IEICE Transactions on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences
Online ISSN : 1745-1337
Print ISSN : 0916-8508
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Special Section on Discrete Mathematics and Its Applications
  • Akinori KAWACHI
    2020 Volume E103.A Issue 10 Pages 1133
    Published: October 01, 2020
    Released: October 01, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Satsuya OHATA
    Type: INVITED PAPER
    Subject area: cryptography
    2020 Volume E103.A Issue 10 Pages 1134-1141
    Published: October 01, 2020
    Released: October 01, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Secure multi-party computation (MPC) allows a set of parties to compute a function jointly while keeping their inputs private. MPC has been actively studied, and there are many research results both in the theoretical and practical research fields. In this paper, we introduce the basic matters on MPC and show recent practical advances. We first explain the settings, security notions, and cryptographic building blocks of MPC. Then, we show and discuss current situations on higher-level secure protocols, privacy-preserving data analysis, and frameworks/compilers for implementing MPC applications with low-cost.

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  • Kazuki YONEYAMA
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: cryptography
    2020 Volume E103.A Issue 10 Pages 1142-1156
    Published: October 01, 2020
    Released: October 01, 2020
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    Almost all existing password-based authenticated key exchange (PAKE) schemes achieve concurrent security in the standard model by relying on the common reference string (CRS) model. A drawback of the CRS model is to require a centralized trusted authority in the setup phase; thus, passwords of parties may be revealed if the authority ill-uses trapdoor information of the CRS. There are a few secure PAKE schemes in the plain model, but, these are not achievable in a constant round (i.e., containing a linear number of rounds). In this paper, we discuss how to relax the setup assumption for (constant round) PAKE schemes. We focus on the multi-string (MS) model that allows a number of authorities (including malicious one) to provide some reference strings independently. The MS model is a more relaxed setup assumption than the CRS model because we do not trust any single authority (i.e., just assuming that a majority of authorities honestly generate their reference strings). Though the MS model is slightly restrictive than the plain model, it is very reasonable assumption because it is very easy to implement. We construct a (concurrently secure) three-move PAKE scheme in the MS model (justly without random oracles) based on the Groce-Katz PAKE scheme. The main ingredient of our scheme is the multi-string simulation-extractable non-interactive zero-knowledge proof that provides both the simulation-extractability and the extraction zero-knowledge property even if minority authorities are malicious. This work can be seen as a milestone toward constant round PAKE schemes in the plain model.

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  • Toi TOMITA, Wakaha OGATA, Kaoru KUROSAWA, Ryo KUWAYAMA
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: cryptography
    2020 Volume E103.A Issue 10 Pages 1157-1166
    Published: October 01, 2020
    Released: October 01, 2020
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    In this paper, we propose a new leakage-resilient identity-based encryption (IBE) scheme that is secure against chosen-ciphertext attacks (CCA) in the bounded memory leakage model. The security of our scheme is based on the external k-Linear assumption. It is the first CCA-secure leakage-resilient IBE scheme which does not depend on q-type assumptions. The leakage rate 1/10 is achieved under the XDLIN assumption (k=2).

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  • Kyosuke YAMASHITA, Mehdi TIBOUCHI, Masayuki ABE
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: cryptography
    2020 Volume E103.A Issue 10 Pages 1167-1173
    Published: October 01, 2020
    Released: October 01, 2020
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    After the work of Impagliazzo and Rudich (STOC, 1989), the black box framework has become one of the main research domain of cryptography. However black box techniques say nothing about non-black box techniques such as making use of zero-knowledge proofs. Brakerski et al. introduced a new black box framework named augmented black box framework, in which they gave a zero-knowledge proof oracle in addition to a base primitive oracle (TCC, 2011). They showed a construction of a non-interactive zero knowledge proof system based on a witness indistinguishable proof system oracle. They presented augmented black box construction of chosen ciphertext secure public key encryption scheme based on chosen plaintext secure public key encryption scheme and augmented black box separation between one-way function and key agreement. In this paper we simplify the work of Brakerski et al. by introducing a proof system oracle without witness indistinguishability, named coin-free proof system oracle, that aims to give the same construction and separation results of previous work. As a result, the augmented black box framework becomes easier to handle. Since our oracle is not witness indistinguishable, our result encompasses the result of previous work.

