum pairwise Euclidean distance of the k points is maximized. We call the problem the k-dispersion problem in a polygon. Intuitively, for an island, we want to locate k drone bases far away from each other in flying distance to avoid congestion in the sky. In this paper, we give a polynomial-time approximation scheme (PTAS) for this problem when k is a constant and ε < 1 (where ε is a positive real number). Our proposed algorithm runs in O(((1/ε)2 + n/ε)k) time with 1/(1 + ε) approximation, the first PTAS developed for this problem. Additionally, we consider three variations of the dispersion problem and design a PTAS for each of them.

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  • SHA ZHICHAO, MA ZIJI, XIONG KUNLAI, QIN LIANGCHENG, WANG XUEYING
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2023EAP1120
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: March 06, 2024
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    Diagnosis at an early stage is clinically important for the cure of skin cancer. However, since some skin cancers have similar intuitive characteristics, and dermatologists rely on subjective experience to distinguish skin cancer types, the accuracy is often suboptimal. Recently, the introduction of computer methods in the medical field has better assisted physicians to improve the recognition rate but some challenges still exist. In the face of massive dermoscopic image data, residual network (ResNet) is more suitable for learning feature relationships inside big data because of its deeper network depth. Aiming at the deficiency of ResNet, this paper proposes a multi-region feature extraction and raising dimension matching method, which further improves the utilization rate of medical image features. This method firstly extracted rich and diverse features from multiple regions of the feature map, avoiding the deficiency of traditional residual modules repeatedly extracting features in a few fixed regions. Then, the fused features are strengthened by up-dimensioning the branch path information and stacking it with the main path, which solves the problem that the information of two paths is not ideal after fusion due to different dimensionality. The proposed method is experimented on the International Skin Imaging Collaboration (ISIC) Archive dataset, which contains more than 40,000 images. The results of this work on this dataset and other datasets are evaluated to be improved over networks containing traditional residual modules and some popular networks.

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  • Daxiu ZHANG, Xianwei LI, Bo WEI
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2023EAP1139
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: March 06, 2024
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    With the increase of the number of Mobile User Equipments (MUEs), numerous tasks that with high requirements of resources are generated. However, the MUEs have limited computational resources, computing power and storage space. In this paper, a joint coverage constrained task offloading and resource allocation method based on deep reinforcement learning is proposed. The aim is offload the tasks that cannot be processed locally to the edge servers to alleviate the conflict between the resource constraints of MUEs and the high performance task processing. The studied problem considers the dynamic variability and complexity of the system model, coverage, offloading decisions, communication relationships and resource constraints. An entropy weight method is used to optimize the resource allocation process and balance the energy consumption and execution time. The results of the study show that the number of tasks and MUEs affects the execution time and energy consumption of the task offloading and resource allocation processes in the interest of the service provider, and enhances the user experience.

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  • Mengmeng ZHANG, Zeliang ZHANG, Yuan LI, Ran CHENG, Hongyuan JING, Zhi ...
    Article type: LETTER
    Article ID: 2024EAL2021
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: March 06, 2024
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    Point cloud video contains not only color information but also spatial position information and usually has large volume of data. Typical rate distortion optimization algorithms based on Human Visual System only consider the color information, which limit the coding performance. In this paper, a Coding Tree Unit (CTU) level quantization parameter (QP) adjustment algorithm based on JND and spatial complexity is proposed to improve the subjective and objective quality of Video-Based Point Cloud Compression (V-PCC). Firstly, it is found that the JND model is degraded at CTU level for attribute video due to the pixel filling strategy of V-PCC, and an improved JND model is designed using the occupancy map. Secondly, a spatial complexity detection metric is designed to measure the visual importance of each CTU. Finally, a CTU-level QP adjustment scheme based on both JND levels and visual importance is proposed for geometry and attribute video. The experimental results show that, compared with the latest V-PCC (TMC2-18.0) anchors, the BD-rate is reduced by - 2.8% and -3.2% for D1 and D2 metrics, respectively, and the subjective quality is improved significantly.

