IEICE Transactions on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences
Online ISSN : 1745-1337
Print ISSN : 0916-8508
Advance online publication
Showing 1-50 articles out of 82 articles from Advance online publication
  • Xiumin SHEN, Xiaofei SONG, Yanguo JIA, Yubo LI
    Type: LETTER
    Article ID: 2021EAL2006
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: April 14, 2021
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    Binary sequence pairs with optimal periodic correlation have important applications in many fields of communication systems. In this letter, four new families of binary sequence pairs are presented based on the generalized cyclotomy over Z5q, where q ≠ 5 is an odd prime. All these binary sequence pairs have optimal three-level correlation values {-1, 3}.

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  • Sang-Young OH, Ho-Lim CHOI
    Type: LETTER
    Article ID: 2021EAL2011
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: April 14, 2021
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    We consider an asymptotic stabilization problem for a chain of integrators by using an event-triggered controller. The times required between event-triggered executions and controller updates are uncertain, time-varying, and not necessarily small. We show that the considered system can be asymptotically stabilized by an event-triggered gain-scaling controller. Also, we show that the interexecution times are lower bounded and their lower bounds can be manipulated by a gain-scaling factor. Some future extensions are also discussed. An example is given for illustration.

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  • Yue LI, Xiaosheng YU, Haijun CAO, Ming XU
    Type: LETTER
    Article ID: 2020EAL2111
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: April 08, 2021
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    An autoencoder is trained to generate the background from the surveillance image by setting the training label as the shuffled input, instead of the input itself in a traditional autoencoder. Then the multi-scale features are extracted by a sparse autoencoder from the surveillance image and the corresponding background to detect foreground.

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  • Zhe LYU, Changjun YU, Di YAO, Ajiun LIU, Xuguang YANG
    Type: LETTER
    Article ID: 2020EAL2118
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: April 05, 2021
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    Observations of gravity waves based on High Frequency Surface Wave Radar can make contributions to a better understanding of the energy transfer process between the ocean and the ionosphere. In this paper, through processing the observed data of the ionospheric clutter from HFSWR during the period of the Typhoon Rumbia with short-time Fourier transform method, HFSWR was proven to have the capability of gravity wave detection.

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  • Lin CAO, Kaixuan LI, Kangning DU, Yanan GUO, Peiran SONG, Tao WANG, Ch ...
    Type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2020EAP1114
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: April 05, 2021
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    Face sketch synthesis refers to transform facial photos into sketches. Recent research on face sketch synthesis has achieved great success due to the development of Generative Adversarial Networks (GAN). However, these generative methods prone to neglect detailed information and thus lose some individual specific features, such as glasses and headdresses. In this paper, we propose a novel method called Feature Learning Generative Adversarial Network (FL-GAN) to synthesize detail-preserving high-quality sketches. Precisely, the proposed FL-GAN consists of one Feature Learning (FL) module and one Adversarial Learning (AL) module. The FL module aims to learn the detailed information of the image in a latent space, and guide the AL module to synthesize detail-preserving sketch. The AL Module aims to learn the structure and texture of sketch and improve the quality of synthetic sketch by adversarial learning strategy. Quantitative and qualitative comparisons with seven state-of-the-art methods such as the LLE, the MRF, the MWF, the RSLCR, the RL, the FCN and the GAN on four facial sketch datasets demonstrate the superiority of this method.

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  • Yujin ZHENG, Yan LIN, Zhuo ZHANG, Qinglin ZHANG, Qiaoqiao XIA
    Type: LETTER
    Article ID: 2020EAL2116
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: April 02, 2021
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    Linear programming (LP) decoding based on the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) has proved to be effective for low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes. However, for high-density parity-check (HDPC) codes, the ADMM-LP decoder encounters two problems, namely a high-density check matrix in HDPC codes and a great number of pseudocodewords in HDPC codes' fundamental polytope. The former problem makes the check polytope projection extremely complex, and the latter one leads to poor frame error rates (FER) performance. To address these issues, we introduce the even vertex algorithm (EVA) into the ADMM-LP decoding algorithm for HDPC codes, named as HDPC-EVA. HDPC-EVA can reduce the complexity of the projection process and improve the FER performance. We further enhance the proposed decoder by the automorphism groups of codes, creating diversity in the parity-check matrix. The simulation results show that the proposed decoder is capable of cutting down the average decoding time for each iteration by 300%-600%, as well as achieving near maximum likelihood (ML) performance on some BCH codes.

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  • Ikkei HASEBE, Takaaki HASEGAWA
    Type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2020EAP1133
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: April 01, 2021
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    In this paper, for the purpose of clarifying the desired ITS information and communication systems considering both safety and social feasibility to prevention overengineering, using a microscopic traffic flow simulator, we discuss the required information acquisition rate of three types of safety driving support systems, that is, the sensor type and the communication type, the sensor and communication fusion type. Performances are evaluated from the viewpoint of preventing overengineering performance using the “TsRm evaluation method” that considers a vehicle approaching within the range of R meters within T seconds as the vehicle with a high possibility of collision, and that evaluates only those vehicles. The results show that regarding the communication radius and the sensing range, overengineering performance may be estimated when all vehicles in the evaluation area are used for evaluations without considering each vehicle's location, velocity and acceleration as in conventional evaluations. In addition, it is clarified that the sensor and communication fusion type system is advantageous by effectively complementing the defects of the sensor type systems and the communication type systems.