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  • Hiroshi ONUKI, Yusuke AIKAWA, Tsutomu YAMAZAKI, Tsuyoshi TAKAGI
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: cryptography
    2020 Volume E103.A Issue 10 Pages 1174-1182
    Published: October 01, 2020
    Released: October 01, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    At ASIACRYPT 2018, Castryck, Lange, Martindale, Panny and Renes proposed CSIDH, which is a key-exchange protocol based on isogenies between elliptic curves, and a candidate for post-quantum cryptography. However, the implementation by Castryck et al. is not constant-time. Specifically, a part of the secret key could be recovered by the side-channel attacks. Recently, Meyer, Campos, and Reith proposed a constant-time implementation of CSIDH by introducing dummy isogenies and taking secret exponents only from intervals of non-negative integers. Their non-negative intervals make the calculation cost of their implementation of CSIDH twice that of the worst case of the standard (variable-time) implementation of CSIDH. In this paper, we propose a more efficient constant-time algorithm that takes secret exponents from intervals symmetric with respect to the zero. For using these intervals, we need to keep two torsion points on an elliptic curve and calculation for these points. We evaluate the costs of our implementation and that of Meyer et al. in terms of the number of operations on a finite prime field. Our evaluation shows that our constant-time implementation of CSIDH reduces the calculation cost by 28% compared with the implementation by Mayer et al. We also implemented our algorithm by extending the implementation in C of Meyer et al. (originally from Castryck et al.). Then our implementation achieved 152 million clock cycles, which is about 29% faster than that of Meyer et al. and confirms the above reduction ratio in our cost evaluation.

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  • Chuzo IWAMOTO, Tatsuya IDE
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: complexity theory
    2020 Volume E103.A Issue 10 Pages 1183-1192
    Published: October 01, 2020
    Released: October 01, 2020
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    Nurimisaki and Sashigane are Nikoli's pencil puzzles. We study the computational complexity of Nurimisaki and Sashigane puzzles. It is shown that deciding whether a given instance of each puzzle has a solution is NP-complete.

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  • Eiji MIYANO, Toshiki SAITOH, Ryuhei UEHARA, Tsuyoshi YAGITA, Tom C. va ...
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: complexity theory
    2020 Volume E103.A Issue 10 Pages 1193-1201
    Published: October 01, 2020
    Released: October 01, 2020
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    This paper introduces the maximization version of the k-path vertex cover problem, called the Maximum K-Path Vertex Cover problem (MaxPkVC for short): A path consisting of k vertices, i.e., a path of length k-1 is called a k-path. If a k-path Pk includes a vertex v in a vertex set S, then we say that v or S covers Pk. Given a graph G=(V, E) and an integer s, the goal of MaxPkVC is to find a vertex subset SV of at most s vertices such that the number of k-paths covered by S is maximized. The problem MaxPkVC is generally NP-hard. In this paper we consider the tractability/intractability of MaxPkVC on subclasses of graphs. We prove that MaxP3VC remains NP-hard even for split graphs. Furthermore, if the input graph is restricted to graphs with constant bounded treewidth, then MaxP3VC can be solved in polynomial time.

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  • Hideaki OTSUKI
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: optimization
    2020 Volume E103.A Issue 10 Pages 1202-1205
    Published: October 01, 2020
    Released: October 01, 2020
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    The minimum biclique edge cover problem (MBECP) is NP-hard for general graphs. It is known that if we restrict an input graph to the bipartite domino-free class, MBECP can be solved within polynomial-time of input graph size. We show a new polynomial-time solvable graph class for MBECP that is characterized by three forbidden graphs, a domino, a gem and K4. This graph class allows that an input graph is non-bipartite, and includes the bipartite domino-free graph class properly.

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  • Toshihiro AKAGI, Tetsuya ARAKI, Shin-ichi NAKANO
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: optimization
    2020 Volume E103.A Issue 10 Pages 1206-1210
    Published: October 01, 2020
    Released: October 01, 2020
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    The dispersion problem is a variant of the facility location problem. Given a set P of n points and an integer k, we intend to find a subset S of P with |S|=k such that the cost minpS{cost(p)} is maximized, where cost(p) is the sum of the distances from p to the nearest c points in S. We call the problem the dispersion problem with partial c sum cost, or the PcS-dispersion problem. In this paper we present two algorithms to solve the P2S-dispersion problem(c=2) if all points of P are on a line. The running times of the algorithms are O(kn2 log n) and O(n log n), respectively. We also present an algorithm to solve the PcS-dispersion problem if all points of P are on a line. The running time of the algorithm is O(knc+1).

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  • Xiao-Nan LU, Tomoko ADACHI
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: combinatorics
    2020 Volume E103.A Issue 10 Pages 1211-1217
    Published: October 01, 2020
    Released: October 01, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    In this paper, we propose a notion for high-dimensional generalizations of mutually orthogonal Latin squares (MOLS) and mutually orthogonal diagonal Latin squares (MODLS), called mutually dimensionally orthogonal d-cubes (MOC) and mutually dimensionally orthogonal diagonal d-cubes (MODC). Systematic constructions for MOC and MODC by using polynomials over finite fields are investigated. In particular, for 3-dimensional cubes, the results for the maximum possible number of MODC are improved by adopting the proposed construction.