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  • Ngoc-Tan NGUYEN, Trung-Duc NGUYEN, Nam-Hoang NGUYEN, Trong-Minh HOANG
    Article type: LETTER
    Article ID: 2023EAL2048
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: March 05, 2024
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    Multi-access edge computing (MEC) is an emerging technology of 5G and beyond mobile networks which deploys computation services at edge servers for reducing service delay. However, edge servers may have not enough computation capabilities to satisfy the delay requirement of services. Thus, heavy computation tasks need to be offloaded to other MEC servers. In this paper, we propose an offloading solution, called optimal delay offloading (ODO) solution, that can guarantee service delay requirements. Specificially, this method exploits an estimation of queuing delay among MEC servers to find a proper offloading server with the lowest service delay to offload the computation task. Simulation results have proved that the proposed ODO method outperforms the conventional methods, i.e., the non-offloading and the energy-efficient offloading [10] methods (up to 1.6 times) in terms of guaranteeing the service delay under a threshold.

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  • Shoichi HIROSE, Hidenori KUWAKADO
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2023DMP0007
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: March 04, 2024
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    In 2005, Nandi introduced a class of double-block-length compression functions hπ (x) := (h(x) , h( π(x) ) ), where h is a random oracle with an n-bit output and π is a non-cryptographic public permutation. Nandi demonstrated that the collision resistance of hπ is optimal if π has no fixed point in the classical setting. Our study explores the collision resistance of hπ and the Merkle-Damåard hash function using hπ in the quantum random oracle model. Firstly, we reveal that the quantum collision resistance of hπ may not be optimal even if π has no fixed point. If π is an involution, then a colliding pair of inputs can be found for hπ with only O(2n/2) queries by the Grover search. Secondly, we present a sufficient condition on π for the optimal quantum collision resistance of hπ. This condition states that any collision attack needs Ω(22n/3) queries to find a colliding pair of inputs. The proof uses the recent technique of Zhandry's compressed oracle. Thirdly, we show that the quantum collision resistance of the Merkle-Damgård hash function using hπ can be optimal even if π is an involution. Finally, we discuss the quantum collision resistance of double-block-length compression functions using a block cipher.

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  • Yumeng ZHANG
    Article type: LETTER
    Article ID: 2023EAL2094
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: March 04, 2024
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    Integrated Sensing and Communication at terahertz band (ISAC-THz) has been considered as one of the promising technologies for the future 6G. However, in the phase-shifters (PSs) based massive multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) hybrid precoding system, due to the ultra-large bandwidth of the terahertz frequency band, the subcarrier channels with different frequencies have different equivalent spatial directions. Therefore, the hybrid beamforming at the transmitter will cause serious beam split problems. In this letter, we propose a dual-function radar communication (DFRC) precoding method by considering recently proposed delay-phase precoding structure for THz massive MIMO. By adding delay phase components between the radio frequency chain and the frequency-independent PSs, the beam is aligned with the target physical direction over the entire bandwidth to reduce the loss caused by beam splitting effect. Furthermore, we employ a hardware structure by using true-timedelayers (TTDs) to realize the concept of frequency-dependent phase shifts. Theoretical analysis and simulation results have shown that it can increase communication performance and make up for the performance loss caused by the dual-function trade-off of communication radar to a certain extent.

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  • Jun-Feng Liu, Yuan Feng, Zeng-Hui Li, Jing-Wei Tang
    Article type: LETTER
    Article ID: 2024EAL2012
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: March 04, 2024
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    To improve the control performance of the permanent magnet synchronous motor speed control system, the fractional order calculus theory is combined with the sliding mode control to design the fractional order integral sliding mode sliding mode surface (FOISM) to improve the robustness of the system. Secondly, considering the existence of chattering phenomenon in sliding mode control, a new second-order sliding mode reaching law (NSOSMRL) is designed to improve the control accuracy of the system. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed strategy is demonstrated by simulation.