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  • Lin CAO, Xibao HUO, Yanan GUO, Kangning DU
    Type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2021EAP1005
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: April 01, 2021
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    Sketch face recognition refers to matching photos with sketches, which has effectively been used in various applications ranging from law enforcement agencies to digital entertainment. However, due to the large modality gap between photos and sketches, sketch face recognition remains a challenging task at present. To reduce the domain gap between the sketches and photos, this paper proposes a cascaded transformation generation network for cross-modality image generation and sketch face recognition simultaneously. The proposed cascaded transformation generation network is composed of a generation module, a cascaded feature transformation module, and a classifier module. The generation module aims to generate a high quality cross-modality image, the cascaded feature transformation module extracts high-level semantic features for generation and recognition simultaneously, the classifier module is used to complete sketch face recognition. The proposed transformation generation network is trained in an end-to-end manner, it strengthens the recognition accuracy by the generated images. The recognition performance is verified on the UoM-SGFSv2, e-PRIP, and CUFSF datasets; experimental results show that the proposed method is better than other state-of-the-art methods.

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  • Yang DING, Yuting QIU, Hongxi TONG
    Type: LETTER
    Article ID: 2021EAL2015
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: March 29, 2021
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    One of the main problems in list decoding is to determine the tradeoff between the list decoding radius and the rate of the codes w.r.t. a given metric. In this paper, we first describe a "stronger-weaker" relationship between two distinct metrics of the same code, then we show that the list decodability of the stronger metric can be deduced from the weaker metric directly. In particular, when we focus on matrix codes, we can obtain list decodability of matrix code w.r.t. the cover metric from the Hamming metric and the rank metric. Moreover, we deduce a Johnson-like bound of the list decoding radius for cover metric codes, which improved the result of [20]. In addition, the condition for a metric that whether the list decoding radius w.r.t. this metric and the rate are bounded by the Singleton bound is presented.

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  • Chuzo IWAMOTO, Tatsuaki IBUSUKI
    Type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2020DMP0006
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: March 26, 2021
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    The art gallery problem is to find a set of guards who together can observe every point of the interior of a polygon P. We study a chromatic variant of the problem, where each guard is assigned one of k distinct colors. The chromatic art gallery problem is to find a guard set for P such that no two guards with the same color have overlapping visibility regions. We study the decision version of this problem for orthogonal polygons with r-visibility when the number of colors is k = 2. Here, two points are r-visible if the smallest axis-aligned rectangle containing them lies entirely within the polygon. In this paper, it is shown that determining whether there is an r-visibility guard set for an orthogonal polygon with holes such that no two guards with the same color have overlapping visibility regions is NP-hard when the number of colors is k = 2.

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  • Chen CHEN, Maojun ZHANG, Hanlin TAN, Huaxin XIAO
    Type: LETTER
    Article ID: 2020EAL2110
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: March 26, 2021
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    Pedestrian detection is an essential but challenging task in computer vision, especially in crowded scenes due to heavy intra-class occlusion. In human visual system, head information can be used to locate pedestrian in a crowd because it is more stable and less likely to be occluded. Inspired by this clue, we propose a dual-task detector which detects head and human body simultaneously. Concretely, we estimate human body candidates from head regions with statistical head-body ratio. A head-body alignment map is proposed to perform relational learning between human bodies and heads based on their inherent correlation. We leverage the head information as a strict detection criterion to suppress common false positives of pedestrian detection via a novel pull-push loss. We validate the effectiveness of the proposed method on the Crowd Human and City Persons benchmarks. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method achieves impressive performance in detecting heavy-occluded pedestrians with little additional computation cost.

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  • Jun KURIHARA, Toru NAKAMURA, Ryu WATANABE
    Type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2020DMP0018
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: March 23, 2021
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    This paper investigates an adversarial model in the scenario of private information retrieval (PIR) from n coded storage servers, called Byzantine adversary. The Byzantine adversary is defined as the one altering b server responses and erasing u server responses to a user's query. In this paper, two types of Byzantine adversaries are considered; 1) the classic omniscient type that has the full knowledge on n servers as considered in existing literature, and 2) the reasonable limited-knowledge type that has information on only b+u servers, i.e., servers under the adversary's control. For these two types, this paper reveals that the resistance of a PIR scheme, i.e., the condition of b and u to correctly obtain the desired message, can be expressed in terms of a code parameter called the coset distance of linear codes employed in the scheme. For the omniscient type, the derived condition expressed by the coset distance is tighter and more precise than the estimation of the resistance by the minimum Hamming weight of the codes considered in existing researches. Furthermore, this paper also clarifies that if the adversary is limited-knowledge, the resistance of a PIR scheme could exceed that for the case of the omniscient type. Namely, PIR schemes can increase their resistance to Byzantine adversaries by allowing the limitation on adversary's knowledge.

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  • Kenta KODERA, Chen-Mou CHENG, Atsuko MIYAJI
    Type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2020DMP0024
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: March 23, 2021
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    Isogeny-based cryptography, such as commutative supersingular isogeny Diffie-Hellman (CSIDH), have been shown to be promising candidates for post-quantum cryptography. However, their speeds have remained unremarkable. This study focuses on computing odd-degree isogeny between Montgomery curves, which is a dominant computation in CSIDH.