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  • Tomoko K. MATSUSHIMA, Shoichiro YAMASAKI
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: communication
    2020 Volume E103.A Issue 10 Pages 1218-1226
    Published: October 01, 2020
    Released: October 01, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The direct sequence code division multiple access (DS-CDMA) technique is widely used in various communication systems. When adopting orthogonal variable spreading factor (OVSF) codes, DS-CDMA is particularly suitable for supporting multi-user/multi-rate data transmission services. A useful property of OVSF codes is that no two code sequences assigned to different users will ever interfere with each other, even if their spreading factors are different. Conventional OVSF codes are constructed based on binary orthogonal codes, called Walsh codes, and OVSF code sequences are binary sequences. In this paper, we propose new OVSF codes that are constructed based on polyphase orthogonal codes and consist of complex sequences in which each symbol is represented as a complex number. Construction of the proposed codes is based on a tree structure that is similar to conventional OVSF codes. Since the proposed codes are generalized versions of conventional OVSF codes, any conventional OVSF code can be presented as a special case of the proposed codes. Herein, we show the method used to construct the proposed OVSF codes, after which the orthogonality of the codes, including conventional OVSF codes, is investigated. Among the advantages of our proposed OVSF codes is that the spreading factor can be designed more flexibly in each layer than is possible with conventional OVSF codes. Furthermore, combination of the proposed code and a non-binary phase modulation is well suited to DS-CDMA systems where the level fluctuation of signal envelope is required to be suppressed.

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  • Masayuki TAKEDA, Nobuyuki YAMASAKI
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: communication
    2020 Volume E103.A Issue 10 Pages 1227-1233
    Published: October 01, 2020
    Released: October 01, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    This paper addresses the problem of finding, evaluating, and selecting the best set of codewords for the 4b/10b line code, a dependable line code with forward error correction (FEC) designed for real-time communication. Based on the results of our scheme [1], we formulate codeword search as an instance of the maximum clique problem, and enumerate all candidate codeword sets via maximum clique enumeration as proposed by Eblen et al. [2]. We then measure each set in terms of resistance to bit errors caused by noise and present a canonical set of codewords for the 4b/10b line code. Additionally, we show that maximum clique enumeration is #P-hard.

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  • Tsunehiro YOSHINAGA, Makoto SAKAMOTO
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: complexity theory
    2020 Volume E103.A Issue 10 Pages 1234-1236
    Published: October 01, 2020
    Released: October 01, 2020
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    This paper investigates the closure properties of multi-inkdot nondeterministic Turing machines with sublogarithmic space. We show that the class of sets accepted by the Turing machines is not closed under concatenation with regular set, Kleene closure, length-preserving homomorphism, and intersection.

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Regular Section
  • Ryo SHIBATA, Gou HOSOYA, Hiroyuki YASHIMA
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Coding Theory
    2020 Volume E103.A Issue 10 Pages 1237-1247
    Published: October 01, 2020
    Released: October 01, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: April 08, 2020
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    Over the past two decades, irregular low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes have not been able to decode information corrupted by insertion and deletion (ID) errors without markers. In this paper, we bring to light the existence of irregular LDPC codes that approach the symmetric information rates (SIR) of the channel with ID errors, even without markers. These codes have peculiar shapes in their check-node degree distributions. Specifically, the check-node degrees are scattered and there are degree-2 check nodes. We propose a code construction method based on the progressive edge-growth algorithm tailored for the scattered check-node degree distributions, which enables the SIR-approaching codes to progress in the finite-length regime. Moreover, the SIR-approaching codes demonstrate asymptotic and finite-length performance that outperform the existing counterparts, namely, concatenated coding of irregular LDPC codes with markers and spatially coupled LDPC codes.

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  • Naoto SASAOKA, Eiji AKAMATSU, Arata KAWAMURA, Noboru HAYASAKA, Yoshio ...
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Digital Signal Processing
    2020 Volume E103.A Issue 10 Pages 1248-1251
    Published: October 01, 2020
    Released: October 01, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: April 02, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Speech enhancement has been proposed to reduce the impulsive noise whose frequency characteristic is wideband. On the other hand, it is challenging to reduce the ringing sound, which is narrowband in impulsive noise. Therefore, we propose the modeling of the ringing sound and its estimation by a linear predictor (LP). However, it is difficult to estimate the ringing sound only in noisy speech due to the auto-correlation property of speech. The proposed system adopts the 4th order moment-based adaptive algorithm by noticing the difference between the 4th order statistics of speech and impulsive noise. The brief analysis and simulation results show that the proposed system has the potential to reduce ringing sound while keeping the quality of enhanced speech.

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