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  • Keita EMURA, Kaisei KAJITA, Go OHTAKE
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2023DMP0003
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: February 26, 2024
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    As a multi-receiver variant of public key encryption with keyword search (PEKS), broadcast encryption with keyword search (BEKS) has been proposed (Attrapadung et al. at ASIACRYPT 2006/Chatterjee-Mukherjee at INDOCRYPT 2018). Unlike broadcast encryption, no receiver anonymity is considered because the test algorithm takes a set of receivers as input and thus a set of receivers needs to be contained in a ciphertext. In this paper, we propose a generic construction of BEKS from anonymous andweakly robust 3-level hierarchical identity-based encryption (HIBE). The proposed generic construction provides outsider anonymity, where an adversary is allowed to obtain secret keys of outsiders who do not belong to the challenge sets, and provides sublinear-size ciphertext in terms of the number of receivers. Moreover, the proposed construction considers security against chosen-ciphertext attack (CCA) where an adversary is allowed to access a test oracle in the searchable encryption context. The proposed generic construction can be seen as an extension to the Fazio-Perera generic construction of anonymous broadcast encryption (PKC 2012) from anonymous and weakly robust identity-based encryption (IBE) and the Boneh et al. generic construction of PEKS (EUROCRYPT 2004) from anonymous IBE.We run the Fazio-Perera construction employs on the first-level identity and run the Boneh et al. generic construction on the second-level identity, i.e., a keyword is regarded as a second-level identity. The third-level identity is used for providing CCA security by employing one-time signatures. We also introduce weak robustness in the HIBE setting, and demonstrate that the Abdalla et al. generic transformation (TCC 2010/JoC 2018) for providing weak robustness to IBE works for HIBE with an appropriate parameter setting. We also explicitly introduce attractive concrete instantiations of the proposed generic construction from pairings and lattices, respectively.

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  • Xiuping PENG, Yinna LIU, Hongbin LIN
    Article type: LETTER
    Article ID: 2023EAL2091
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: February 15, 2024
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    In this letter, we propose a novel direct construction of three-phase Z-complementary triads with flexible lengths and various widths of the zero-correlation zone based on extended Boolean functions. The maximum width ratio of the zero-correlation zone of the construction can reach 3/4. And the proposed sequences can exist for all lengths other than powers of three. We also investigate the peak-to-average power ratio properties of the proposed ZCTs.

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  • Yang XIAO, Zhongyuan ZHOU, Mingjie SHENG, Qi ZHOU
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2023EAP1102
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: February 15, 2024
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    The method of extracting impedance parameters of surface mounted (SMD) electronic components by test is suitable for components with unknown model or material information, but requires consideration of errors caused by non-coaxial and measurement fixtures. In this paper, a fixture for impedance measurement is designed according to the characteristics of passive devices, and the fixture de-embedding method is used to eliminate errors and improve the test accuracy. The method of obtaining S parameters of fixture based on full wave simulation proposed in this paper can provide a thought for obtaining S parameters in de-embedding. Taking a certain patch capacitor as an example, the S parameters for de-embedding were obtained using methods based on full wave simulation, 2×Thru, and ADS simulation, and de-embedding tests were conducted. The results indicate that obtaining the S parameter of the testing fixture based on full wave simulation and conducting de-embedding testing compared to ADS simulation can accurately extract the impedance parameters of SMD electronic components, which provides a reference for the study of electromagnetic interference (EMI) coupling mechanism.

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  • Kazuyuki MIURA
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2023DMP0004
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: February 09, 2024
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    A rectangle-of-influence drawing of a plane graph G is a straight-line planar drawing of G such that there is no vertex in the proper inside of the axis-parallel rectangle defined by the two ends of any edge. In this paper, we show that any given 5-connected plane graph G with five or more vertices on the outer face has a rectangle-of-influence drawing in an integer grid such that W + Hn - 2, where n is the number of vertices in G, W is the width and H is the height of the grid.