    Our proposed “2-ADD-Skip method” technique reduces the required number of points to be computed during isogeny computation. A novel algorithm for isogeny computation is also proposed to efficiently utilize the 2-ADD-Skip method. Our proposed algorithm with the optimized parameter reduces computational cost by approximately 12% compared with the algorithm proposed by Meyer and Reith.

    Further, individual experiments for each degree of isogeny l show that the proposed algorithm is the fastest for 19 ≤ l ≤ 373 among previous studies focusing on isogeny computation including the $\tilde{O}(\sqrt{\ell})$ algorithm proposed by Bernstein et al.. The experimental results also show that the proposed algorithm achieves the fastest on CSIDH-512. For CSIDH-1024, the proposed algorithm is faster than the algorithm by Meyer and Reith although it is slower than the algorithm by Bernstein et al..

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  • Ying WANG, Xiaosheng YU, Chengdong WU
    Type: LETTER
    Article ID: 2020EAL2122
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: March 23, 2021
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    The automatic analysis of retinal fundus images is of great significance in large-scale ocular pathologies screening, of which optic disc (OD) location is a prerequisite step. In this paper, we propose a method based on saliency detection and attention convolutional neural network for OD detection. Firstly, the wavelet transform based saliency detection method is used to detect the OD candidate regions to the maximum extent such that the intensity, edge and texture features of the fundus images are all considered into the OD detection process. Then, the attention mechanism that can emphasize the representation of OD region is combined into the dense network. Finally, it is determined whether the detected candidate regions are OD region or non-OD region. The proposed method is implemented on DIARETDB0, DIARETDB1 and MESSIDOR datasets, the experimental results of which demonstrate its superiority and robustness.

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  • Takashi HORIYAMA, Shin-ichi NAKANO, Toshiki SAITOH, Koki SUETSUGU, Aki ...
    Type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2020DMP0003
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: March 19, 2021
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    Given a set P of n points on which facilities can be placed and an integer k, we want to place k facilities on some points so that the minimum distance between facilities is maximized. The problem is called the k-dispersion problem. In this paper, we consider the 3-dispersion problem when P is a set of points on a plane (2-dimensional space). Note that the 2-dispersion problem corresponds to the diameter problem. We give an O(n) time algorithm to solve the 3-dispersion problem in the L metric, and an O(n) time algorithm to solve the 3-dispersion problem in the L1 metric. Also, we give an O(n2 log n) time algorithm to solve the 3-dispersion problem in the L2 metric.

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  • Hiroki OKADA, Atsushi TAKAYASU, Kazuhide FUKUSHIMA, Shinsaku KIYOMOTO, ...
    Type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2020DMP0012
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: March 19, 2021
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    We propose a lattice-based digital signature scheme MLWRSign by modifying Dilithium, which is one of the third-Round finalists of NIST's call for post-quantum cryptographic standards. To the best of our knowledge, our scheme MLWRSign is the first signature scheme whose security is based on the (module) learning with rounding (LWR) problem. Due to the simplicity of the LWR, the secret key size is reduced by approximately 30% in our scheme compared to Dilithium, while achieving the same level of security. Moreover, we implemented MLWRSign and observed that the running time of MLWRSign is comparable to that of Dilithium.

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  • Kyohei SUDO, Keisuke HARA, Masayuki TEZUKA, Yusuke YOSHIDA, Keisuke TA ...
    Type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2020DMP0022
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: March 19, 2021
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    Software watermarking enables one to embed some information called “mark” into a program while preserving its functionality, and to read it from the program. As a definition of function preserving, Cohen et al. (STOC 2016) proposed statistical function preserving which requires that the input/ output behavior of the marked circuit is identical almost everywhere to that of the original unmarked circuit. They showed how to construct watermarkable cryptographic primitives with statistical function preserving, including pseudorandom functions (PRFs) and public-key encryption from indistinguishability obfuscation. Recently, Goyal et al. (CRYPTO 2019) introduced more relaxed definition of function preserving for watermarkable signature. Watermarkable signature embeds a mark into a signing circuit of digital signature. The relaxed function preserving only requires that the marked signing circuit outputs valid signatures. They provide watermarkable signature with the relaxed function preserving only based on (standard) digital signature.

    In this work, we introduce an intermediate notion of function preserving for watermarkable signature, which is called computational function preserving. Then, we examine the relationship among our computational function preserving, relaxed function preserving by Goyal et al. , and statistical function preserving by Cohen et al. Furthermore, we propose a generic construction of watermarkable signature scheme satisfying computational function preserving based on public key encryption and (standard) digital signature.

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  • Young-Hun SUNG, Sang Won BAE
    Type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2020DMP0002
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: March 18, 2021
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    In this paper, we present an algorithm that counts the number of empty quadrilaterals whose corners are chosen from a given set S of n points in general position. Our algorithm can separately count the number of convex or non-convex empty quadrilaterals in O(T) time, where T denotes the number of empty triangles in S. Note that T varies from Ω(n2) and O(n3) and the expected value of T is known to be Θ(n2) when the n points in S are chosen uniformly and independently at random from a convex and bounded body in the plane. We also show how to enumerate all convex and/or non-convex empty quadrilaterals in S in time proportional to the number of reported quadrilaterals, after O(T)-time preprocessing.

