This study proposes a Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR) reduction method using an adaptive Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filter in Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing systems. At the transmitter, an iterative algorithm that minimizes the p-norm of a transmitted signal vector is used to update the weight coefficients of the FIR filter to reduce PAPR. At the receiver, the FIR filter used at the transmitter is estimated using pilot symbols, and its effect can be compensated for by using an equalizer for proper demodulation. Simulation results show that the proposed method is superior to conventional methods in terms of the PAPR reduction and computational complexity. It also shows that the proposed method has a trade-off between PAPR reduction and bit error rate performance.
In this work, we investigate a joint transmit beamforming and artificial noise (AN) covariance matrix design in a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) cognitive radio (CR) downlink network with simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT), where the malicious energy receivers (ERs) may decode the desired information and hence can be treated as potential eavesdroppers (Eves). In order to improve the secure performance of the transmission, AN is embedded to the information-bearing signal, which acts as interference to the Eves and provides energy to all receivers. Specifically, this joint design is studied under a practical non-linear energy harvesting (EH) model, our aim is to maximize the secrecy rate at the SR subject to the transmit power budget, EH constraints and quality of service (QoS) requirement. The original problem is not convex and challenging to be solved. To circumvent its intractability, an equivalent reformulation of this secrecy rate maximization (SRM) problem is introduced, wherein the resulting problem is primal decomposable and thus can be handled by alternately solving two convex subproblems. Finally, numerical results are presented to verify the effectiveness of our proposed scheme.
It becomes possible to prevent accidents beforehand by predicting dangerous riding behavior based on recognition of bicycle behaviors. In this paper, we propose a bicycle behavior recognition method using a three-axis acceleration sensor and three-axis gyro sensor equipped with a smartphone when it is installed on a bicycle handlebar. We focus on the periodic handlebar motions for balancing while running a bicycle and reduce the sensor noises caused by them. After that, we use machine learning for recognizing the bicycle behaviors, effectively utilizing the motion features in bicycle behavior recognition. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method accurately recognizes the four bicycle behaviors of stop, run straight, turn right, and turn left and its F-measure becomes around 0.9. The results indicate that, even if the smartphone is installed on the noisy bicycle handlebar, our proposed method can recognize the bicycle behaviors with almost the same accuracy as the one when a smartphone is installed on a rear axle of a bicycle on which the handlebar motion noises can be much reduced.
Aircraft landing scheduling (ALS) is one of the most important challenges in air traffic management. The target of ALS is to decide a landing scheduling sequence and calculate a landing time for each aircraft in terminal areas. These landing times are within time windows, and safety separation distances between aircraft must be kept. ALS is a complex problem, especially with a large number of aircraft. In this study, we propose a novel heuristic called CGIC to solve ALS problems. The CGIC consists of four components: a chunking rule based on costs, a landing subsequence generation rule, a chunk improvement heuristic, and a connection rule. In this algorithm, we reduce the complexity of the ALS problem by breaking it down into two or more subproblems with less aircraft. First, a feasible landing sequence is generated and divided into several subsequences as chunks by a chunking rule based on aircraft cost. Second, each chunk is regenerated by a constructive heuristic, and a perturbative heuristic is applied to improve the chunks. Finally, all chunks constitute a feasible landing sequence through a connection rule, and the landing time of each aircraft is calculated on the basis of this sequence. Simulations demonstrate that (a) the chunking rule based on cost outperforms other chunking rules based on time or weight for ALS in static instances, which have a large number of aircraft; (b) the proposed CGIC can solve the ALS problem up to 500 aircraft optimally; (c) in dynamic instances, CGIC can obtain high-quality solutions, and the computation time of CGIC is low enough to enable real-time execution.
This letter presents a computational complexity reduction technique for space diversity based spectrum sensing when the number of receive antennas is greater than three (NR≥3 where NR is the number of receive antenna). The received signals are combined with phase inversion so as to not attenuate the combined signal, and a statistic for signal detection is computed from the combined signal. Because the computation of only one statistic is required regardless of the number of receive antenna, the complexity can be reduced. Numerical examples and simple analysis verify the effectiveness of the presented technique.
In this letter, we investigate the physical layer security in multi-user multi-relay networks, where each relay is not merely a traditional helper, but at the same time, can become a potential eavesdropper. We first propose an efficient low-complexity user and relay selection scheme to significantly reduce the amount of channel estimation as well as the amount of potential links for comparison. For the proposed scheme, we derive the closed-form expression for the lower bound of ergodic secrecy rate (ESR) to evaluate the system secrecy performance. Simulation results are provided to verify the validity of our expressions and demonstrate how the ESR scales with the number of users and relays.
Accurate segmentation of the region in the iris picture has a crucial influence on the reliability of the recognition system. In this letter, we present an end to end deep neural network based on U-Net. It uses dense connection blocks to replace the original convolutional layer, which can effectively improve the reuse rate of the feature layer. The proposed method takes U-net's skip connections to combine the same-scale feature maps from the upsampling phase and the downsampling phase in the upsampling process (merge layer). In the last layer of downsampling, it uses dilated convolution. The dilated convolution balances the iris region localization accuracy and the iris edge pixel prediction accuracy, further improving network performance. The experiments running on the Casia v4 Interval and IITD datasets, show that the proposed method improves segmentation performance.