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  • Yusaku HIRAI, Toshimasa MATSUOKA, Takatsugu KAMATA, Sadahiro TANI, Tak ...
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2023EAP1093
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: February 09, 2024
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    This paper presents a multi-channel biomedical sensor system with system-level chopping and stochastic analog-to-digital (A/D) conversion technique. The system-level chopping technique extends the input-signal bandwidth and reduces the interchannel crosstalk caused by multiplexing. The system-level chopping can replace an analog low-pass filter (LPF) with a digital filter and can reduce its area occupation. The stochastic A/D conversion technique realizes power-efficient resolution enhancement. A novel auto-calibration technique is also proposed for the stochastic A/D conversion technique. The proposed system includes a prototype analog front-end (AFE) IC fabricated using a 130 nm CMOS process. The fabricated AFE IC improved its interchannel crosstalk by 40 dB compared with the conventional analog chopping architecture. The AFE IC achieved SNDR of 62.9 dB at a sampling rate of 31.25 kSps while consuming 9.6 μW from a 1.2 V power supply. The proposed resolution enhancement technique improved the measured SNDR by 4.5 dB.

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  • Ryuta TAMURA, Yuichi TAKANO, Ryuhei MIYASHIRO
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2023EAP1043
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: February 08, 2024
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    We study the mixed-integer optimization (MIO) approach to feature subset selection in nonlinear kernel support vector machines (SVMs) for binary classification. To measure the performance of subset selection, we use the distance between two classes (DBTC) in a high-dimensional feature space based on the Gaussian kernel function. However, DBTC to be maximized as an objective function is nonlinear, nonconvex and nonconcave. Despite the difficulty of linearizing such a nonlinear function in general, our major contribution is to propose a mixed-integer linear optimization (MILO) formulation to maximize DBTC for feature subset selection, and this MILO problem can be solved to optimality using optimization software. We also derive a reduced version of the MILO problem to accelerate our MILO computations. Experimental results show good computational efficiency for our MILO formulation with the reduced problem. Moreover, our method can often outperform the linear-SVM-based MILO formulation and recursive feature elimination in prediction performance, especially when there are relatively few data instances.

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  • Nobuyuki TAKEUCHI, Kosei SAKAMOTO, Takuro SHIRAYA, Takanori ISOBE
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2023EAP1098
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: February 08, 2024
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    At CT-RSA 2022, Bossert et al. proposed Pholkos family, an efficient large-state tweakable block cipher. In order to evaluate the security of differential attacks on Pholkos, they obtained the lower bounds for the number of active S-boxes for Pholkos using MILP (Mixed Integer Linear Programming) tools. Based on it, they claimed that Pholkos family is secure against differential attacks. However, they only gave rough security bounds in both of related-tweak and related-tweakey settings. To be more precise, they estimated the lower bounds of the number of active S-boxes for relatively-large number of steps by just summing those in the small number of steps.

    In this paper, we utilize efficient search methods based on MILP to obtain tighter lower bounds for the number of active S-boxes in a larger number of steps. For the first time, we derive the exact minimum number of active S-boxes of each variant up to the steps where the security against differential attacks can be ensured in related-tweak and related-tweakey settings. Our results indicate that Pholkos-256-128/256-256/512/1024 is secure after 4/5/3/4 steps in the related-tweak setting, and after 5/6/3/4 steps in the related-tweakey setting, respectively. Our results enable reducing the required number of steps to be secure against differential attacks of Pholkos-256-256 in related-tweak setting, and Pholkos-256-128/256 and Pholkos-1024 in the related-tweakey setting by one step, respectively.

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  • Shion UTSUMI, Kosei SAKAMOTO, Takanori ISOBE
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2023EAP1149
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: February 08, 2024
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    Lightweight block ciphers have gained attention in recent years due to the increasing demand for sensor nodes, RFID tags, and various applications. In such a situation, lightweight block ciphers Piccolo and TWINE have been proposed. Both Piccolo and TWINE are designed based on the Generalized Feistel Structure. However, it is crucial to address the potential vulnerability of these structures to the impossible differential attack. Therefore, detailed security evaluations against this attack are essential.