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  • Lei WANG, Kean CHEN, Jian XU
    Type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2020EAP1106
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: March 17, 2021
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    A narrowband active noise control (NANC) system is very effective for controlling low-frequency periodic noise. A frequency mismatch (FM) with the reference signal will degrade the performance or even cause the system to diverge. To deal with an FM and obtain an accurate reference signal, NANC systems often employ a frequency estimator. Combining an autoregressive predictive filter with a variable step size (VSS) all-pass-based lattice adaptive notch filter (ANF), a new frequency estimation method is proposed that does not require prior information of the primary signal, and the convergence characteristics are much improved. Simulation results show that the designed frequency estimator has a higher accuracy than the conventional algorithm. Finally, hardware experiments are carried out to verify the noise reduction effect.

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  • Yi LU, Keisuke HARA, Keisuke TANAKA
    Type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2020DMP0009
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: March 16, 2021
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    Receiver selective opening (RSO) attack for public key encryption (PKE) captures a situation where one sender sends messages to multiple receivers, an adversary can corrupt a set of receivers and get their messages and secret keys. Security against RSO attack for a PKE scheme ensures confidentiality of other uncorrupted receivers' ciphertexts. Among all of the RSO security notions, simulation-based RSO security against chosen ciphertext attack (SIM-RSO-CCA security) is the strongest notion. In this paper, we explore constructions of SIM-RSO-CCA secure PKE from various computational assumptions. Toward this goal, we show that a SIM-RSO-CCAsecure PKE scheme can be constructed based on an IND-CPA secure PKE scheme and a designated-verifier non-interactive zero-knowledge (DV-NIZK) argument satisfying one-time simulation soundness. Moreover, we give the first construction of DV-NIZK argument satisfying one-time simulation soundness. Consequently, through our generic construction, we obtain the first SIM-RSO-CCAsecure PKE scheme under the computational Diffie-Hellman (CDH) or learning parity with noise (LPN) assumption.

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  • Kyohei SEKINE, Hiroki KOGA
    Type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2020DMP0010
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: March 16, 2021
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    The extended visual cryptography scheme (EVCS) proposed by Ateniese et al. is one of variations of the visual cryptography scheme such that a secret image is recovered by superimposition of certain qualified collections of shares, where cover images are visible on respective shares. In this paper, we give a new definition of the EVCS for improving visibility of the recovered secret image as well as the cover images. We formulate the problem to construct the basis matrices of the EVCS with the minimum pixel expansion as an integer programming problem. We solve the integer programming problem for general access structures with less than or equal to five participants and show that basis matrices with a smaller pixel expansion can be obtained for certain cases. We also analyze security of the EVCS meeting the new definition from an information-theoretic viewpoint. We give a condition under which any forbidden collection of shares does not reveal any additional information on not only a secret image but also the cover images that are not visible on the other shares.

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  • Masayuki TEZUKA, Keisuke TANAKA
    Type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2020DMP0013
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: March 16, 2021
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    Redactable signature allows anyone to remove parts of a signed message without invalidating the signature. The need to prove the validity of digital documents issued by governments is increasing. When governments disclose documents, they must remove private information concerning individuals. Redactable signature is useful for such a situation.

    However, in most redactable signature schemes, to remove parts of the signed message, we need pieces of information for each part we want to remove. If a signed message consists of l elements, the number of elements in an original signature is at least linear in l.

    As far as we know, in some redactable signature schemes, the number of elements in an original signature is constant, regardless of the number of elements in a message to be signed. However, these constructions have drawbacks in that the use of the random oracle model or generic group model.

    In this paper, we construct an efficient redactable signature to overcome these drawbacks. Our redactable signature is obtained by combining set-commitment proposed in the recent work by Fuchsbauer et al. (JoC 2019) and digital signatures.

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  • Akio TSUNEDA
    Type: LETTER
    Article ID: 2020EAL2119
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: March 16, 2021
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    In this letter, we will prove that chaotic binary sequences generated by the tent map and Walsh functions are i.i.d.(independent and identically distributed) and orthogonal to each other.

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  • Shoichi HIROSE, Yu SASAKI, Hirotaka YOSHIDA
    Type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2020EAP1109
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: March 16, 2021
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    We revisit the design of Lesamnta-LW, which is one of the three lightweight hash functions specified in ISO/IEC 29192-5:2016. Firstly, we present some updates on the bounds of the number of active S-boxes for the underlying 64-round block cipher. While the designers showed that the Viterbi algorithm ensured 24 active S-boxes after 24 rounds, our tool based on Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) in the framework of Mouha et al. ensures the same number of active S-boxes only after 18 rounds. The tool completely evaluates the tight bound of the number of active S-boxes, and it shows that the bound is 103 for full (64) rounds. We also analyze security of the Shuffle operation in the round function and resistance against linear cryptanalysis. Secondly, we present a new mode for a pseudorandom function (PRF) based on Lesamnta-LW. It is twice as efficient as the previous PRF modes based on Lesamnta-LW. We prove its security both in the standard model and the ideal cipher model.

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  • Toru FUJIWARA, Takuya KUSAKA
    Type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2020EAP1119
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: March 12, 2021
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    Computing the weight distribution of a code is a challenging problem in coding theory. In this paper, the weight distributions of (256, k) extended binary primitive BCH codes with k ≤ 71 and k ≥ 187 are given. The weight distributions of the codes with k ≤ 63 and k ≥ 207 have already been obtained in our previous work. Affine permutation and trellis structure are used to reduce the computing time. Computer programs in C language which use recent CPU instructions, such as SIMD, are developed. These programs can be deployed even on an entry model workstation to obtain the new results in this paper.

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  • Akinori HOSOYAMADA, Tetsu IWATA
    Type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2020DMP0005
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: March 10, 2021
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    We provide a formal proof for the indifferentiability of SKINNY-HASH internal function from a random oracle. SKINNY-HASH is a family of sponge-based hash functions that use functions (instead of permutations) as primitives, and it was selected as one of the second round candidates of the NIST lightweight cryptography competition. Its internal function is constructed from the tweakable block cipher SKINNY. The construction of the internal function is very simple and the designers claim n-bit security, where n is the block length of SKINNY. However, a formal security proof of this claim is not given in the original specification of SKINNY-HASH. In this paper, we formally prove that the internal function of SKINNY-HASH has n-bit security, i.e., it is indifferentiable from a random oracle up to O(2n) queries, substantiating the security claim of the designers.

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  • Kei SATO, Kazuyuki MIURA
    Type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2020DMP0011
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: March 10, 2021
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    In a convex grid drawing of a plane graph, all edges are drawn as straight-line segments without any edge-intersection, all vertices are put on grid points and all facial cycles are drawn as convex polygons. A plane graph G has a convex drawing if and only if G is internally triconnected, and an internally triconnected plane graph G has a convex grid drawing on an (n - 1) × (n - 1) grid if either G is triconnected or the triconnected component decomposition tree T (G) of G has two or three leaves, where n is the number of vertices in G. An internally triconnected plane graph G has a convex grid drawing on a 2n × 2n grid if T (G) has exactly four leaves. Furthermore, an internally triconnected plane graph G has a convex grid drawing on a 6n×n2 grid if T (G) has exactly five leaves. In this paper, we show that an internally triconnected plane graph G has a convex grid drawing on a 20n × 16n grid if T (G) has exactly five leaves. We also present an algorithm to find such a drawing in linear time. This is the first algorithm that finds a convex grid drawing of such a plane graph G in a grid of O(n2) size.

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  • Hiroshi FUJIWARA, Ken ENDO, Hiroaki YAMAMOTO
    Type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2020DMP0007
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: March 09, 2021
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    In the bin packing problem, we are asked to place given items, each being of size between zero and one, into bins of capacity one. The goal is to minimize the number of bins that contain at least one item. An online algorithm for the bin packing problem decides where to place each item one by one when it arrives. The asymptotic approximation ratio of the bin packing problem is defined as the performance of an optimal online algorithm for the problem. That value indicates the intrinsic hardness of the bin packing problem. In this paper we study the bin packing problem in which every item is of either size $\alpha$ or size $\beta$ $(\leq \alpha)$. While the asymptotic approximation ratio for $\alpha > \frac{1}{2}$ was already identified, that for $\alpha \leq \frac{1}{2}$ is only partially known. This paper is the first to give a lower bound on the asymptotic approximation ratio for any $\alpha \leq \frac{1}{2}$, by formulating linear optimization problems. Furthermore, we derive another lower bound in a closed form by constructing dual feasible solutions.

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  • Masayuki FUKUMITSU, Shingo HASEGAWA
    Type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2020DMP0008
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: March 08, 2021
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    The Schnorr signature is one of the representative signature schemes and its security was widely discussed. In the random oracle model (ROM), it is provable from the DL assumption, whereas there is negative circumstantial evidence in the standard model. Fleischhacker, Jager, and Schröder showed that the tight security of the Schnorr signature is unprovable from a strong cryptographic assumption, such as the One-More DL (OM-DL) assumption and the computational and decisional Diffie-Hellman assumption, in the ROM via a generic reduction as long as the underlying cryptographic assumption holds. However, it remains open whether or not the impossibility of the provable security of the Schnorr signature from a strong assumption via a non-tight and reasonable reduction. In this paper, we showthat the security of the Schnorr signature is unprovable from the OM-DL assumption in the non-programmable ROM as long as the OM-DL assumption holds. Our impossibility result is proven via a non-tight Turing reduction.

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  • Yiyang JIA, Jun MITANI, Ryuhei UEHARA
    Type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2020DMP0017
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: March 08, 2021
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    Folding an m × n square grid pattern along the edges of a grid is called map folding. We consider a decision problem in terms of whether a partial overlapping order of the squares aligning on the boundary of an m × n map is valid in a particular fold model called simple fold. This is a variation of the decision problem of valid total orders of the map in a simple fold model. We provide a linear-time algorithm to solve this problem, by defining an equivalence relation and computing the folding sequence sequentially, either uniquely or representatively.