    This paper focuses on conducting bit-level evaluations of Piccolo and TWINE against related-key impossible differential attacks by leveraging SAT-aided approaches. We search for the longest distinguishers under the condition that the Hamming weight of the active bits of the input, which includes plaintext and master key differences, and output differences is set to 1, respectively. Additionally, for Tweakable TWINE, we search for the longest distinguishers under the related-tweak and related-tweak-key settings. The result for Piccolo with a 128-bit key, we identify the longest 16-round distinguishers for the first time. In addition, we also demonstrate the ability to extend these distinguishers to 17 rounds by taking into account the cancellation of the round key and plaintext difference. Regarding evaluations of TWINE with a 128-bit key, we search for the first time and reveal the distinguishers up to 19 rounds. For the search for Tweakable TWINE, we evaluate under the related-tweak-key setting for the first time and reveal the distinguishers up to 18 rounds for 80-bit key and 19 rounds for 128-bit key.

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  • You GAO, Ming-Yue XIE, Gang WANG, Lin-Zhi SHEN
    Article type: LETTER
    Article ID: 2023EAL2083
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: February 07, 2024
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Mutually unbiased bases (MUBs) are widely used in quantum information processing and play an important role in quantum cryptography, quantum state tomography and communications. It's difficult to construct MUBs and remains unknown whether complete MUBs exist for any non prime power. Therefore, researchers have proposed the solution to construct approximately mutually unbiased bases (AMUBs) by weakening the inner product conditions. This paper constructs q AMUBs of ℂq, (q + 1) AMUBs of ℂq-1 and q AMUBs of ℂq-1 by using character sums over Galois rings and finite fields, where q is a power of a prime. The first construction of q AMUBs of ℂq is new which illustrates K AMUBs of ℂK can be achieved. The second and third constructions in this paper include the partial results about AMUBs constructed by W. Wang et al. in [9].

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  • Zhimin SHAO, Chunxiu LIU, Cong WANG, Longtan LI, Yimin LIU, Zaiyan ZHO ...
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2023EAP1150
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: January 31, 2024
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Data resource sharing can guarantee the reliable and safe operation of distribution power grid. However, it faces the challenges of low security and high delay in the sharing process. Consortium blockchain can ensure the security and efficiency of data resource sharing, but it still faces problems such as arbitrary master node selection and high consensus delay. In this paper, we propose an improved practical Byzantine fault tolerance (PBFT) consensus algorithm based on intelligent consensus node selection to realize high-security and real-time data resource sharing for distribution power grid. Firstly, a blockchain-based data resource sharing model is constructed to realize secure data resource storage by combining the consortium blockchain and interplanetary file system (IPFS). Then, the improved PBFT consensus algorithm is proposed to optimize the consensus node selection based on the upper confidence bound of node performance. It prevents Byzantine nodes from participating in the consensus process, reduces the consensus delay, and improves the security of data resource sharing. The simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

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  • Xiaolong ZHENG, Bangjie LI, Daqiao ZHANG, Di YAO, Xuguang YANG
    Article type: LETTER
    Article ID: 2023EAL2074
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: January 23, 2024
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    High Frequency Surface Wave Radar holds significant potential in sea detection. However, the target signals are often surpassed by substantial sea clutter and ionospheric clutter, making it crucial to address clutter suppression and extract weak target signals amidst the strong noise background. This study proposes a novel method for separating weak harmonic target signals based on local tangent space, leveraging the chaotic feature of ionospheric clutter. The effectiveness of this approach is demonstrated through the analysis of measured data, thereby validating its practicality and potential for real-world applications.