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  • Masahiro ONDA, Masaki MORIGUCHI, Keiko IMAI
    Type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2020DMP0019
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: March 08, 2021
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    The Tokyo subway is one of the most complex subway networks in the world and it is difficult to compute a visually readable metro map using existing layout methods. In this paper, we present a new method that can generate complex metro maps such as the Tokyo subway network. Our method consists of two phases. The first phase generates rough metro maps. It decomposes the metro networks into smaller subgraphs and partially generates rough metro maps. In the second phase, we use a local search technique to improve the aesthetic quality of the rough metro maps. The experimental results including the Tokyo metro map are shown.

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  • Kyohei ONO, Shoichiro YAMASAKI, Shinichiro MIYAZAKI, Tomoko K. MATSUSH ...
    Type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2020EAP1148
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: March 08, 2021
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    Optical code-division multiple-access (CDMA) techniques provide multi-user data transmission services in optical wireless and fiber communication systems. Several signature codes, such as modified prime sequence codes (MPSCs), generalized MPSCs (GMPSCs) and modified pseudo-orthogonal M-sequence sets, have been proposed for synchronous optical CDMA systems. In this paper, a new scheme is proposed for synchronous optical CDMA to increase the number of users and, consequently, to increase the total data rate without increasing the chip rate. The proposed scheme employs a GMPSC and an extended bi-orthogonal code which is a unipolar code generated from a bipolar Walsh code. Comprehensive comparisons between the proposed scheme and several conventional schemes are shown. Moreover, bit error rate performance and energy efficiency of the proposed scheme are evaluated comparing with those of the conventional optical CDMA schemes under atmospheric propagation environment.

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  • Yanjun LI, Haibin KAN, Jie PENG, Chik HOW TAN, Baixiang LIU
    Type: LETTER
    Article ID: 2021EAL2004
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: March 08, 2021
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    Permutation polynomials and their compositional inverses are crucial for construction of Maiorana-McFarland bent functions and their dual functions, which have the optimal nonlinearity for resisting against the linear attack on block ciphers and on stream ciphers. In this letter, we give the explicit compositional inverse of the permutation binomial $f(z)=z^{2^{r}+2}+\alpha z\in\mathbb{F}_{2^{2r}}[z]$. Based on that, we obtain the dual of monomial bent function $f(x)={\rm Tr}_1^{4r}(x^{2^{2r}+2^{r+1}+1})$. Our result suggests that the dual of $f$ is not a monomial any more, and it is not always EA-equivalent to $f$.

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  • Jiali WU, Rong LUO, Honglei WEI, Yanfeng QI
    Type: LETTER
    Article ID: 2021EAL2001
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: March 05, 2021
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    In this letter, we give a recursive construction of q-ary almost periodic complementary pairs (APCPs) based on an interleaving technique of sequences and Kronercker product. Based on this construction, we obtain new quaternary APCPs with new lengths.

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  • Yu WANG, Tao LU, Zhihao WU, Yuntao WU, Yanduo ZHANG
    Type: LETTER
    Article ID: 2020EAL2103
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: March 03, 2021
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    Exploring the structural information as prior to facial images is a key issue of face super-resolution (SR). Although deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) own powerful representation ability, how to accurately use facial structural information remains challenges. In this paper, we proposed a new residual fusion network to utilize the multi-scale structural information for face SR. Different from the existing methods of increasing network depth, the bottleneck attention module is introduced to extract fine facial structural features by exploring correlation from feature maps. Finally, hierarchical scales of structural information is fused for generating a high-resolution (HR) facial image. Experimental results show the proposed network outperforms some existing state-of-the-art CNNs based face SR algorithms.

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  • Kotaro NAGAI, Daisuke KANEMOTO, Makoto OHKI
    Type: LETTER
    Article ID: 2020EAL2123
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: March 01, 2021
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    This letter reports on the effectiveness of applying the K-singular value decomposition (SVD) dictionary learning to the electroencephalogram (EEG) compressed sensing framework with outlier detection and independent component analysis. Using the K-SVD dictionary matrix with our design parameter optimization, for example, at compression ratio of four, we improved the normalized mean square error value by 31.4% compared with that of the discrete cosine transform dictionary for CHB-MIT Scalp EEG Database.

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  • Kakeru MATSUBARA, Shun KUROKI, Koki ITO, Kazushi SHIMADA, Kazuki MARUT ...
    Type: LETTER
    Article ID: 2020EAL2124
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: February 25, 2021
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    This letter expands the previously proposed High Time Resolution Carrier Interferometry (HTRCI) to estimate a larger amount of channel status information (CSI). HTRCI is based on a comb-type pilot symbol on OFDM and CSI for null subcarriers are interpolated by time-domain signal processing. In order to utilize such null pilot subcarriers for increasing estimable CSI, they should generally be separated in frequency-domain prior to estimation and interpolation processes. The main proposal is its separation scheme in conjunction with the HTRCI treatment of the temporal domain. Its effectiveness is verified by a pilot de-contamination on downlink two-cell MIMO transmission scenario. Binary error rate (BER) performance can be improved in comparison to conventional HTRCI and zero padding (ZP) which replaces the impulse response alias with zeros.

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  • Anis Ur REHMAN, Ken KIHARA, Sakuichi OHTSUKA
    Type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2020EAP1110
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: February 25, 2021
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    In daily reality, people often pay attention to several objects that change positions while being observed. In the laboratory, this process is investigated by a phenomenon known as multiple object tracking (MOT) which is a task that evaluates attentive tracking performance. Recent findings suggest that the attentional set for multiple moving objects whose depth changes in three dimensions from one plane to another is influenced by the initial configuration of the objects. When tracking objects, it is difficult for people to expand their attentional set to multiple-depth planes once attention has been focused on a single plane. However, less is known about people contracting their attentional set from multiple-depth planes to a single-depth plane. In two experiments, we examined tracking accuracy when four targets or four distractors, which were initially distributed on two planes, come together on one of the planes during an MOT task. The results from this study suggest that people have difficulty changing the depth range of their attention during attentive tracking, and attentive tracking performance depends on the initial attentional set based on the configuration prior to attentive tracking.

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  • Natsuki UENO, Shoichi KOYAMA, Hiroshi SARUWATARI
    Type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2021EAP1004
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: February 25, 2021
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    We propose a useful formulation for ill-posed inverse problems in Hilbert spaces with nonlinear clipping effects. Ill-posed inverse problems are often formulated as optimization problems, and nonlinear clipping effects may cause nonconvexity or nondifferentiability of the objective functions in the case of commonly used regularized least squares. To overcome these difficulties, we present a tractable formulation in which the objective function is convex and differentiable with respect to optimization variables, on the basis of the Bregman divergence associated with the primitive function of the clipping function. By using this formulation in combination with the representer theorem, we need only to deal with a finite-dimensional, convex, and differentiable optimization problem, which can be solved by well-established algorithms. We also show two practical examples of inverse problems where our theory can be applied, estimation of band-limited signals and time-harmonic acoustic fields, and evaluate the validity of our theory by numerical simulations.

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  • Yanjun LI, Haibin KAN, Jie PENG, Chik HOW TAN, Baixiang LIU
    Type: LETTER
    Article ID: 2021EAL2003
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: February 22, 2021
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    In this letter, we present a construction of bent functions which generalizes a work of Zhang et al. in 2016. Based on that, we obtain a cubic bent function in 10 variables and prove that, it has no affine derivative and does not belong to the completed Maiorana-McFarland class, which is opposite to all 6/8-variable cubic bent functions as they are inside the completed Maiorana-McFarland class. This is the first time a theoretical proof is given to show that the cubic bent functions in 10 variables can be outside the completed Maiorana-McFarland class. Before that, only a sporadic example with such properties was known by computer search. We also show that our function is EA-inequivalent to that sporadic one.

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  • Fang WANG, Zhe WEI
    Type: LETTER
    Article ID: 2020EAL2125
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: February 19, 2021
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    The unattended malicious nodes pose great security threats to the integrity of the IoT sensor networks. However, preventions such as cryptography and authentication are difficult to be deployed in resource constrained IoT sensor nodes with low processing capabilities and short power supply. To tackle these malicious sensor nodes, in this study, the trust computing method is applied into the IoT sensor networks as a light weight security mechanism, and based on the theory of Chebyshev Polynomials for the approximation of time series, the trust data sequence generated by each sensor node is linearized and treated as a time series for malicious node detection. The proposed method is evaluated against existing schemes using several simulations and the results demonstrate that our method can better deal with malicious nodes resulting in higher correct packet delivery rate.

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  • Seiichi KOJIMA, Noriaki SUETAKE
    Type: LETTER
    Article ID: 2020EAL2120
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: February 17, 2021
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    LIME is a method for low-light image enhancement. Though LIME significantly enhances the contrast in dark regions, the effect of contrast enhancement tends to be insufficient in bright regions. In this letter, we propose an improved method of LIME. In the proposed method, the contrast in bright regions are improved while maintaining the contrast enhancement effect in dark regions.

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  • Lingjun KONG, Haiyang LIU, Jin TIAN, Shunwai ZHANG, Shengmei ZHAO, Yi ...
    Type: LETTER
    Article ID: 2020EAL2115
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: February 16, 2021
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    In this letter, a method for the construction of polar codes based on the mutual information approximation (MIA) is proposed for the 4Tb/in2 two-dimensional inter-symbol interference (2D-ISI) channels, such as the bit-patterned magnetic recording (BPMR) and two-dimensional magnetic recording (TDMR). The basic idea is to exploit the MIA between the input and output of a 2D detector to establish a log-likelihood ratio (LLR) distribution model based on the MIA results, which compensates the gap caused by the 2D ISI channel. Consequently, the polar codes obtained by the optimization techniques previously developed for the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channels can also have satisfactory performances over 2D-ISI channels. Simulated results show that the proposed polar codes can outperform the polar codes constructed by the traditional methods over 4Tb/in2 2D-ISI channels.

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  • Masayoshi NAKAMOTO, Naoyuki AIKAWA
    Type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2020EAP1096
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: February 15, 2021
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    Recent trends in designing filters involve development of sparse filters with coefficients that not only have real but also zero values. These sparse filters can achieve a high performance through optimizing the selection of the zero coefficients and computing the real (non-zero) coefficients. Designing an infinite impulse response (IIR) sparse filter is more challenging than designing a finite impulse response (FIR) sparse filter. Therefore, studies on the design of IIR sparse filters have been rare. In this study, we consider IIR filters whose coefficients involve zero value, called sparse IIR filter. First, we formulate the design problem as a linear programing problem without imposing any stability condition. Subsequently, we reformulate the design problem by altering the error function and prepare several possible denominator polynomials with stable poles. Finally, by incorporating these methods into successive thinning algorithms, we develop a new design algorithm for the filters. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, its performance is compared with that of other existing methods.