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  • Takahiro IINUMA, Yudai EBATO, Sou NOBUKAWA, Nobuhiko WAGATSUMA, Keiich ...
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2023EAP1116
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: January 17, 2024
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    Stochastic resonance is a representative phenomenon in which the degree of synchronization with a weak input signal is enhanced using additive stochastic noise. In systems with multiple chaotic attractors, the chaos-chaos intermittent behavior in attractor-merging bifurcation induces chaotic resonance, which is similar to the stochastic resonance and has high sensitivity. However, controlling chaotic resonance is difficult because it requires adjusting the internal parameters from the outside. The reduced-region-of-orbit (RRO) method, which controls the attractor-merging bifurcation using an external feedback signal, is employed to overcome this issue. However, the lower perturbation of the feedback signal requires further improvement for engineering applications. This study proposed an RRO method with more sophisticated and less perturbed feedback signals, called the double-Gaussian-filtered RRO (DG-RRO) method. The inverse sign of the map function and double Gaussian filters were used to improve the local specification, i.e., the concentration around the local maximum/minimum in the feedback signals, called the DG-RRO feedback signals. Owing to their fine local specification, these signals achieved the attractor-merging bifurcation with significantly smaller feedback perturbation than that in the conventional RRO method. Consequently, chaotic resonance was induced through weak feedback perturbation. It exhibited greater synchronization against weak input signals than that induced by the conventional RRO feedback signal and sustained the same level of response frequency range as that of the conventional RRO method. These advantages may pave the way for utilizing chaotic resonance in engineering scenarios where the stochastic resonance has been applied.

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  • Takeru INOUE, Norihito YASUDA, Hidetomo NABESHIMA, Masaaki NISHINO, Sh ...
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2023DMP0006
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: January 15, 2024
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    This paper reports on the details of the International Competition on Graph Counting Algorithms (ICGCA) held in 2023. The graph counting problem is to count the subgraphs satisfying specified constraints on a given graph. The problem belongs to #P-complete, a computationally tough class. Since many essential systems in modern society, e.g., infrastructure networks, are often represented as graphs, graph counting algorithms are a key technology to efficiently scan all the subgraphs representing the feasible states of the system. In the ICGCA, contestants were asked to count the paths on a graph under a length constraint. The benchmark set included 150 challenging instances, emphasizing graphs resembling infrastructure networks. Eleven solvers were submitted and ranked by the number of benchmarks correctly solved within a time limit. The winning solver, TLDC, was designed based on three fundamental approaches: backtracking search, dynamic programming, and model counting or #SAT (a counting version of Boolean satisfiability). Detailed analyses show that each approach has its own strengths, and one approach is unlikely to dominate the others. The codes and papers of the participating solvers are available: https://afsa.jp/icgca/.

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  • Zhan SHI
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2023EAP1154
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: January 15, 2024
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Power line communication (PLC) provides a flexible-access, wide-distribution, and low-cost communication solution for distribution network services. However, the PLC self-organizing networking in distribution network faces several challenges such as diversified data transmission requirements guarantee, the contradiction between long-term constraints and short-term optimization, and the uncertainty of global information. To address these challenges, we propose a backpressure learning-based data transmission reliability-aware self-organizing networking algorithm to minimize the weighted sum of node data backlogs under the long-term transmission reliability constraint. Specifically, the minimization problem is transformed by the Lyapunov optimization and backpressure algorithm. Finally, we propose a backpressure and data transmission reliability-aware state-action-reward-state-action (SARSA)-based self-organizing networking strategy to realize the PLC networking optimization. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm has superior performances of data backlogs and transmission reliability.

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  • Hakan BERCAG, Osman KUKRER, Aykut HOCANIN
    Article type: LETTER
    Article ID: 2023EAL2072
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: January 11, 2024
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    A new extended normalized least-mean-square (ENLMS) algorithm is proposed. A novel non-linear time-varying step-size (NLTVSS) formula is derived. The convergence rate of ENLMS increases due to NLTVSS as the number of data-reuse L is increased. ENLMS does not involve matrix inversion, and, thus, avoids numerical instability issues.

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