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  • Hironori KIYA, Katsuki OHTO, Hirotaka ONO
    Type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2020DMP0026
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: February 10, 2021
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    DAIHINMIN, which means Grand Pauper, is a popular playing-card game in Japan. TANHINMIN is a simplified variant of DAIHINMIN, which was proposed by Nishino in 2007 in order to investigate the mathematical properties of DAIHINMIN. In this paper, we consider a 2-player generalized TANHINMIN, where the deck size is arbitrary n. We present a linear-time algorithm that determines which player has a winning strategy after all cards are distributed to the players.

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  • Seongah JEONG, Jinkyu KANG, Hoojin LEE
    Type: LETTER
    Article ID: 2020EAL2106
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: February 08, 2021
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    In this letter, we investigate tight analytical and asymptotic upper bounds for bit error rate (BER) of constitutional codes over exponentially correlated Nakagami-m fading channels. Specifically, we derive the BER expression depending on an exact closed-form formula for pairwise error event probabilities (PEEP). Moreover, the corresponding asymptotic analysis in high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regime is also explored, which is verified via numerical results. This allows us to have explicit insights on the achievable coding gain and diversity order.

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  • Masato KIKUCHI, Kento KAWAKAMI, Kazuho WATANABE, Mitsuo YOSHIDA, Kyoji ...
    Type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2020EAP1088
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: February 08, 2021
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    Likelihood ratios (LRs), which are commonly used for probabilistic data processing, are often estimated based on the frequency counts of individual elements obtained from samples. In natural language processing, an element can be a continuous sequence of N items, called an N-gram, in which each item is a word, letter, etc. In this paper, we attempt to estimate LRs based on N-gram frequency information. A naive estimation approach that uses only N-gram frequencies is sensitive to low-frequency (rare) N-grams and not applicable to zero-frequency (unobserved) N-grams; these are known as the low- and zero-frequency problems, respectively. To address these problems, we propose a method for decomposing N-grams into item units and then applying their frequencies along with the original N-gram frequencies. Our method can obtain the estimates of unobserved N-grams by using the unit frequencies. Although using only unit frequencies ignores dependencies between items, our method takes advantage of the fact that certain items often co-occur in practice and therefore maintains their dependencies by using the relevant N-gram frequencies. We also introduce a regularization to achieve robust estimation for rare N-grams. Our experimental results demonstrate that our method is effective at solving both problems and can effectively control dependencies.

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  • Ryosuke SUGIURA, Yutaka KAMAMOTO, Takehiro MORIYA
    Type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2020EAP1099
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: February 08, 2021
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    This paper presents extended-domain Golomb (XDG) code, an extension of Golomb code for sparse geometric sources as well as a generalization of extended-domain Golomb-Rice (XDGR) code, based on the idea of almost instantaneous fixed-to-variable length (AIFV) codes. Showing that the XDGR encoding can be interpreted as extended usage of the code proposed in the previous works, this paper discusses the following two facts: The proposed XDG code can be constructed as an AIFV code relating to Golomb code as XDGR code does to Rice code; XDG and Golomb codes are symmetric in the sense of relative redundancy. The proposed XDG code can be efficiently used for losslessly compressing geometric sources too sparse for the conventional Golomb and Rice codes. According to the symmetry, its relative redundancy is guaranteed to be as low as Golomb code compressing non-sparse geometric sources. Awing to this fact, the parameter of the proposed XDG code, which is more finely tunable than the conventional XDGR code, can be optimized for given inputs using the conventional techniques. Therefore, it is expected to be more useful for many coding applications that deal with geometric sources at low bit rates.

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  • Yang YAN, Yao YAO, Zhi CHEN, Qiuyan WANG
    Type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2020EAP1124
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: February 08, 2021
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    Codebooks with small inner-product correlation have applied in direct spread code division multiple access communications, space-time codes and compressed sensing. In general, it is difficult to construct optimal codebooks achieving the Welch bound or the Levenstein bound. This paper focuses on constructing asymptotically optimal codebooks with characters of cyclic groups. Based on the proposed constructions, two classes of asymptotically optimal codebooks with respect to the Welch bound are presented. In addition, parameters of these codebooks are new.

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  • Makoto YAMASHITA, Naoki HAYASHI, Takeshi HATANAKA, Shigemasa TAKAI
    Type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2020EAP1111
    Published: 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: February 04, 2021
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    This paper investigates a constrained distributed online optimization problem over strongly connected communication networks, where a local cost function of each agent varies in time due to environmental factors. We propose a distributed online projected subgradient method over unbalanced directed networks. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated by a regret which is defined by the error between the cumulative cost over time and the cost of the optimal strategy in hindsight. We show that a logarithmic regret bound can be achieved for strongly convex cost functions. We also demonstrate the validity of the proposed method through a numerical example on distributed estimation over a diffusion field.

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